Nazarene movement

Last updated
In Jacob encountering Rachel with her father's herd, Joseph von Fuhrich attempts to recapture the mood of Perugino and Raphael, 1836 (Osterreichische Galerie Belvedere, Vienna). JvFuhrichJosephRachel.jpg
In Jacob encountering Rachel with her father's herd, Joseph von Führich attempts to recapture the mood of Perugino and Raphael, 1836 (Österreichische Galerie Belvedere, Vienna).

The epithet Nazarene was adopted by a group of early 19th century German Romantic painters who aimed to revive honesty and spirituality in Christian art. The name Nazarene came from a term of derision used against them for their affectation of a biblical manner of clothing and hair style.

Contents

History

In 1809, six students at the Vienna Academy formed an artistic cooperative in Vienna called the Brotherhood of St. Luke or Lukasbund, following a common name for medieval guilds of painters. In 1810 four of them, Johann Friedrich Overbeck, Franz Pforr, Ludwig Vogel and Johann Konrad Hottinger moved to Rome, where they occupied the abandoned monastery of San Isidoro. They were joined by Philipp Veit, Peter von Cornelius, Julius Schnorr von Carolsfeld, Friedrich Wilhelm Schadow and a loose grouping of other German-speaking artists. They met up with Austrian romantic landscape artist Joseph Anton Koch (1768–1839) who became an unofficial tutor to the group. In 1827 they were joined by Joseph von Führich (18001876) (illustration above right).

Joseph Anton Koch, Detail of the Dante-Cycle in the Casino Massimo Joseph Anton Koch 004.jpg
Joseph Anton Koch, Detail of the Dante-Cycle in the Casino Massimo

The principal motivation of the Nazarenes was a reaction against Neoclassicism and the routine art education of the academy system. They hoped to return to art which embodied spiritual values, and sought inspiration in artists of the late Middle Ages and early Renaissance, rejecting what they saw as the superficial virtuosity of later art.

In Rome the group lived a semi-monastic existence, as a way of re-creating the nature of the medieval artist's workshop. Religious subjects dominated their output, and two major commissions allowed them to attempt a revival of the medieval art of fresco painting. Two fresco series were completed in Rome for the Casa Bartholdy (1816–17) (moved to the Alte Nationalgalerie in Berlin) and the Casino Massimo (1817–29), and gained international attention for the work of the "Nazarenes". However, by 1830 all except Overbeck had returned to Germany and the group had disbanded. Many Nazarenes became influential teachers in German art academies.

Legacy

The programme of the Nazarenesthe adoption of honest expression in art and the inspiration of artists before Raphaelwas to exert considerable influence in Germany, and in England upon the Pre-Raphaelite movement. [1] They were also direct inluences on the British artists William Dyce and Frederick Leighton and Ford Madox Brown. [2]

Notable members

Other painters associated with the movement

See also

Further reading

Related Research Articles

German Romanticism intellectual movement in the culture of German-speaking countries in the late-18th and early 19th centuries

German Romanticism was the dominant intellectual movement of German-speaking countries in the late 18th and early 19th centuries, influencing philosophy, aesthetics, literature and criticism. Compared to English Romanticism, the German variety developed relatively late, and, in the early years, coincided with Weimar Classicism (1772–1805). In contrast to the seriousness of English Romanticism, the German variety of Romanticism notably valued wit, humour, and beauty.

Events in the year 1810 in Art.

Julius Schnorr von Carolsfeld painter from Germany

Julius Schnorr von Carolsfeld was a German painter, chiefly of Biblical subjects. As a young man he associated with the painters of the Nazarene movement who revived the florid Renaissance style in religious art. He is remembered for his extensive Picture Bible, and his designs for stained glass windows in cathedrals.

Peter von Cornelius painter from Germany

Peter von Cornelius was a German painter.

Friedrich Wilhelm Schadow German artist

Friedrich Wilhelm von Schadow was a German Romantic painter.

Johann Friedrich Overbeck German painter, a member of the Nazarene movement

Johann Friedrich Overbeck was a German painter and member of the Nazarene movement. He also made four etchings.

Walhalla memorial Memorial in Donaustauf, Bavaria

The Walhalla is a hall of fame that honours laudable and distinguished people in German history – "politicians, sovereigns, scientists and artists of the German tongue"; thus the celebrities honoured are drawn from Greater Germany, a wider area than today's Germany, and even as far away as Britain in the case of several Anglo-Saxons who are honoured. The hall is a neo-classical building above the Danube River, in Donaustauf, east of Regensburg in Bavaria.

Joseph von Führich Austrian painter

Joseph von Führich [or Josef Ritter von Führich] was an Austrian painter, one of the Nazarenes.

Franz Pforr German artist

Franz Pforr was a painter of the German Nazarene movement.

Medievalism system of belief and practice inspired by the Middle Ages

Medievalism is a system of belief and practice inspired by the Middle Ages of Europe, or by devotion to elements of that period, which have been expressed in areas such as architecture, literature, music, art, philosophy, scholarship, and various vehicles of popular culture. Since the 18th century, a variety of movements have used the medieval period as a model or inspiration for creative activity, including Romanticism, the Gothic revival, the pre-Raphaelite and arts and crafts movements, and neo-medievalism. The words medievalism and Medieval are both first recorded in the 19th century. Medieval is derived from Latin medium aevum.

Neue Pinakothek art museum in Munich

The Neue Pinakothek is an art museum in Munich, Germany. Its focus is European Art of the 18th and 19th century and is one of the most important museums of art of the nineteenth century in the world. Together with the Alte Pinakothek and the Pinakothek der Moderne it is part of Munich's "Kunstareal".

German art article about German art

German art has a long and distinguished tradition in the visual arts, from the earliest known work of figurative art to its current output of contemporary art.

Johann Gottlob von Quandt German artist

Johann Gottlob von Quandt was a German artist, art scholar, and collector.

Ludwig Vogel Swiss painter (1788-1879)

Georg Ludwig Vogel was a Swiss history painter, associated with the Nazarene movement.

Veit Hanns Schnorr von Carolsfeld German artist

Veit Hanns Friedrich Schnorr von Carolsfeld was a German portraitist.

Schnorr is a German surname. Notable people with this surname include the following:

Ludwig Ferdinand Schnorr von Carolsfeld German painter and engraver

Ludwig Ferdinand Schnorr von Carolsfeld was a German Romantic painter, engraver and lithographer.

Franz Nadorp Italian painter (1794-1876)

Franz Johann Heinrich Nadorp, was a German painter who primarily worked and lived in Rome.

Ferdinand Olivier German artist

Johann Heinrich Ferdinand Olivier (1785–1841) was a German painter associated with the Nazarene movement.

Vittoria Caldoni Italian model of many artists

Vittoria Candida Rosa Caldoni was the most popular model among the German artists residing in Rome in the early nineteenth-century; especially those associated with the Nazarene movement. Over 100 paintings with her image have survived.

References

  1. Henri Dorra, Symbolist Art Theories: A Critical Anthology (Berkeley, University of California Press, 1995) p.17
  2. Neil MacMillan, Victorian Romantics (Vancouver: MacMillan & Perrin, 1979) p.1