Last updated

Avant-garde cinema: The Love of Zero (1928), a short film directed by the artist Robert Florey. The Love of Zero, 35mm film Robert Florey1928.jpg
Avant-garde cinema: The Love of Zero (1928), a short film directed by the artist Robert Florey.

In the arts and in literature, the term avant-garde (advance guard and vanguard ) identifies a genre of art, an experimental work of art, and the experimental artist who created the work of art, which usually is aesthetically innovative, whilst initially being ideologically unacceptable to the artistic establishment of the time. [2] The military metaphor of an advance guard identifies the artists and writers whose innovations in style, form, and subject-matter challenge the artistic and aesthetic validity of the established forms of art and the literary traditions of their time; thus how the artists who created the anti-novel and Surrealism were ahead of their times. [3]


As a stratum of the intelligentsia of a society, avant-garde artists promote progressive and radical politics and advocate for societal reform with and through works of art. In the essay "The Artist, the Scientist, and the Industrialist" (1825) Benjamin Olinde Rodrigues's political usage of vanguard identified the moral obligation of artists to "serve as [the] avant-garde" of the people, because "the power of the arts is, indeed, the most immediate and fastest way" to realise social, political, and economic reforms. [4]

In the realm of culture, the artistic experiments of the avant-garde push the aesthetic boundaries of societal norms, such as the disruptions of modernism in poetry, fiction, and drama, painting, music, and architecture, that occurred in the late 19th and in the early 20th centuries. [5] In art history the socio-cultural functions of avant-garde art trace from Dada (1915–1920s) through the Situationist International (1957–1972) to the postmodernism of the American Language poets (1960s–1970s). [6]


Political revolution has influenced both the topic and form in The Overthrow of the Autocracy, a Soviet avant-garde painting. Overthrow of Autocracy.jpg
Political revolution has influenced both the topic and form in The Overthrow of the Autocracy, a Soviet avant-garde painting.

The French military term avant-garde (advanced guard) identified a reconnaissance unit who scouted the terrain ahead of the main force of the army. In 19th-century French politics, the term avant-garde (vanguard) identified Left-wing political reformists who agitated for radical political change in French society. In the mid-19th century, as a cultural term, avant-garde identified a genre of art that advocated art-as-politics, art as an aesthetic and political means for realising social change in a society. Since the 20th century, the art term avant-garde identifies a stratum of the Intelligentsia that comprises novelists and writers, artists and architects et al. whose creative perspectives, ideas, and experimental artworks challenge the cultural values of contemporary bourgeois society. [7]

In the U.S. of the 1960s, the post–WWII changes to American culture and society allowed avant-garde artists to produce works of art that addressed the matters of the day, usually in political and sociologic opposition to the cultural conformity inherent to popular culture and to consumerism as a way of life and as a worldview. [8]


In The Theory of the Avant-Garde (Teoria dell'arte d'avanguardia, 1962), the academic Renato Poggioli provides an early analysis of the avant-garde as art and as artistic movement. [9] Surveying the historical and social, psychological and philosophical aspects of artistic vanguardism, Poggioli's examples of avant-garde art, poetry, and music, show that avant-garde artists share some values and ideals as contemporary bohemians. [10]

In Theory of the Avant-Garde (Theorie der Avantgarde, 1974), the literary critic Peter Bürger looks at The Establishment's embrace of socially critical works of art as capitalist co-optation of the artists and the genre of avant-garde art, because "art as an institution neutralizes the political content of the individual work [of art]". [11]

In Neo-avantgarde and Culture Industry: Essays on European and American Art from 1955 to 1975 (2000), Benjamin H. D. Buchloh argues for a dialectical approach to such political stances by avant-garde artists and the avant-garde genre of art. [12]

Society and the avant-garde

The cultural provocation of avant-garde art: Fountain (1917) by Marcel Duchamp.
(Alfred Stieglitz) Marcel Duchamp, 1917, Fountain, photograph by Alfred Stieglitz.jpg
The cultural provocation of avant-garde art: Fountain (1917) by Marcel Duchamp.
(Alfred Stieglitz)
In "The Work of Art in the Age of Mechanical Reproduction" (1935), Walter Benjamin addresses the artistic and cultural, social, economic, and political functions of art in a capitalist society. Walter Benjamin vers 1928.jpg
In "The Work of Art in the Age of Mechanical Reproduction" (1935), Walter Benjamin addresses the artistic and cultural, social, economic, and political functions of art in a capitalist society.
Intellectuals of the avant-garde: Max Horkheimer (left) and Theodor Adorno (right) at Heidelberg in 1965. AdornoHorkheimerHabermasbyJeremyJShapiro2.png
Intellectuals of the avant-garde: Max Horkheimer (left) and Theodor Adorno (right) at Heidelberg in 1965.

Sociologically, as a stratum of the intelligentsia of a society, avant-garde artists, writers, architects, et al. produce artefacts — works of art, books, buildings — that intellectually and ideologically oppose the conformist value system of mainstream society. [13] In the essay "Avant-Garde and Kitsch" (1939), Clement Greenberg said that the artistic vanguard oppose high culture and reject the artifice of mass culture, because the avant-garde functionally oppose the dumbing down of society — be it with low culture or with high culture. That in a capitalist society each medium of mass communication is a factory producing artworks, and is not a legitimate artistic medium; therefore, the products of mass culture are kitsch , simulations and simulacra of Art. [14]

Walter Benjamin in the essay "The Work of Art in the Age of Mechanical Reproduction" (1939) and Theodor Adorno and Max Horkheimer in the Dialectic of Enlightenment (1947) said that the artifice of mass culture voids the artistic value (the aura) of a work of art. [15] That the capitalist culture industry (publishing and music, radio and cinema, etc.) continually produces artificial culture for mass consumption, [16] which is facilitated by mechanically produced art-products of mediocre quality displacing art of quality workmanship; thus, the profitability of art-as-commodity determines its artistic value. [16]

In The Society of the Spectacle (1967), Guy Debord said that the financial, commercial, and economic co-optation of the avant-garde into a commodity produced by neoliberal capitalism makes doubtful that avant-garde artists will remain culturally and intellectually relevant to their societies for preferring profit to cultural change and political progress. In The Theory-Death of the Avant-Garde (1991), Paul Mann said that the avant-garde are economically integral to the contemporary institutions of the Establishment, specifically as part of the culture industry. [17] Noting the conceptual shift, theoreticians, such as Matei Calinescu, in Five Faces of Modernity: Modernism, Avant-garde, Decadence, Kitsch, Postmodernism (1987), [18] and Hans Bertens in The Idea of the Postmodern: A History (1995), [19] said that Western culture entered a post-modern time when the modernist ways of thought and action and the production of art have become redundant in a capitalist economy. [20]

Parting from the claims of Greenberg in the late 1930s and the insights of Poggioli in the early 1960s, in The De-Definition of Art: Action Art to Pop to Earthworks (1983), the critic Harold Rosenberg said that since the middle of the 1960s the politically progressive avant-garde ceased being adversaries to artistic commercialism and the mediocrity of mass culture, which political disconnection transformed being an artist into "a profession, one of whose aspects is the pretense of overthrowing [the profession of being an artist]." [21] [22]

Avant-garde is frequently defined in contrast to arrière-garde, which in its original military sense refers to a rearguard force that protects the advance-guard. [23] The term was less frequently used than "avant-garde" in 20th-century art criticism. [24] The art historians Natalie Adamson and Toby Norris argue that arrière-garde is not reducible to a kitsch style or reactionary orientation, but can instead be used to refer to artists who engage with the legacy of the avant-garde while maintaining an awareness that doing so is in some sense anachronistic. [25] The critic Charles Altieri argues that avant-garde and arrière-garde are interdependent: "where there is an avant-garde, there must be an arrière-garde." [26]



Avant-garde in music can refer to any form of music working within traditional structures while seeking to breach boundaries in some manner. [27] The term is used loosely to describe the work of any musicians who radically depart from tradition altogether. [28] By this definition, some avant-garde composers of the 20th century include Arnold Schoenberg, [29] Richard Strauss (in his earliest work), [30] Charles Ives, [31] Igor Stravinsky, [29] Anton Webern, [32] Edgard Varèse, Alban Berg, [32] George Antheil (in his earliest works only), Henry Cowell (in his earliest works), Harry Partch, John Cage, Iannis Xenakis, [29] Morton Feldman, Karlheinz Stockhausen, [33] Pauline Oliveros, [34] Philip Glass, Meredith Monk, [34] Laurie Anderson, [34] and Diamanda Galás. [34]

There is another definition of "Avant-gardism" that distinguishes it from "modernism": Peter Bürger, for example, says avant-gardism rejects the "institution of art" and challenges social and artistic values, and so necessarily involves political, social, and cultural factors. [28] According to the composer and musicologist Larry Sitsky, modernist composers from the early 20th century who do not qualify as avant-gardists include Arnold Schoenberg, Anton Webern, and Igor Stravinsky; later modernist composers who do not fall into the category of avant-gardists include Elliott Carter, Milton Babbitt, György Ligeti, Witold Lutosławski, and Luciano Berio, since "their modernism was not conceived for the purpose of goading an audience." [35]

The 1960s saw a wave of free and avant-garde music in jazz genre, embodied by artists such as Ornette Coleman, Sun Ra, Albert Ayler, Archie Shepp, John Coltrane and Miles Davis. [36] [37] In the rock music of the 1970s, the "art" descriptor was generally understood to mean "aggressively avant-garde" or "pretentiously progressive". [38] Post-punk artists from the late 1970s rejected traditional rock sensibilities in favor of an avant-garde aesthetic.


Whereas the avant-garde has a significant history in 20th-century music, it is more pronounced in theatre and performance art, and often in conjunction with music and sound design innovations, as well as developments in visual media design. There are movements in theatre history that are characterized by their contributions to the avant-garde traditions in both the United States and Europe. Among these are Fluxus, Happenings, and Neo-Dada.


Brutalist architecture was greatly influenced by an avant-garde movement. [39]

Art movements

See also

Related Research Articles

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Dada</span> Avant-garde art movement in the early 20th century

Dada or Dadaism was an art movement of the European avant-garde in the early 20th century, with early centres in Zürich, Switzerland, at the Cabaret Voltaire, founded by Hugo Ball with his companion Emmy Hennings, and in Berlin in 1917. New York Dada began c. 1915, and after 1920 Dada flourished in Paris. Dadaist activities lasted until the mid 1920s.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Modernism</span> Philosophical and art movement

Modernism is a philosophical, religious, and art movement that arose from broad transformations in Western society during the late 19th and early 20th centuries. The movement reflected a desire for the creation of new forms of art, philosophy, and social organization which reflected the newly emerging industrial world, including features such as urbanization, architecture, new technologies, and war. Artists attempted to depart from traditional forms of art, which they considered outdated or obsolete. The poet Ezra Pound's 1934 injunction to "Make it New" was the touchstone of the movement's approach.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Clement Greenberg</span> American essayist and visual art critic (1909–1994)

Clement Greenberg, occasionally writing under the pseudonym K. Hardesh, was an American essayist known mainly as an art critic closely associated with American modern art of the mid-20th century and a formalist aesthetician. He is best remembered for his association with the art movement abstract expressionism and the painter Jackson Pollock.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Postmodern art</span> Art movement

Postmodern art is a body of art movements that sought to contradict some aspects of modernism or some aspects that emerged or developed in its aftermath. In general, movements such as intermedia, installation art, conceptual art and multimedia, particularly involving video are described as postmodern.

Avant-garde music is music that is considered to be at the forefront of innovation in its field, with the term "avant-garde" implying a critique of existing aesthetic conventions, rejection of the status quo in favor of unique or original elements, and the idea of deliberately challenging or alienating audiences. Avant-garde music may be distinguished from experimental music by the way it adopts an extreme position within a certain tradition, whereas experimental music lies outside tradition.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Luigi Russolo</span> Italian Futurist artist and composer (1885–1947)

Luigi Carlo Filippo Russolo was an Italian Futurist painter, composer, builder of experimental musical instruments, and the author of the manifesto The Art of Noises (1913). Russolo completed his secondary education at Seminary of Portograuro in 1901, after which he moved to Milan and began gaining interest in the arts. He is often regarded as one of the first noise music experimental composers with his performances of noise music concerts in 1913–14 and then again after World War I, notably in Paris in 1921. He designed and constructed a number of noise-generating devices called Intonarumori.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Anti-art</span> Art rejecting prior definitions of art

Anti-art is a loosely used term applied to an array of concepts and attitudes that reject prior definitions of art and question art in general. Somewhat paradoxically, anti-art tends to conduct this questioning and rejection from the vantage point of art. The term is associated with the Dada movement and is generally accepted as attributable to Marcel Duchamp pre-World War I around 1914, when he began to use found objects as art. It was used to describe revolutionary forms of art. The term was used later by the Conceptual artists of the 1960s to describe the work of those who claimed to have retired altogether from the practice of art, from the production of works which could be sold.

American modernism, much like the modernism movement in general, is a trend of philosophical thought arising from the widespread changes in culture and society in the age of modernity. American modernism is an artistic and cultural movement in the United States beginning at the turn of the 20th century, with a core period between World War I and World War II. Like its European counterpart, American modernism stemmed from a rejection of Enlightenment thinking, seeking to better represent reality in a new, more industrialized world.

In the visual arts, late modernism encompasses the overall production of most recent art made between the aftermath of World War II and the early years of the 21st century. The terminology often points to similarities between late modernism and postmodernism, although there are differences. The predominant term for art produced since the 1950s is contemporary art. Not all art labelled as contemporary art is modernist or post-modern, and the broader term encompasses both artists who continue to work in modern and late modernist traditions, as well as artists who reject modernism for post-modernism or other reasons. Arthur Danto argues explicitly in After the End of Art that contemporaneity was the broader term, and that postmodern objects represent a subsector of the contemporary movement which replaced modernity and modernism, while other notable critics: Hilton Kramer, Robert C. Morgan, Kirk Varnedoe, Jean-François Lyotard and others have argued that postmodern objects are at best relative to modernist works.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Futurism (music)</span> 20th-century movement in music

Futurism was an early 20th-century art movement which encompassed painting, sculpture, poetry, theatre, music, architecture, cinema and gastronomy. Filippo Tommaso Marinetti initiated the movement with his Manifesto of Futurism, published in February 1909. Futurist music rejected tradition and introduced experimental sounds inspired by machinery, and influenced several 20th-century composers. According to Rodney Payton, "early in the movement, the term ‘Futurism’ was misused to loosely define any sort of avant-garde effort; in English, the term was used to label a composer whose music was considered ‘difficult.’"

Yefim Golyshev, variously transliterated as Golyscheff, Golyschev, Golishiff, Golishev, etc., 8 September 1897 – 25 September 1970) was a Ukrainian-born painter and composer who was mainly active in Europe.

Avant-garde art and American pop culture have had an intriguing relationship from the time of the art form's inception in America to the current day. The art form, which began in the early half of the nineteenth century in Europe, started to rise slowly in America under the guise of Dadaism in 1915. While originally formed under a group of artists in New York City who wanted to counter pop culture with their art, music, and literature the art form began to grow into prominence with American pop culture due to a variety of factors between the 1940s to the 1970s. However, from many factors that arose in the late 1970s, avant-garde began to both lessen in prominence and began to blend with the pop culture to the point in which most art critics considered the art form extinct.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Ukrainian avant-garde</span> Avant-garde movements in 20th-century Ukraine

Ukrainian avant-garde is the avant-garde movement in Ukrainian art from the end of 1890s to the middle of the 1930s along with associated artists in sculpture, painting, literature, cinema, theater, stage design, graphics, music, and architecture. Some well-known Ukrainian avant-garde artists include: Kazimir Malevich, Alexander Archipenko, Vladimir Tatlin, Sonia Delaunay, Vasyl Yermylov, Alexander Bogomazov, Aleksandra Ekster, David Burliuk, Vadym Meller, and Anatol Petrytsky. All were closely connected to the Ukrainian cities of Kyiv, Kharkiv, Lviv, and Odesa by either birth, education, language, national traditions or identity. Since it originated when Ukraine was part of the Russian Empire, Ukrainian avant-garde has been commonly lumped by critics into the Russian avant-garde movement.

Klingen was an art magazine based in Copenhagen, Denmark. The magazine existed between 1917 and 1920.

Events in the year 1924 in the Kingdom of Italy.

Poetism was an artistic program in Czechoslovakia which belongs to the avant-garde; it has never spread abroad. It was invented by members of the avant-garde association Devětsil, mainly Vítězslav Nezval and Karel Teige. It is mainly known in the literature form, but it was also intended as a lifestyle. Its poems were apolitical, optimistic, emotional, and proletaristic, describing ordinary, real things and everyday life, dealing mainly with the present time. It uses no punctuation.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Per Bäckström</span> Swedish literary scholar and professor

Per Bäckström is a Swedish literary scholar and affiliated professor in comparative literature at the Linnaeus University, Växjö, Sweden. He has worked as professor in comparative Literature, Karlstad University 2010–2019, and as associate professor at the Department of Culture and Literature, University of Tromsø, Norway 1996–2010. He took part in the founding of European Network for Avant-garde and Modernism Studies (EAM) in 2007, and was the leader of the Membership Commission 2007–2011. He has published studies on Bruno K. Öijer, Henri Michaux, Gunnar Ekelöf, Mikhail Bakhtin, intermediality, the grotesque, concrete poetry, performance, avant-garde and neo-avant-garde. He has made a critical reading of Michel Riffaterre's Semiotics of Poetry, where he introduces Riffaterre's theory, explains why it failed to make success, and criticizes it for its lack of consistency when it comes to experimental poetry. He has especially studied the use of the notions of “modernism” and “avant-garde” in Romance speaking languages versus English, and the role of the peripheries in relation to the supposed centres of the avant-garde in the 20th Century. He currently is working on the Swedish avant-gardist Öyvind Fahlström and The Anti-Aesthetics of Rock.

Kritisk Revy was a quarterly architecture magazine. It was briefly published between 1926 and 1928 in Copenhagen, Denmark. The magazine played a significant role in developing avant-garde culture in Scandinavia in the period between World War I and World War II. It is also the early source for the Danish modern.

Isabel Wünsche is a German art historian and Professor of Art and Art History at Constructor University Bremen.

<i>Wild Mens Dance</i> 1913 composition by Leo Ornstein

Wild Men's Dance is a piano work by Russian-American composer Leo Ornstein, dating from either 1913 or 1914. It is widely regarded as the first classical composition to be composed almost entirely of brash tone clusters, predating the "forearm" music of Henry Cowell by a few years. In 1918, critic Charles L. Buchanan described Ornstein's innovation: "[He] gives us masses of shrill, hard dissonances, chords consisting of anywhere from eight to a dozen notes made up of half tones heaped one upon another."


  1. The Love of Zero on YouTube
  2. Avant-garde, Penguin Dictionary of Literary Terms and Literary Theory Third Edition (1991) J.A. Cuddon Ed. p. 74.
  3. Avant-garde, A Handbook to Literature (1980) Fourth Ed. (1980) C. Hugh Holman, Editor. pp. 41–42.
  4. Calinescu, Matei. The Five Faces of Modernity: Modernism, Avant-Garde, Decadence, Kitsch, Postmodernism Archived 14 April 2022 at the Wayback Machine (Durham: Duke University Press, 1987) pp. 00-00.
  5. Modernism, Penguin Dictionary of Literary Terms and Literary Theory Third Edition (1991) J.A. Cuddon Ed. p.p.550–551.
  6. Avant-garde, Williams, Raymond. "The Politics of the Avant-Garde", The Politics of Modernism (Verso 1989) p. 000.
  7. Porter, Tom (2004). Archispeak : An Illustrated Guide to Architectural Terms. London: Taylor & Francis. ISBN   0-415-30011-8. OCLC   53144738.
  8. Banes, Sally (1993). Greenwich Village 1963: Avant-Garde Performance and the Effervescent Body. Duke University Press. doi:10.2307/j.ctv11smn4s. ISBN   978-0-8223-1357-1. JSTOR   j.ctv11smn4s. Archived from the original on 11 October 2022. Retrieved 11 October 2022.
  9. Bru, Sascha; Martens, Gunther (2016). The Invention of Politics in the European Avant-Garde (1906-1940). Brill. p. 21. ISBN   978-94-012-0252-7.
  10. Renato Poggioli (1968). The Theory of the Avant-Garde. Belknap Press of Harvard University Press. p.  11. ISBN   0-674-88216-4., translator Gerald Fitzgerald
  11. Peter Bürger (1974). Theorie der Avantgarde. Suhrkamp Verlag. English translation (University of Minnesota Press) 1984: 90.
  12. Benjamin Buchloh, Neo-avantgarde and Culture Industry: Essays on European and American Art from 1955 to 1975 (Cambridge: MIT Press, 2001) ISBN   0-262-02454-3.
  13. "avant-garde", Penguin Dictionary of Literary Terms and Literary Theory Third Edition (1991) J.A. Cuddon, Ed. p.74.
  14. Greenberg, Clement (Fall 1939). "Avant-Garde and Kitsch". The Partisan Review. Vol. 6, no. 5. pp. 34–49. Archived from the original on 4 July 2018. Retrieved 24 January 2018.
  15. Walter Benjamin, "The Work of Art in the Age of Mechanical Reproduction" Archived 5 December 2006 at the Wayback Machine [ full citation needed ]
  16. 1 2 Adorno, Theodor (1991) [1975]. "Culture industry reconsidered" (PDF). The Culture Industry: Selected Essays on Mass Culture. London: Routledge. Archived from the original on 29 September 2018. Retrieved 16 March 2023.
  17. Richard Schechner, "The Conservative Avant-Garde." New Literary History 41.4 (Autumn 2010): 895–913.
  18. Wang, Veria (25 December 1987). Five Faces of Modernity: Modernism Avant-Garde Decadence Kitsch. Duke University Press. ISBN   0-8223-0726-X. OCLC   827754153. Archived from the original on 15 January 2023. Retrieved 14 September 2022.
  19. "The Idea of the Postmodern: A History". Routledge & CRC Press. Archived from the original on 7 June 2022. Retrieved 14 September 2022.
  20. Calinescu 1987,[ page needed ]; Bertens 1995.[ page needed ]
  21. Rosenberg, Harold. The De-Definition of Art: Action Art to Pop to Earthworks (Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1983), p. 219. ISBN   0-226-72673-8
  22. Dickie, George. ""Symposium on Marxist Aesthetic Thought: Commentary on the Papers by Rudich, San Juan, and Morawski Archived 30 May 2013 at the Wayback Machine ", Arts in Society: Art and Social Experience: Our Changing Outlook on Culture 12, no. 2 (Summer–Fall 1975): p. 232.
  23. Adamson, Natalie; Norris, Toby (2009). "Introduction". In Adamson, Natalie; Norris, Toby (eds.). Academics, Pompiers, Official Artists and the Arrière-Garde: Defining Modern and Transitional in France. Cambridge Scholars Publishing. p. 18.
  24. Adamson & Norris 2009, pp. 17–18.
  25. Adamson & Norris 2009, pp. 18–19, 20.
  26. Altieri, Charles (1999). "Avant-Garde or Arrière-Garde in Recent American Poetry". Poetics Today . 20 (4): 633. JSTOR   1773194.
  27. David Nicholls (ed.), The Cambridge History of American Music (Cambridge and New York: Cambridge University Press, 1998), 122–24. ISBN   0-521-45429-8 ISBN   978-0-521-54554-9
  28. 1 2 Jim Samson, "Avant garde", The New Grove Dictionary of Music and Musicians, second edition, edited by Stanley Sadie and John Tyrrell (London: Macmillan Publishers, 2001).
  29. 1 2 3 Larry Sitsky, Music of the Twentieth-Century Avant-Garde: A Biocritical Sourcebook (Westport, Conn: Greenwood Press, 2002), xiv. ISBN   0-313-29689-8.
  30. Larry Sitsky, Music of the Twentieth-Century Avant-Garde: A Biocritical Sourcebook (Westport, Conn: Greenwood Press, 2002), xiii–xiv. ISBN   0-313-29689-8.
  31. Larry Sitsky, Music of the Twentieth-Century Avant-Garde: A Biocritical Sourcebook (Westport, Conn: Greenwood Press, 2002), 222. ISBN   0-313-29689-8.
  32. 1 2 Larry Sitsky, Music of the Twentieth-Century Avant-Garde: A Biocritical Sourcebook (Westport, Conn: Greenwood Press, 2002), 50. ISBN   0-313-29689-8.
  33. Elliot Schwartz, Barney Childs, and James Fox (eds.), Contemporary Composers on Contemporary Music (New York: Da Capo Press, 1998), 379. ISBN   0-306-80819-6
  34. 1 2 3 4 Larry Sitsky, Music of the Twentieth-Century Avant-Garde: A Biocritical Sourcebook (Westport, Conn: Greenwood Press, 2002), xvii. ISBN   0-313-29689-8.
  35. Larry Sitsky, Music of the Twentieth-Century Avant-Garde: A Biocritical Sourcebook (Westport, Conn: Greenwood Press, 2002), xv. ISBN   0-313-29689-8.
  36. "Avant-Garde Jazz Music Genre Overview". AllMusic. Retrieved 16 March 2023.
  37. Michael West. "In the year jazz went avant-garde, Ramsey Lewis went pop with a bang". The Washington Post . Archived from the original on 6 September 2020. Retrieved 30 May 2020.
  38. Murray, Noel (28 May 2015). "60 minutes of music that sum up art-punk pioneers Wire". The A.V. Club . Archived from the original on 31 October 2015. Retrieved 30 May 2020.
  39. Niebrzydowski, Wojciech (July 2021). "The Impact of Avant-Garde Art on Brutalist Architecture". Buildings. 11 (7): 290. doi: 10.3390/buildings11070290 . ISSN   2075-5309.

Further reading