Italo-Byzantine is a style term in art history, mostly used for medieval paintings produced in Italy under heavy influence from Byzantine art.  It initially covers religious paintings copying or imitating the standard Byzantine icon types, but painted by artists without a training in Byzantine techniques. These are versions of Byzantine icons, most of the Madonna and Child, but also of other subjects; essentially they introduced the relatively small portable painting with a frame to Western Europe. Very often they are on a gold ground. It was the dominant style in Italian painting until the end of the 13th century, when Cimabue and Giotto began to take Italian, or at least Florentine, painting into new territory. But the style continued until the 15th century and beyond in some areas and contexts. 
Maniera greca ("Greek style/manner") was the Italian term used at the time, and by Vasari and others; it is one of the first post-classical European terms for style in art.  Vasari was no admirer, defining the Renaissance as a rejection of "that clumsy Greek style" ("quella greca goffa maniera"); other Renaissance writers were similarly critical. 
This also covered actual Byzantine icons in Italy; by the Renaissance these were imported on a large scale from Crete, then a Venetian possession. Especially in later periods, the terms also cover paintings done in Italy by Greek or Greek-trained artists; some of these are difficult to distinguish from works of the Cretan School, the main source of Greek imports to Europe.  In the mid-20th century, many of these were attributed to Venetian Dalmatia, which is now less popular among scholars. 
According to John Steer, "down to the thirteenth century ... all Italian local schools [of painting] were provincial variants of the central Byzantine tradition".  Most of the artists of Italo-Byzantine paintings are unknown, though we know some facts about later transitional figures such as Coppo di Marcovaldo in Florence (active mid-13th century),  and Berlinghiero of Lucca (active c. 1228–42).  The gold ground style encouraged strong outlines in the painted shapes, and "figures are formed out of abstract but expressive shapes designed to identify various body parts or items of clothing while creating beautiful patterns." 
The term "Italo-Byzantine" is used for sculpture much less often, as the Byzantines did not provide large models to follow for that. It may be used of ivories,  mosaics and the like. In architecture it is the almost inevitable term used for San Marco, Venice, and a few other very old buildings in Venice (the Fondaco dei Turchi for example) and on the small islands of Torcello (Torcello Cathedral) and Murano in the lagoon, but is not often used for other buildings (until 19th-century revivals such as Westminster Cathedral and Bristol Byzantine).  Even the rest of Venetian Gothic architecture does not owe much to Byzantium. 
The people of the parts of southern Italy and Sicily ruled by the Byzantines during the High Middle Ages often continued to speak Greek until about the 16th century and had Greek Orthodox religious habits. They and things relating to them may be called Italo-Byzantine, or alternatively "Italo-Greek" or "Italo-Albanian". The Eastern Catholic Italo-Byzantine or Italo-Albanian Catholic Church was set up to enable them to keep Orthodox traditions within the Catholic Church; it now has some 70,000 members, not all in Italy. 
Variants of maniera greca in contemporary sources such as inventories included alla greca, more greco, grechescha and pittura greca, as well as ones using "Cretan" or "Candia", the Venetian name for Heraklion, then as now the main city on Crete. These included quadro a la candiota and quadro candiota piccolo ("a small Candia picture"); they are probably best regarded as a characterization by style rather than a record of the place of origin.  Especially for Venetian paintings, modern art history may use local terms such as scuola veneto-bizantina ("Venetian-Byzantine school") or "Byzantine (Greco-Venetian) School", especially in Italian. 
Maniera greca had a different meaning from the 17th century, when it described a trend in Baroque sculpture especially associated with Francois Duquesnoy, a Flemish sculptor working in Rome and his pupils such as Rombaut Pauwels. Duquesnoy's Saint Susanna (1633) in Santa Maria di Loreto, Rome is an example. At the time even artists in Rome were able to see very little actual ancient Greek sculpture, and their idea of "Greekness" is rather subtle and hard to reconstruct today; to a large degree it relates to Hellenistic sculpture rather than that of earlier periods, and gives a more restrained and less dramatic style of Baroque than that of, say, Bernini. 
The Italo-Byzantine icon style is usually said to have become common after the Sack of Constantinople in 1204 by the Fourth Crusade. The booty brought back to Europe included many icons,  which probably stimulated demand for more, and provided models for local artists. The portable panel painting was not a usual form in the West before this,  though a few Byzantine examples had arrived, and were often highly revered, and a few had been locally produced, like the possibly 7th-century Madonna della Clemenza. The 13th century also saw a great increase in devotions to the Virgin Mary, led by the Franciscan Order, founded five years after the sack. At this point most examples were probably made for churches, or for great households; these tended to be left to churches later. 
The reasons and forces that led to the development of altarpieces are not generally agreed upon. Placing decorated reliquaries of saints on or behind the altar, as well as the tradition of decorating the front of the altar with sculptures or textiles, preceded the first altarpieces.  During the 13th century, liturgical changes (only reversed in the 20th century) placed the priest celebrating mass on the same side of the altar as the congregation, so with his back to them for much of the time. This encouraged the creation of altarpieces behind and above the altar were a visual devotional focus. Most larger Italo-Byzantine paintings were altarpieces, for which the elaborately-framed polyptych or "composite altarpiece" form soon developed.  These were especially common in Venice, where large mural schemes in fresco were rare; mosaic was greatly preferred, but too expensive for most churches. Paolo Veneziano (active roughly from 1321 to 1360) led the development, with a style that is "still Byzantine", but increasingly influenced by the Gothic art developing north of the Alps, and personal elements. However, influence from Giotto is "almost entirely absent". 
In the later part of the 13th century the two leading painters in north Italy, Cimabue in Florence (active c. 1270–1303) and Duccio in Siena (active c. 1268–1311) were both trained and highly skilled in the Italo-Byzantine style, but also developing it in new directions in terms of representing solidity and depth, and loosening up the age-old Byzantine poses. This approach, and its further development by Giotto, was slowly taken up by the main workshops in other cities, but many lesser figures in smaller or more remote cities and towns continued the old style for a considerable time. 
The Cambrai Madonna is a relatively late piece, probably painted around 1340 in Italy, perhaps in Pisa, by no means entirely in the old Italo-Byzantine style. One Greek scholar describes it as "a work which most likely no Byzantine of the period would have recognized as a Greek icon". It is especially significant because by the time a canon of Cambrai Cathedral bought it for the cathedral in 1450 it was believed to be the original portrait of the Virgin Mary painted by Saint Luke the Evangelist and was much copied by Early Netherlandish painters.  Some copies are clearly Netherlandish in style, though preserving the pose and details of the original, but others previously thought to have been made in Italy may in fact have been made in the Netherlands by local artists. 
The maniera greca survived being replaced by the top Italian painters, indeed became more common, as increasing prosperity and cheap Cretan imports spread the possibility of owning an icon for the home down the economic scale. By the 16th century, as revealed by inventories, ownership of alla greca icons was highly common in noble households, and those of the senior clergy, and was spreading to the homes of the middle classes, and later the working classes. 
By 1615, one study showed that a remarkable 81% of the households of Venetian labourers possessed artworks of some sort; when icons, these would have mostly have been very small, and perhaps mostly Cretan imports (see below). However, by this period alla greca icons had come to seem old-fashioned, although some lingered until the 18th century.  The Cretan icon-industry was already adopting more up to date Western styles, with some success, and the slow loss of Crete to the Ottomans from 1645 to 1669 seriously interrupted supplies. 
As the gap in style between contemporary Italian painting and Italo-Byzantine (or Greek post-Byzantine) icons grew wider, there is evidence that at least some Italians regarded the maniera greca as superior from a devotional point of view. This was partly because of the perceived authenticity of the compositions or poses of Byzantine icons, which were believed, and proclaimed by the Orthodox, to have remained unchanged since the very beginning of Christianity, and in several cases to derive either from miraculous acheiropoieta or "icons not made by human hands", or from supposed portrait paintings of Christ or the Virgin painted from the life, by Saint Luke or others. Some, especially among the clergy, felt that the beauty and greater naturalism of newer Italian styles distracted from devotion. 
The Greek originals received a late boost in popularity in the decades after the Fall of Constantinople in 1453 brought a new influx of Greeks and icons to Italy. Prominent collectors included Pope Paul II (d. 1471), who by 1457 had 23 micromosaic icons and 13 painted or relief ones. Some later passed to Lorenzo de' Medici, who owned 11 mosaic icons at his death in 1492. The Greek Cardinal Bessarion gave several icons to Saint Peter's, Rome, and lent Greek manuscripts to Francesco d'Este to be copied; d'Este many have had some of Paul II's icons. 
Italian painting up to about 1200 was used for illuminated manuscripts, frescos, and on wood, large painted crucifixes for rood crosses in churches, as well as assorted pieces of furniture and so on. The life-size crucifixes were not a Byzantine form, and were probably regarded in Italy as a cheaper version of the crosses with a sculpted corpus or body.  Famous versions of the sculpted type include the Gero Cross (Cologne, 10th-century), the Holy Face of Lucca (originally 11th-century or earlier), and the 12th-century Catalan Batlló Majesty. The painted crucifixes typically included many smaller figures in sections at the four extremities of the cross, and built out to the sides below the horizontal arms, level with Christ's torso and legs, as in the cross in Sarzana Cathedral, dated 1138, the earliest dated Tuscan painting. 
Of the painted versions the San Damiano cross of about 1100 is one of few early survivals; perhaps it has only remained intact because Francis of Assissi had a revelation in front of it around 1206. There are more survivals from later in the century; some are not entirely flat, but have the face and halo protruding somewhat from the main plane, to help visibility from below.  It was to make works such as these that Italian panel painters had presumably been trained, as well as combinations of frescos, the painting of sculpture in both wood and stone, and illuminating manuscripts. The main masters of the new Proto-Renaissance, including Cimabue and Giotto, about whose work we have better information, mostly painted both panels and frescos, and sometimes designed mosaics, such as Giotto's Navicella outside Old Saint Peter's Basilica in Rome, and Berlinghiero's on the facade of the Basilica of San Frediano in Lucca. Duccio was an exception here, mainly just painting panels. 
Venetian Crete had a busy painting industry, with Cretan, Italian, and (especially after 1453) mainland Greek artists at work. There are examples both of artists from different backgrounds setting up workshops together, and of both Italian and Cretan patrons commissioning works from a painter of a different background. 
At least by the late 15th century,  Italian importers also used maniera greca (or in forma greca, alla greca) in their contracts to describe one of the two styles of small and cheap devotional paintings by workshops of the Cretan School which were mass-produced in Crete (then ruled by Venice) for export to the West. The alternative style was alla latina ("Latin style"), mostly a conservative Romanesque or Gothic style, where the Greek-style works followed traditional Byzantine style as far as their cheap price allowed. 
The Venetian archives preserve considerable documentation on the trade of artistic icons between Venice and Crete, which by the end of the 15th century had become one of mass production. There is documentation of a specific order in 1499, of 700 icons of the Virgin Mary, 500 in a Western style, and 200 in Byzantine style. The order was placed with three artists by two dealers, one Venetian and one from mainland Greece, and the time between contract date and delivery was set at only forty-five days. 
Probably the quality of many such commissioned icons was fairly low, and the dismissive term Madonneri was devised to describe such bulk painters, who later practised in Italy also, often using a quasi-Byzantine style, and apparently often Greek or Dalmatian individuals. Production of icons at these levels seems to have led to a glut in the market, and in the following two decades there is much evidence that the Cretan trade declined significantly, as the European demand had been reduced. 
There were also workshops led by masters with a much better reputation, who produced works of much higher quality. El Greco was trained in this part of the Cretan industry, running his own workshop for a few years before he emigrated to Italy in 1567, at the age of about 26. His very individual later Italian style might fairly be characterized as "Italo-Byzantine", though in fact the term is not often used of it. 
Cretan School describes an important school of icon painting, under the umbrella of post-Byzantine art, which flourished while Crete was under Venetian rule during the late Middle Ages, reaching its climax after the Fall of Constantinople, becoming the central force in Greek painting during the 15th, 16th and 17th centuries. The Cretan artists developed a particular style of painting under the influence of both Eastern and Western artistic traditions and movements; the most famous product of the school, El Greco, was the most successful of the many artists who tried to build a career in Western Europe, and also the one who left the Byzantine style farthest behind him in his later career.
Theodore Poulakis was a Greek Renaissance painter and teacher. He is considered the father of the Heptanese School and one of the most prolific painters of Venetian Crete. Poulakis was a member of the Cretan School, his contemporary was Emmanuel Tzanes. Emmanuel Tzanes and Poulakis were active painters of the Cretan School until Candia, went to war with the Ottomans around 1649. Candia finally fell after twenty years of siege in 1669. Poulakis settled on the island of Corfu. Stephanos Tzangarolas was another famous painter in Corfu around the same period. Poulakis's works are likened to Andreas Pavias and Georgios Klontzas. Poulakis works exhibit qualities of the Venetian school. Over 130 of his paintings have survived and can be found all over the world.
Angelos Akotantos was a Greek painter, educator, and protopsaltis. He painted icons in the maniera greca, at a time when that style was moving away from the traditions of the Byzantine Empire and towards the more refined aesthetic of the Cretan School. Akotantos taught painting to Andreas Pavias, Andreas Ritzos, and Antonios Papadopoulos, and his style influenced later artists such as Georgios Klontzas, Theophanes the Cretan, Michael Damaskinos and El Greco. Angelos's brother Ioannis was also a famous painter. There are 50 extant paintings reliably attributed to Akotantos, 30 of which bear his signature.
Andreas Ritzos also known as (Rico, Ricio, Rizo). He was a Greek icon painter, from Crete. Ritzos is considered one of the founding fathers of the Cretan School. He was affiliated with Angelos Akotantos. Most of his work stylistically follows the traditional maniera greca. His children, grandchildren, and great-grandchildren were also painters. He was one of the most influential painters of the Cretan School along with Andreas Pavias and Angelos Akotantos. He influenced the works of Georgios Klontzas, Nikolaos Tzafouris, Theophanes the Cretan, Michael Damaskinos and El Greco. According to the Institute for Neohellenic Research, sixty of his paintings have survived.
Nikolaos Tzafouris(Greek: Νικόλαος Ζαφούρης η Τζαφούρης) 1468-1501), also Niccolo, Niccolò, Niccolö, Zafuri, Zafuris, was a Greek Renaissance painter. He was one of the founders of the Cretan School. He was influenced by Angelos Akotantos. His works influenced Emmanuel Tzanes, Elias Moskos, Georgios Klontzas and Theodoros Poulakis. Tzafouris was one of the most respected artists in Crete. His most notable work is Madre della Consolazione. The painting exhibits a combination of Byzantine and Italian styles. Another notable painter in Crete around the same time was Andreas Pavias. According to the Institute of Neohellenic Research, thirteen paintings are attributed to Tzafouris.
The Crucifixion is a tempera painting by Andreas Pavias, who was active in Crete during the second half of the 15th century and is considered part of the Cretan School. It is now in the National Gallery of Greece. The painting influenced countless arts. Georgios Klontzas, Emmanuel Lambardos, Ioannis Moskos created similar works. Pavias introduced multiple figures to his Crucifixion. Georgios Klontzas began to employ a similar method in his famous work In Thee Rejoiceth. A work that was emulated by Theodore Poulakis and Franghias Kavertzas. The painting exhibited characteristics of the traditional maniera greca and the Venetian style.
Christ Bearing the Cross is a tempera painting attributed to Nikolaos Tzafouris. Nikolaos Tzafouris was a Greek painter. He is one of the founding members of the Cretan School along with Andreas Ritzos, Andreas Pavias, and Angelos Akotantos. He was influenced by Angelos Akotantos. According to the Institute of Neohellenic Research, thirteen paintings are attributed to Tzafouris. Tzafouris was active between 1480 and 1501. Tzafouris had a workshop in Heraklion. Tzafouris painted religious themes for local churches. The painting is a mixture of Italian and Greek Byzantine prototypes. The work followed the traditional maniera greca and was influenced by Venetian painting. His most notable works are the Madre della Consolazione and Christ Bearing the Cross. Christ Bearing the Cross is in Manhattan on display at Metropolitan Museum of Art.
Ioannis Permeniates also known as Giovanni Permeniate, Joannes Permeniates and, Zuan Permeniatis. He was a Greek painter in Venice active during the early 16th century. His most popular painting is The Virgin and Child Enthroned. He was a Greek icon painter who attempted to escape the maniera greca. His icons exhibit qualities of both Venetian and Cretan styles. Exhibiting a more refined maniera greca, he eschews the simplicity of Duccio and Cimabue, and adds more space to his paintings.
Ilias or Elias Moskos was a Greek educator, shipping merchant and painter from Crete. The last name Moskos was associated with three famous painters of the Cretan School alive during the same period, along with Ioannis Moskos and Leos Moskos, possibly his relatives. Elias incorporated maniera greca with the Venetian style. Theodore Poulakis and Moskos brought the art and style of Crete into the Heptanese School of the Ionian Islands. Some of his work was inspired by Angelos Akotantos. He was affiliated with other artists such as Philotheos Skoufos. He is often confused with Leos Moskos. His son was not Ioannis Moskos although they were probably related. Elias most popular painting is Christ Pantocrator. Fifty-two of his paintings survived.
Ιoannis Apakas, also known as Johann Apakass was a Greek painter and priest. He was active in the latter part of the 16th century to the early 17th century. He was popular artist during his time.
Nikolaos Kallergis, also known as Kalergis. He was a Greek painter during the Greek Rococo and the Modern Greek Enlightenment in art also known as Neo-Hellenikos Diafotismos. His art also exhibited Venetian influence. Painters of the maniera greca began to refine their art. Philotheos Skoufos, Elias Moskos, and Theodore Poulakis were all active painters on the Ionian Islands prior to Kallergis. They set the stage for the transition to the Heptanese School. Panagiotis Doxaras is the forefather of the new painting style. He was the father of Greek Rococo and the Modern Greek Enlightenment in painting. Kallergis became an active member of the school. Kallergis also represents the Greek Rococo. His art began to exhibit qualities of Greek and Italian Neoclassicism. His style influenced countless painters. Examples include Nikolaos Kantounis, Nikolaos Koutouzis, Nikolaos Doxaras, Spiridione Roma, and Eustathios Karousos. His most famous work is Christ and Angel it is at the Zakynthos Museum.
Antonios Papadopoulos was a Greek painter who represented the Cretan Renaissance. Papadopoulos, Andreas Pavias, Andreas Ritzos, and Nikolaos Tzafouris were all students of famous painter Angelos Akotantos. Papadopoulos reflects the sophistication and evolution of Byzantine painting to a more refined Venetian style. Although Cretan painting continued the tradition of the maniera greca, every icon reflected its own sophistication and uniqueness. Papadopoulos and his contemporaries influenced countless artists, namely Emmanuel Lambardos, Emmanuel Tzanfournaris, Thomas Bathas, and Markos Bathas. His most notable artwork is the Nursing Madonna or Galaktotrophousa. El Greco painted similar subject matter.
Nikolaos Lampoudis was a 15th Century Greek painter from Sparta. The only work of his of which historians are aware is an icon of the Virgin and Child of a kind known as a hodegetria or eleusa.
Georgios Kalliergis or Kallergis was a Byzantine Greek painter. He is one of the few Greek painters of the Byzantine empire known by name. Other Byzantine painters include: Theodore Apsevdis, Kokkinobaphos Master, and Ioannis Pagomenos. Kalliergis was one of the masters of Thessaloniki. He was part of the Macedonian School of painting. His last name Kallergis was associated with a noble family from the island of Crete. Two other very famous Greek painters Nikolaos Kallergis and Christodoulos Kalergis shared the same last name. Georgios was associated with Mount Athos, Veria, and Thessaloniki. His most notable frescos are in the Church of the Resurrection of Christ in Veria, Greece.
The Virgin Eleousa is a tempera painting attributed to Angelos Akotantos. Angelos Akotantos was a Greek painter active on the island of Crete during the first half of the 15th century. He is considered one of the founding members of the Cretan School along with Andreas Pavias, Andreas Ritzos, and Nikolaos Tzafouris. Over fifty paintings are attributed to Angelos Akotantos. His works served as a prototype for Greek paintings for over five hundred years. Angelos Akotantos was active in Heraklion. He was very wealthy. Much of the information about his life was drawn from a will written in 1436. Historians consider him to have been active between 1425 and 1457. Angelos Akotantos completed many icons of the Virgin and Child in the Eleousa position.
Saint Anne with the Virgin is a tempera painting attributed to the Greek painter Angelos Akotantos. Angelos Akotantos is one of the founding members of the Cretan School along with Andreas Ritzos, Andreas Pavias, and Nikolaos Tzafouris. Angelos Akotantos was active during the first half of the 15th century. According to the Institute of Neohellenic Research, fifty paintings are attributed to Angelos Akotantos.
Christ the Vine is a tempera painting created by Greek painter Angelos. Angelos was active from 1425 to 1457. He was a teacher and protopsaltis. His students included some of the most famous painters of the early Cretan Renaissance. Andreas Pavias and Andreas Ritzos were his students and were heavily influenced by his style. Forty-nine of his works survived. Angelo’s Christ the Vine was one of his most important works.
The Virgin Pantanassa is a tempera painting by Andreas Ritzos. Ritzos was a Greek painter active on the island of Crete. He flourished from 1435 to 1492. The painter has an existing catalog of over sixty works attributed to him. He signed his works in both Greek and Latin. He is one of the most influential painters of the Cretan Renaissance. He painted in the traditional Greek-Italian Byzantine style. His work was also heavily influenced by Venetian painting. His teacher was Angelos Akotantos. He was also affiliated with Andreas Pavias. His son was famous Greek painter Nikolaos Ritzos. Ritzo's Italian contemporaries were Paolo Uccello and Fra Angelico. They all painted a mixture of the Greek-Italian Byzantine and Italian Renaissance styles. The art of Crete was heavily influenced by the founder of the Venetian school Paolo Veneziano.
Michael Fokas, also known as Migiel Fuca, was a Greek icon painter and art instructor. He came from a prominent family of painters, the founders of the Cretan School; working in this style, Fokas's workshop mass-produced icons for Greek and Italian clients. No surviving painting bears Fokas's signature, but history has preserved a commission for 200 icons which he received on July 4, 1499. This important document charges Fokas to produce works based upon the prototype Madre della Consolazione, originally created by Nikolaos Tzafouris and modeled after Giovanni Bellini.
The Nativity is an egg tempera painting by Victor. Victor is sometimes referred to as Victor of Crete. Victor was active from 1645 to 1696. He traveled all over the Venetian empire. He settled in Zakinthos. Some of his important works can be found in the church San Giorgio dei Greci in Venice. He is a very important Greek painter because of his existing catalog. His works of art exceed ninety-five paintings. One of his notable works was his version of Christ the Vine.