New media art

Last updated
Newskool ASCII Screenshot with the words "Closed Society II" Roy-csnewskool.png
Newskool ASCII Screenshot with the words “Closed Society II”
Eduardo Kac's installation "Genesis" Ars Electronica 1999 Eduardo Kac - Genesis - Ars Electronica 99.jpg
Eduardo Kac's installation "Genesis" Ars Electronica 1999
10.000 moving cities, Marc Lee, 2013, National Museum of Modern and Contemporary Art Seoul, Korea 10.000 moving cities.jpg
10.000 moving cities, Marc Lee, 2013, National Museum of Modern and Contemporary Art Seoul, Korea

New media art includes artworks designed and produced by means of electronic media technologies, comprising virtual art, computer graphics, computer animation, digital art, interactive art, sound art, Internet art, video games, robotics, 3D printing, and cyborg art. The term defines itself by the thereby created artwork, which differentiates itself from that deriving from conventional visual arts (i.e. architecture, painting, sculpture, etc.). New Media art has origins in the worlds of science, art, and performance. Some common themes found in new media art include databases, political and social activism, Afrofuturism, feminism, and identity, a ubiquitous theme found throughout is the incorporation of new technology into the work. The emphasis on medium is a defining feature of much contemporary art and many art schools and major universities now offer majors in "New Genres" or "New Media" and a growing number of graduate programs have emerged internationally. [1] New media art may involve degrees of interaction between artwork and observer or between the artist and the public, as is the case in performance art. Yet, as several theorists and curators have noted, such forms of interaction, social exchange, participation, and transformation do not distinguish new media art but rather serve as a common ground that has parallels in other strands of contemporary art practice. [2] Such insights emphasize the forms of cultural practice that arise concurrently with emerging technological platforms, and question the focus on technological media per se. New Media art involves complex curation and preservation practices that make collecting, installing, and exhibiting the works harder than most other mediums. [3] Many cultural centers and museums have been established to cater to the advanced needs of new media art.



The origins of new media art can be traced to the moving image inventions of the 19th century such as the phenakistiscope (1833), the praxinoscope (1877) and Eadweard Muybridge's zoopraxiscope (1879). From the 1900s through the 1960s, various forms of kinetic and light art, from Thomas Wilfred's 'Lumia' (1919) and 'Clavilux' light organs [4] to Jean Tinguely's self-destructing sculpture Homage to New York (1960) can be seen as progenitors of new media art. [5]

Steve Dixon in his book Digital Performance: New Technologies in Theatre, Dance and Performance Art argues that the early twentieth century avant-garde art movement Futurism was the birthplace of the merging of technology and performance art. Some early examples of performance artists who experimented with then state-of-the-art lighting, film, and projection include dancers Loïe Fuller and Valentine de Saint-Point. Cartoonist Winsor McCay performed in sync with an animated Gertie the Dinosaur on tour in 1914. By the 1920s many Cabaret acts began incorporating film projection into performances. [6]

Robert Rauschenberg's piece Broadcast (1959), composed of three interactive re-tunable radios and a painting, is considered one of the first examples of interactive art. German artist Wolf Vostell experimented with television sets in his (1958) installation TV De-collages. Vostell's work influenced Nam June Paik, who created sculptural installations featuring hundreds of television sets that displayed distorted and abstract footage. [6]

Beginning in Chicago during the 1970s, there was a surge of artists experimenting with video art and combining recent computer technology with their traditional mediums, including sculpture, photography, and graphic design. Many of the artists involved were grad students at The School of the Art Institute of Chicago, including Kate Horsfield and Lyn Blumenthal, who co-founded the Video Data Bank in 1976. [7] Another artists involved was Donna Cox, she collaborated with mathematician George Francis and computer scientist Ray Idaszak on the project Venus in Time which depicted mathematical data as 3D digital sculptures named for their similarities to paleolithic Venus statues. [8] In 1982 artist Ellen Sandor and her team called (art)n Laboratory created the medium called PHSCologram, which stands for photography, holography, sculpture, and computer graphics. Her visualization of the AIDS virus was depicted on the cover of IEEE Computer Graphics and Applications in November 1988. [7] At the University of Illinois in 1989, members of the Electronic Visualization Laboratory Carolina Cruz-Neira, Thomas DeFanti, and Daniel J. Sandin collaborated to create what is known as CAVE or Cave Automatic Virtual Environment an early virtual reality immersion using rear projection. [9]

In 1983, Roy Ascott introduced the concept of "distributed authorship" in his worldwide telematic project La Plissure du Texte [10] for Frank Popper's "Electra" at the Musée d'Art Moderne de la Ville de Paris. The development of computer graphics at the end of the 1980s and real time technologies in the 1990s combined with the spreading of the Web and the Internet favored the emergence of new and various forms of interactive art by Ken Feingold, Lynn Hershman Leeson, David Rokeby, Ken Rinaldo, Perry Hoberman, Tamas Waliczky; telematic art by Roy Ascott, Paul Sermon, Michael Bielický; Internet art by Vuk Ćosić, Jodi; virtual and immersive art by Jeffrey Shaw, Maurice Benayoun, Monika Fleischmann, and large scale urban installation by Rafael Lozano-Hemmer. In Geneva, the Centre pour l'Image Contemporaine or CIC coproduced with Centre Georges Pompidou from Paris and the Museum Ludwig in Cologne the first internet video archive of new media art. [11]

Maurizio Bolognini, Sealed Computers (Nice, France, 1992-1998). This installation uses computer codes to create endless flows of random images that nobody would see. (Images are continuously generated but they are prevented from becoming a physical artwork). Programmed Machines installation by Maurizio Bolognini.jpg
Maurizio Bolognini, Sealed Computers (Nice, France, 1992–1998). This installation uses computer codes to create endless flows of random images that nobody would see. (Images are continuously generated but they are prevented from becoming a physical artwork).
World Skin (1997), Maurice Benayoun's Virtual Reality Interactive Installation (Photo Safari in the Land of War) WORLD SKIN (3).jpg
World Skin (1997), Maurice Benayoun's Virtual Reality Interactive Installation (Photo Safari in the Land of War)

Simultaneously advances in biotechnology have also allowed artists like Eduardo Kac to begin exploring DNA and genetics as a new art medium. [13]

Influences on new media art have been the theories developed around interaction, hypertext, databases, and networks. Important thinkers in this regard have been Vannevar Bush and Theodor Nelson, whereas comparable ideas can be found in the literary works of Jorge Luis Borges, Italo Calvino, and Julio Cortázar.


In the book New Media Art, Mark Tribe and Reena Jana named several themes that contemporary new media art addresses, including computer art, collaboration, identity, appropriation, open sourcing, telepresence, surveillance, corporate parody, as well as intervention and hacktivism. [14] In the book Postdigitale, [15] Maurizio Bolognini suggested that new media artists have one common denominator, which is a self-referential relationship with the new technologies, the result of finding oneself inside an epoch-making transformation determined by technological development.

New media art does not appear as a set of homogeneous practices, but as a complex field converging around three main elements: 1) the art system, 2) scientific and industrial research, and 3) political-cultural media activism. [16] There are significant differences between scientist-artists, activist-artists and technological artists closer to the art system, who not only have different training and technocultures, but have different artistic production. [17] This should be taken into account in examining the several themes addressed by new media art.

Non-linearity can be seen as an important topic to new media art by artists developing interactive, generative, collaborative, immersive artworks like Jeffrey Shaw or Maurice Benayoun who explored the term as an approach to looking at varying forms of digital projects where the content relays on the user's experience. This is a key concept since people acquired the notion that they were conditioned to view everything in a linear and clear-cut fashion. Now, art is stepping out of that form and allowing for people to build their own experiences with the piece. Non-linearity describes a project that escape from the conventional linear narrative coming from novels, theater plays and movies. Non-linear art usually requires audience participation or at least, the fact that the "visitor" is taken into consideration by the representation, altering the displayed content. The participatory aspect of new media art, which for some artists has become integral, emerged from Allan Kaprow's Happenings and became with Internet, a significant component of contemporary art.

The inter-connectivity and interactivity of the internet, as well as the fight between corporate interests, governmental interests, and public interests that gave birth to the web today, inspire a lot of current new media art.


One of the key themes in new media art is to create visual views of databases. Pioneers in this area include Lisa Strausfeld, Martin Wattenberg [18] and Alberto Frigo. [19] From 2004-2014 George Legrady's piece "Making Visible the Invisible" displayed the normally unseen library metadata of items recently checked out at the Seattle Public Library on six LCD monitors behind the circulation desk. [20] Database aesthetics holds at least two attractions to new media artists: formally, as a new variation on non-linear narratives; and politically as a means to subvert what is fast becoming a form of control and authority.

Political and social activism

Many new media art projects also work with themes like politics and social consciousness, allowing for social activism through the interactive nature of the media. New media art includes "explorations of code and user interface; interrogations of archives, databases, and networks; production via automated scraping, filtering, cloning, and recombinatory techniques; applications of user-generated content (UGC) layers; crowdsourcing ideas on social- media platforms; narrowcasting digital selves on "free" websites that claim copyright; and provocative performances that implicate audiences as participants". [21]


Afrofuturism is an interdisciplinary genre that explores the African diaspora experience, predominantly in the United States, by deconstructing the past and imagining the future through the themes of technology, science fiction, and fantasy. Musician Sun Ra, believed to be one of the founders of Afrofuturism, thought a blend of technology and music could help humanity overcome the ills of society. [22] His band, The Sun Ra Arkestra, combined traditional Jazz with sound and performance art and were among the first musicians to perform with a synthesizer. [23] The twenty-first century has seen a resurgence of Afrofuturism aesthetics and themes with artists and cooperation's like Jessi Jumanji and Black Quantum Futurism and art educational centers like Black Space in Durham, North Carolina. [24]

Feminism and the female experience

Japanese artist Mariko Mori's multimedia installation piece Wave UFO (1999-2003) sought to examine the science and perceptions behind the study of consciousness and neuroscience. Exploring the ways that these fields undertake research in a materially reductionist manner. Mori's work emphasized the need for these fields to become more holistic and incorporate incites and understanding of the world from philosophy and the humanities. [25] Swiss artist Pipilotti Rist's (2008) immersive video installation Pour Your Body Out explores the dichotomy of beauty and the grotesque in the natural world and their relation to the female experience. The large-scale 360-degree installation featured breast-shaped projectors and circular pink pillows that invited viewers to relax and immerse themselves in the vibrant colors, psychedelic music, and partake in meditation and yoga. [25] American filmmaker and artist Lynn Hersman Leeson explores in her films the themes of identity, technology and the erasure of women's roles and contributions to technology. Her (1999) film Conceiving Ada depicts a computer scientist and new media artist named Emmy as she attempts and succeeds at creating a way to communicate through cyberspace with Ada Lovelace, an Englishwoman who created the first computer program in the 1840s via a form of artificial intelligence. [26]


With its roots in outsider art, New Media has been an ideal medium for an artist to explore the topics of identity and representation. In Canada, Indigenous multidisciplinary artists like Cheryl L'Hirondelle and Kent Monkman have incorporated themes about gender, identity, activism, and colonization in their work. [27] Monkman, a Cree artist, performs and appears as their alter ego Miss Chief Eagle Testickle, in film, photography, painting, installation, and performance art. Monkman describes Miss Chief as a representation of a two-spirit or non-binary persona that does not fall under the traditional description of drag. [28]

Future of new media art

The emergence of 3D printing has introduced a new bridge to new media art, joining the virtual and the physical worlds. The rise of this technology has allowed artists to blend the computational base of new media art with the traditional physical form of sculpture. A pioneer in this field was artist Jonty Hurwitz who created the first known anamorphosis sculpture using this technique.


As the technologies used to deliver works of new media art such as film, tapes, web browsers, software and operating systems become obsolete, New Media art faces serious issues around the challenge to preserve artwork beyond the time of its contemporary production. Currently, research projects into New media art preservation are underway to improve the preservation and documentation of the fragile media arts heritage (see DOCAM - Documentation and Conservation of the Media Arts Heritage).

Methods of preservation exist, including the translation of a work from an obsolete medium into a related new medium, [29] the digital archiving of media (see the Rhizome ArtBase, which holds over 2000 works, and the Internet Archive), and the use of emulators to preserve work dependent on obsolete software or operating system environments. [30] [31]

Around the mid-90s, the issue of storing works in digital form became a concern. Digital art such as moving images, multimedia, interactive programs, and computer-generated art has different properties than physical artwork such as oil paintings and sculptures. Unlike analog technologies, a digital file can be recopied onto a new medium without any deterioration of content. One of the problems with preserving digital art is that the formats continuously change over time. Former examples of transitions include that from 8-inch floppy disks to 5.25-inch floppies, 3-inch diskettes to CD-ROMs, and DVDs to flash drives. On the horizon is the obsolescence of flash drives and portable hard drives, as data is increasingly held in online cloud storage. [32]

Museums and galleries thrive off of being able to accommodate the presentation and preservation of physical artwork. New media art challenges the original methods of the art world when it comes to documentation, its approach to collection and preservation. Technology continues to advance, and the nature and structure of art organizations and institutions will remain in jeopardy. The traditional roles of curators and artist are continually changing, and a shift to new collaborative models of production and presentation is needed. [33]


see also Conservation and restoration of new media art

New media art encompasses various mediums all which require their own preservation approaches. [3]  Due to the vast technical aspects involved no established digital preservation guidelines fully encompass the spectrum of new media art. [34] New media art falls under the category of "complex digital object" in the Digital Curation Centre's digital curation lifecycle model which involves specialized or totally unique preservation techniques.  Complex digital objects preservation has an emphasis on the inherent connection of the components of the piece. [35]


In New Media programs, students are able to get acquainted with the newest forms of creation and communication. New Media students learn to identify what is or isn't "new" about certain technologies. [36] Science and the market will always present new tools and platforms for artists and designers. Students learn how to sort through new emerging technological platforms and place them in a larger context of sensation, communication, production, and consumption.

When obtaining a bachelor's degree in New Media, students will primarily work through practice of building experiences that utilize new and old technologies and narrative. Through the construction of projects in various media, they acquire technical skills, practice vocabularies of critique and analysis, and gain familiarity with historical and contemporary precedents. [36]

In the United States, many Bachelor's and Master's level programs exist with concentrations on Media Art, New Media, Media Design, Digital Media and Interactive Arts. [37]

Leading art theorists and historians

Leading art theorists and historians in this field include Roy Ascott, Lev Manovich, Maurice Benayoun, Christine Buci-Glucksmann, Jack Burnham, Mario Costa, Edmond Couchot, Fred Forest, Oliver Grau, Margot Lovejoy, Robert C. Morgan, Dominique Moulon, Christiane Paul, Catherine Perret, Frank Popper, and Edward A. Shanken.


The term New Media Art is generally applied to disciplines such as:


Cultural centres

See also

Related Research Articles

Installation art Three-dimensional work of art

Installation art is an artistic genre of three-dimensional works that are often site-specific and designed to transform the perception of a space. Generally, the term is applied to interior spaces, whereas exterior interventions are often called public art, land art or art intervention; however, the boundaries between these terms overlap.

Digital art Collective term for art that is generated digitally with a computer

Digital art is an artistic work or practice that uses digital technology as part of the creative or presentation process. Since the 1960s, various names have been used to describe the process, including computer art and multimedia art. Digital art is itself placed under the larger umbrella term new media art.

Interactive art Creative works that rely on viewer input and feedback to provoke emotional responses

Interactive art is a form of art that involves the spectator in a way that allows the art to achieve its purpose. Some interactive art installations achieve this by letting the observer or visitor "walk" in, on, and around them; some others ask the artist or the spectators to become part of the artwork.

Postdigital, in artistic practice, is an attitude that is more concerned with being human, than with being digital, similar to the concept of "undigital" introduced in 1995, where technology and society advances beyond digital limitations to achieve a totally fluid multimediated reality that is free from artefacts of digital computation.

Software art is a work of art where the creation of software, or concepts from software, play an important role; for example software applications which were created by artists and which were intended as artworks. As an artistic discipline software art has attained growing attention since the late 1990s. It is closely related to Internet art since it often relies on the Internet, most notably the World Wide Web, for dissemination and critical discussion of the works. Art festivals such as FILE Electronic Language International Festival, Transmediale (Berlin), Prix Ars Electronica (Linz) and readme have devoted considerable attention to the medium and through this have helped to bring software art to a wider audience of theorists and academics.

Computer art is any art in which computers play a role in production or display of the artwork. Such art can be an image, sound, animation, video, CD-ROM, DVD-ROM, video game, website, algorithm, performance or gallery installation. Many traditional disciplines are now integrating digital technologies and, as a result, the lines between traditional works of art and new media works created using computers has been blurred. For instance, an artist may combine traditional painting with algorithm art and other digital techniques. As a result, defining computer art by its end product can thus be difficult. Computer art is bound to change over time since changes in technology and software directly affect what is possible.

Electronic art

Electronic art is a form of art that makes use of electronic media. More broadly, it refers to technology and/or electronic media. It is related to information art, new media art, video art, digital art, interactive art, internet art, and electronic music. It is considered an outgrowth of conceptual art and systems art.

Information art, which is also known as informatism or data art, is an emerging art form that is inspired by and principally incorporates data, computer science, information technology, artificial intelligence, and related data-driven fields. The information revolution has resulted in over-abundant data that are critical in a wide range of areas, from the Internet to healthcare systems. Related to conceptual art, electronic art and new media art, informatism considers this new technological, economical, and cultural paradigm shift, such that artworks may provide social commentaries, synthesize multiple disciplines, and develop new aesthetics. Realization of information art often take, although not necessarily, interdisciplinary and multidisciplinary approaches incorporating visual, audio, data analysis, performance, and others. Furthermore, physical and virtual installations involving informatism often provide human-computer interaction that generate artistic contents based on the processing of large amounts of data.

Lev Manovich

Lev Manovich is an author of books on digital culture and new media, and professor of Computer Science at the Graduate Center, City University of New York. Manovich's current research and teaching focuses on digital humanities, social computing, new media art and theory, and software studies.

Kenneth E. Rinaldo is an American neo-conceptual artist and arts educator, known for his interactive robotics, 3D animation, and BioArt installations. His works include Autopoiesis (2000), and Augmented Fish Reality (2004), a fish-driven robot.

Maurice Benayoun French visual artist and theorist

Maurice Benayoun is a French new-media artist, curator, and theorist based in Paris and Hong Kong.

Virtual art

Virtual art is a term for the virtualization of art, made with the technical media developed at the end of the 1980s. These include human-machine interfaces such as visualization casks, stereoscopic spectacles and screens, digital painting and sculpture, generators of three-dimensional sound, data gloves, data clothes, position sensors, tactile and power feed-back systems, etc. As virtual art covers such a wide array of mediums it is a catch-all term for specific focuses within it. Much contemporary art has become, in Frank Popper's terms, virtualized.

Telematic art is a descriptive of art projects using computer-mediated telecommunications networks as their medium. Telematic art challenges the traditional relationship between active viewing subjects and passive art objects by creating interactive, behavioural contexts for remote aesthetic encounters. Telematics was first coined by Simon Nora and Alain Minc in The Computerization of Society. Roy Ascott sees the telematic art form as the transformation of the viewer into an active participator of creating the artwork which remains in process throughout its duration. Ascott has been at the forefront of the theory and practice of telematic art since 1978 when he went online for the first time, organizing different collaborative online projects.

Oliver Grau German art historian

Oliver Grau is a German art historian and media theoretician with a focus on image science, modernity and media art as well as culture of the 19th century and Italian art of the Renaissance. Main Areas of Research are: Digital Art, Media Art History, immersion, digital humanities, documentation and conservation strategies of born-digital media art.

Dominique Moulon

Dominique Moulon is a historian of art and technology, art critic and curator, specializing in French digital art. He is the author of the books Art contemporain nouveaux médias and Art Beyond Digital.

Edward A. Shanken American art historian (born 1964)

Edward A. Shanken is an American art historian, whose work focuses on the entwinement of art, science and technology, with a focus on experimental new media art and visual culture. Shanken is an associate professor of digital art & new media at UC Santa Cruz. His scholarship has appeared in numerous journals and anthologies and has been translated into many languages. Shanken is the author of Art and Electronic Media, among other titles.

Michael Rees is an American artist practicing sculpture making, installation, animation, and interactive computing. He has exhibited his works widely, including at the Whitney Museum of American Art, New York, NY ; Bitforms gallery, Universal Concepts Unlimited, The Aldrich Museum of Contemporary Art, Ridgefield, CT, The MARTa Museum, Herford, Germany, and The Kemper Museum of Contemporary Art, Kansas City, MO. He has experimented with a broad practice that includes performance, interactive computer programs, digital modeling and fabrication, animation, and video. Rees' work with digital media has been written about and illustrated in books, articles, and catalogues for exhibitions. His talk at the Rothko Chapel, Houston, Texas is also published.

Maurizio Bolognini

Maurizio Bolognini is a post-conceptual media artist. His installations are mainly concerned with the aesthetics of machines, and are based on the minimal and abstract activation of technological processes that are beyond the artist's control, at the intersection of generative art, public art and e-democracy.

Cybernetic art is contemporary art that builds upon the legacy of cybernetics, where feedback involved in the work takes precedence over traditional aesthetic and material concerns. The relationship between cybernetics and art can be summarised in three ways: cybernetics can be used to study art, to create works of art or may itself be regarded as an art form in its own right.

Media art history is an interdisciplinary field of research that explores the current developments as well as the history and genealogy of new media art, digital art, and electronic art. On the one hand, media art histories addresses the contemporary interplay of art, technology, and science. On the other, it aims to reveal the historical relationships and aspects of the ‘afterlife’ in new media art by means of a historical comparative approach. This strand of research encompasses questions of the history of media and perception, of so-called archetypes, as well as those of iconography and the history of ideas. Moreover, one of the main agendas of media art histories is to point out the role of digital technologies for contemporary, post-industrial societies and to counteract the marginalization of according art practices and art objects: ″Digital technology has fundamentally changed the way art is made. Over the last forty years, media art has become a significant part of our networked information society. Although there are well-attended international festivals, collaborative research projects, exhibitions and database documentation resources, media art research is still marginal in universities, museums and archives. It remains largely under-resourced in our core cultural institutions.″


  1. Shanken, Edward A. "Artists in Industry and the Academy: Collaborative Research, Interdisciplinary Scholarship, and the Creation and Interpretation of Hybrid Forms" (PDF). Leonardo 38:5 (2005). pp. 415–18.
  2. "Contemporary Art and New Media: Toward a Hybrid Discourse?". 15 February 2011.
  3. 1 2 Paul, C. (2012). The myth of immateriality – presenting new media art. Technoetic Arts: A Journal of Speculative Research, 10(2/3) 167-172
  4. Eskilson, S. (2003). Thomas wilfred and intermedia: seeking a framework for lumia. Leonardo, 36(1) 65-68.
  5. Dixon, S. (2007). Digital performance: A history of new media in theater, dance, performance art, and installation. MIT Press.
  6. 1 2 Dixon, S. (2007). Digital performance: A history of new media in theater, dance, performance art, and installation. MIT Press
  7. 1 2 Sandor, E. (2018). Ellen Sandor. In D.J. Cox, E. Sandor & J. Fron (Eds.), New media futures: The rise of women in the digital arts (pp.50-70). University of Illinois Press.
  8. Horsfield, K., & Blumenthal, L. (2018). An interview with abina manning. In D.J. Cox, E. Sandor & J. Fron (Eds.), New media futures: The rise of women in the digital arts (pp.165-169). University of Illinois Press.
  9. Cruz-Neira, C. (2018). Carolina Cruz-Neira. In D.J. Cox, E. Sandor & J. Fron (Eds.), New media futures: The rise of women in the digital arts (pp.85-91). University of Illinois Press.
  10. "La Plissure du Texte". Archived from the original on 2015-04-02.
  11. "Nouveaux Media - New Media - Neue Medien".
  12. Andreas Broeckmann, "Image, Process, Performance, Machine: Aspects of an Aesthetics of the Machinic", in Oliver Grau, ed. (2007), Media Art Histories, Cambridge: MIT Press, ISBN   978-0-262-07279-3 , pp. 204-205.
  13. Kac, E. (2007). Art that looks you in the eye: hybrids, clones, mutants, synthetics, and transgenics. In E. Kac (Ed.), Signs of life: Bio art and beyond. (pp.1-27). MIT Press
  14. Mark Tribe, Reena Jana (2007), New Media Art, Introduction, Rome: Taschen, ISBN   978-3-8228-2537-2
  15. Maurizio Bolognini (2008), Postdigitale (in Italian), Rome: Carocci Editore, ISBN   978-88-430-4739-0
  16. Catricalà, Valentino (2015). Media Art. Toward a new Definition of Arts in the Age of Technology. Gli Ori. ISBN   978-88-7336-564-8.
  17. See also Maurizio Bolognini, "From interactivity to democracy. Towards a post-digital generative art", Artmedia X Proceedings. Paris, 2010.
  18. Bulajic, Viktorija Vesna (2007). Database aesthetics: art in the age of information overflow. University of Minnesota Press.
  19. Moulon, Dominique (2013). Contemporary new media art. Nouvelles éditions Scala.
  20. Van Der Meulen, S. (2017). A strong couple: new media and socially engaged art. Leonardo, 50(2) 170-176.
  21. Dale Hudson and Patricia R. Zimmermann. (2015). Thinking Through Digital Media Transnational Environments and Locative Places . New York: Palgrave Macmillan. P. 1. ISBN   978-1137433626
  22. Womack, Y.L. (2013). Afrofuturism: the world of black sci-fi and fantasy culture. Chicago.
  23. Youngquist, P. (2016). A pure solar world: Sun ra and the birth of afrofuturism. University of Texas Press.
  24. Peattie, P. (2021). Afrofuturism revelation and revolution; voices of the digital generation. Journal of Communication Inquiry, 0(0) 1-24.
  25. 1 2 Mondloch, K. (2018). A capsule aesthetic: Feminist materialisms in new media art. University of Minnesota Press.
  26. Kinder, M. (2005). A cinema of intelligent agents: conceiving ada and teknolust. In M. Tromble (Ed.), The art and films of lynn Hershman leeson: Secret agents, private I (pp.167-181). University of California Press.
  27. Nagam, N., & Swanson, K. (2014). Decolonial interventions in performance and new media art: in conversation with Cheryl l’hirondelle and kent monkman. Canadian Theater Review, (159) Summer 2014, 30-37
  28. Scudeler, J. (2015). “Indians on top”: kent monkman’s sovereign erotics. American Indian Culture and Research Journal, 34(4) 19-32.
  29. "Digital Rosetta Stone" (PDF).
  30. Rinehart, Richard. "Preserving the Rhizome ArtBase (report)". Archived from the original on 2005-01-16.
  31. Rose, Frank (2016-10-21). "The Mission to Save Vanishing Internet Art". The New York Times. ISSN   0362-4331 . Retrieved 2016-11-14.
  32. "Longevity of Electronic Art". Retrieved 2017-12-07.
  33. New media in the white cube and beyond : curatorial models for digital art. Paul, Christiane. Berkeley: University of California Press. 2008. ISBN   9780520255975. OCLC   225871513.{{cite book}}: CS1 maint: others (link)
  34. Almeida, N. (2012). Dismantling the monolith: post-media art and the culture of instability. Art Documentation: Journal of the Art Libraries Society of North America, 31, 2-11.
  35. Post, C. (2017). Preservation practices of new media artists: challenges, strategies, and attitudes in the personal management of artworks. Journal of Documentation, 73(4) 716-732
  36. 1 2 "The School of Art and Design - University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign". Archived from the original on 2016-03-02. Retrieved 2013-04-30.
  37. "New Media Programs in the United States — Dr. Edgar Huang".

Further reading