Royal Collection

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Paintings in the King's Gallery, Kensington Palace. Left to right:
The Adoration of the Kings, studio of Paolo Veronese (c. 1573-1666)
Venus and Adonis Embracing, Italian School (c. 1580-1620)
The Flood, Jacopo Bassano (c. 1570)
Diligence, Italian School (c. 1530)
Charles I with M. de St Antoine, after Anthony van Dyck (1700s)
Fame, Italian School (c. 1530) King's Gallery, Kensington Palace.jpg
Paintings in the King's Gallery, Kensington Palace. Left to right:
The Adoration of the Kings, studio of Paolo Veronese (c. 1573–1666)
Venus and Adonis Embracing, Italian School (c. 1580–1620)
The Flood, Jacopo Bassano (c. 1570)
Diligence, Italian School (c. 1530)
Charles I with M. de St Antoine , after Anthony van Dyck (1700s)
Fame, Italian School (c. 1530)

The Royal Collection of the British Royal family is the largest private art collection in the world. [7] [8]


Spread among 13 occupied and historic royal residences in the United Kingdom, the collection is owned by Elizabeth II and overseen by the Royal Collection Trust. The Queen owns some of the collection in right of the Crown and some as a private individual. It is made up of over one million objects, [9] including 7,000 paintings, over 150,000 works on paper, [10] this including 30,000 watercolours and drawings, [11] and about 450,000 photographs, [12] as well as tapestries, furniture, ceramics, textiles, carriages, weapons, armour, jewellery, clocks, musical instruments, tableware, plants, manuscripts, books, and sculptures.

Elizabeth II Queen of the United Kingdom and the other Commonwealth realms

Elizabeth II is Queen of the United Kingdom and the other Commonwealth realms.

The Royal Collection Trust is a British charity established in 1993 by Queen Elizabeth II under the chairmanship of Charles, Prince of Wales to manage the Royal Collection. It is a company limited by guarantee, registered in England and Wales, No. 2713536. It is a Registered Charity No. 1016972, Registered Office: York House, St James's Palace, London SW1A 1BQ.

The Crown is the state in all its aspects within the jurisprudence of the Commonwealth realms and their sub-divisions. Legally ill-defined, the term has different meanings depending on context. It is used to designate the monarch in either a personal capacity, as Head of the Commonwealth, or as the king or queen of his or her realms. It can also refer to the rule of law; however, in common parlance 'The Crown' refers to the functions of government and the civil service.

Some of the buildings which house the collection, like Hampton Court Palace, are open to the public and not lived in by the Royal Family, whilst others, like Windsor Castle and Kensington Palace, are both residences and open to the public. The Queen's Gallery at Buckingham Palace in London was built specially to exhibit pieces from the collection on a rotating basis. There is a similar art gallery next to the Palace of Holyroodhouse in Edinburgh, and a Drawings Gallery at Windsor Castle. The Crown Jewels are on public display in the Jewel House at the Tower of London.

Hampton Court Palace historic royal palace in Richmond, Greater London

Hampton Court Palace is a royal palace in the borough of Richmond upon Thames, 12 miles south west and upstream of central London on the River Thames. Building of the palace began in 1515 for Cardinal Thomas Wolsey, a favourite of King Henry VIII. In 1529, as Wolsey fell from favour, the cardinal gave the palace to the King to check his disgrace; Henry VIII later enlarged it. Along with St James's Palace, it is one of only two surviving palaces out of the many owned by King Henry VIII.

Windsor Castle Royal residence at Windsor in the English county of Berkshire

Windsor Castle is a royal residence at Windsor in the English county of Berkshire. It is notable for its long association with the English and later British royal family and for its architecture.

Kensington Palace royal residence set in Kensington Gardens, London, England

Kensington Palace is a royal residence set in Kensington Gardens, in the Royal Borough of Kensington and Chelsea in London, England. It has been a residence of the British Royal Family since the 17th century, and is currently the official London residence of the Duke and Duchess of Cambridge, the Duke and Duchess of Sussex, Princess Eugenie and her husband Jack Brooksbank, the Duke and Duchess of Gloucester, the Duke and Duchess of Kent, and Prince and Princess Michael of Kent.

About 3,000 objects are on loan to museums throughout the world, and many others are lent on a temporary basis to exhibitions. [9]


Few items from before Henry VIII survive. The most important additions were made by Charles I, a passionate collector of Italian paintings and a major patron of Van Dyck and other Flemish artists. He purchased the bulk of the Gonzaga collection from the Duchy of Mantua. The entire Royal Collection, which included 1,500 paintings and 500 statues, [13] was sold after Charles's execution in 1649. The 'Sale of the Late King's Goods' at Somerset House raised £185,000 for the English Republic. Other items were given away in lieu of payment to settle the king's debts. [14] A number of pieces were recovered by Charles II after the Restoration of the monarchy in 1660, and they form the basis for the collection today. The Dutch Republic also presented Charles with the Dutch Gift of 28 paintings, 12 sculptures, and a selection of furniture. He went on to buy many paintings and other works.

Henry VIII of England 16th-century King of England

Henry VIII was King of England from 1509 until his death. Henry was the second Tudor monarch, succeeding his father, Henry VII. Henry is best known for his six marriages, in particular his efforts to have his first marriage, to Catherine of Aragon, annulled. His disagreement with the Pope on the question of such an annulment led Henry to initiate the English Reformation, separating the Church of England from papal authority. He appointed himself the Supreme Head of the Church of England and dissolved convents and monasteries, for which he was excommunicated. Henry is also known as "the father of the Royal Navy"; he invested heavily in the Navy, increasing its size greatly from a few to more than 50 ships.

Duchy of Mantua

The Duchy of Mantua was a duchy in Lombardy, Northern Italy, subject to the Holy Roman Empire.

Somerset House building on the Strand, London

Somerset House is a large Neoclassical building situated on the south side of the Strand in central London, overlooking the River Thames, just east of Waterloo Bridge. The Georgian building, which was built on the site of a Tudor palace belonging to the Duke of Somerset, was designed by Sir William Chambers in 1776. It was further extended with Victorian wings to the east and west in 1831 and 1856 respectively. The East Wing is now part of the adjacent Strand campus of King's College London. Somerset House stood directly on the River Thames until the Victoria Embankment was built in the late 1860s.

Johannes Vermeer: The Music Lesson, c. 1660, was acquired by George III in 1762. Johannes Vermeer - Lady at the Virginal with a Gentleman, 'The Music Lesson' - Google Art Project.jpg
Johannes Vermeer: The Music Lesson , c.1660, was acquired by George III in 1762.

George III was mainly responsible for forming the collection's outstanding holdings of Old Master drawings; large numbers of these, and many Venetian paintings including over 40 Canalettos, joined the collection when he bought the collection of Joseph "Consul Smith", which also included a large number of books. [16] Many other drawings were bought from Alessandro Albani, cardinal and art dealer in Rome. [17]

George III of the United Kingdom King of Great Britain and Ireland

George III was King of Great Britain and King of Ireland from 25 October 1760 until the union of the two countries on 1 January 1801, after which he was King of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland until his death in 1820. He was concurrently Duke and prince-elector of Brunswick-Lüneburg ("Hanover") in the Holy Roman Empire before becoming King of Hanover on 12 October 1814. He was the third British monarch of the House of Hanover, but unlike his two predecessors, he was born in Great Britain, spoke English as his first language, and never visited Hanover.

Old Master skilled painter

In art history, "Old Master" refers to any painter of skill who worked in Europe before about 1800, or a painting by such an artist. An "old master print" is an original print made by an artist in the same period. The term "old master drawing" is used in the same way.

Canaletto Italian painter of landscapes

Giovanni Antonio Canal, better known as Canaletto, was an Italian painter of city views or vedute, of Venice, Rome, and London. He also painted imaginary views, although the demarcation in his works between the real and the imaginary is never quite clearcut. He was further an important printmaker using the etching technique. In the period from 1746 to 1756 he worked in England where he painted many sights of London. He was highly successful in England, thanks to the British merchant and connoisseur Joseph Smith, whose large collection of Canaletto's works was sold to King George III in 1762.

George IV shared Charles I's enthusiasm for collecting, buying up large numbers of Dutch Golden Age paintings and their Flemish contemporaries. Like other English collectors, he took advantage of the great quantities of French decorative art on the London market after the French Revolution, and is mostly responsible for the collection's outstanding holdings of 18th-century French furniture and porcelain, especially Sèvres. He also bought much contemporary English silver, and many recent and contemporary English paintings. [18] Queen Victoria and her husband Albert were keen collectors of contemporary and old master paintings.

Many objects have been given from the collection to museums, especially by George III and Victoria and Albert. In particular, the King's Library formed by George III with the assistance of his librarian Frederick Augusta Barnard, consisting of 65,000 printed books, was given to the British Museum, now the British Library, where they remain as a distinct collection. [19] He also donated the "Old Royal Library" of some 2,000 manuscripts, which are still segregated as the Royal manuscripts. [20] The core of this collection was the purchase by James I of the related collections of Humphrey Llwyd, Lord Lumley, and the Earl of Arundel. [21] Prince Albert's will requested the donation of a number of mostly early paintings to the National Gallery, London, which Queen Victoria fulfilled. [22]

Modern era

Throughout the reign of Elizabeth II (1952–present), there have been significant additions to the collection through judicious purchases, bequests, and gifts from nation states and official bodies. [23] Since 1952, approximately 2,500 works have been added to the Royal Collection. [14] The Commonwealth is strongly represented in this manner: an example is 75 contemporary Canadian watercolours that entered the collection between 1985 and 2001 as a gift from the Canadian Society of Painters in Water Colour. [24] Modern art acquired by Elizabeth II includes pieces by Sir Anish Kapoor and Andy Warhol. [14]

In 1987 a new department of the Royal Household was established to oversee the Royal Collection, and it was financed by the commercial activities of Royal Collection Enterprises, a limited company. Before then, it was maintained using the monarch's official income paid by the Civil List. Since 1993 the collection has been funded by entrance fees to Windsor Castle and Buckingham Palace. [25]


Andrea Mantegna, Triumph of Caesar: The Vase Bearers, c. 1484-92, acquired by Charles I Triumph4-Mantegna-vase-bearers.jpg
Andrea Mantegna, Triumph of Caesar: The Vase Bearers, c.1484–92, acquired by Charles I
Titian: Portrait of Jacopo Sannazaro, 1514-18, part of the Dutch Gift presented to Charles II in 1660 TITIAN; Portrait of Jacopo Sannazaro (1514-18).JPG
Titian: Portrait of Jacopo Sannazaro, 1514–18, part of the Dutch Gift presented to Charles II in 1660
Rubens: Pythagoras Advocating Vegetarianism, c. 1618-30 in the Queen's Gallery, Buckingham Palace Queen's Gallery -1.jpg
Rubens: Pythagoras Advocating Vegetarianism , c. 1618–30 in the Queen's Gallery, Buckingham Palace

A computerised inventory of the collection was started in early 1991, [28] and it was completed in December 1997. [29] The full inventory is not available to the public, though catalogues of parts of the collection – especially paintings – have been published, and a searchable database on the Royal Collection website is increasingly comprehensive, [30] with "265,302 items found" by early 2019. [31]

About a third of the 7,000 paintings in the collection are on view or stored at buildings in London which fall under the remit of the Historic Royal Palaces agency: the Tower of London, Hampton Court Palace, Kensington Palace, Banqueting House (Whitehall), and Kew Palace. [32] The Jewel House and Martin Tower at the Tower of London also house the Crown Jewels. A rotating selection of art, furniture, jewellery, and other items considered to be of the highest quality is shown at the Queen's Gallery, a purpose-built exhibition centre near Buckingham Palace. [33] Many objects are displayed in the palace itself, the state rooms of which are open to visitors for much of the year, as well as in Windsor Castle, Holyrood Palace in Edinburgh, the Royal Pavilion in Brighton, and Osborne House on the Isle of Wight. Some works are on long-term or permanent loan to museums and other places; the most famous of these are the Raphael Cartoons, in the Victoria and Albert Museum in London since 1865. [34]

Paintings, prints and drawings

The collection's holdings of Western fine art are among the largest and most important assemblages in existence, with works of the highest quality, and in many cases artists whose works cannot be fully understood without a study of the holdings contained within the Royal Collection. There are over 7,000 paintings, spread across the Royal residences and palaces. The collection does not claim to provide a comprehensive, chronological survey of Western fine art but it has been shaped by the individual tastes of kings, queens and their families over the last 500 years.


Numbering over 300 items, the Royal Collection holds one of the greatest and most important collections of French furniture ever assembled. The collection is noted for its encyclopedic range as well as counting the greatest cabinet-makers of the Ancien Régime.

Sculpture and decorative arts


The collection has a number of items of clothing, including those worn by members of the Royal family, especially female members, some going back to the early 19th century. These include ceremonial dress and several wedding dresses, including that of Queen Victoria (1940). [39] There are also servant's livery uniforms, and a number of exotic pieces presented over the years, going back to a "war coat" of Tipu Sultan (d. 1799). [40] In recent years these have featured more prominently in displays and exhibitions, and are popular with the public.

Gems and Jewels

A collection of 277 cameos, intaglios, badges of insignia, snuffboxes and pieces of jewellery known as the Gems and Jewels are kept at Windsor Castle. Separate from Elizabeth II's jewels and the Crown Jewels, 24 pre-date the Renaissance and the rest were made in the 16th–19th centuries. In 1862, it was first shown publicly at the South Kensington Museum, now the Victoria and Albert Museum. Several objects were removed and others added in the second half of the Victorian period. An inventory of the collection was made in 1872, and a catalogue, Ancient and Modern Gems and Jewels in the Collection of Her Majesty The Queen, was published in 2008 by the Royal Collection Trust. [41]


The Royal Collection is privately owned, although some of the works are displayed in areas of palaces and other royal residences open to visitors for the public to enjoy. [42] Some of the collection is owned by the monarch personally, [43] and everything else is described as being held in trust by the monarch in right of the Crown. It is understood that works of art acquired by monarchs up to the death of Queen Victoria in 1901 are heirlooms which fall into the latter category. Items the British royal family acquired later, including official gifts, [44] can be added to that part of the collection by a monarch at his or her discretion. Ambiguity surrounds the status of objects that have come into the possession of Elizabeth II during her reign. [45] The Royal Collection Trust has confirmed that all pieces left to the Queen by the Queen Mother, which include works by Monet, Nash, and Fabergé, belong to her personally. [46] It has also been confirmed that she owns the Royal stamp collection, inherited from her father George VI, as a private individual. [47]

Non-personal items are said to be inalienable as they can only be willed to the monarch's successor. The legal accuracy of this claim has never been substantiated in court. [48] According to Cameron Cobbold, then Lord Chamberlain, speaking in 1971, minor items have occasionally been sold to help raise money for acquisitions, and duplicates of items are given away as presents within the Commonwealth. [45] In 1995, Iain Sproat, then Secretary of State for National Heritage, told the House of Commons that selling objects was "entirely a matter for the Queen". [49] In a 2000 television interview, the Duke of Edinburgh said that the Queen was "technically, perfectly at liberty to sell them". [33]

Hypothetical questions have been asked in Parliament about what should happen to the collection if the UK ever becomes a republic. [50] In other European countries, the art collections of deposed monarchies usually have been taken into state ownership or become part of other national collections held in trust for the public's enjoyment. [51] Under the European Convention on Human Rights, incorporated into British law in 1998, the monarch may have to be compensated for the loss of any assets held in right of the Crown unless he or she agreed to surrender them voluntarily. [52]


A registered charity, the Royal Collection Trust was set up in 1993 after the Windsor Castle fire with a mandate to conserve the works and enhance the public's appreciation and understanding of art. [53] It employs around 500 staff and is one of the five departments of the Royal Household. [54] Buildings do not come under its remit. In 2012, the team of curatorial staff numbered 29, and there were 32 conservationists. [55] Income is raised by charging entrance fees to see the collection at various locations and selling books and merchandise to the public. The Trust is financially independent and receives no Government funding or public subsidy. [56] A studio at Marlborough House is responsible for the conservation of furniture and decorative objects. [57]

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  1. "The Adoration of the Kings". Royal Collection Trust. Inventory no. 406767.
  2. "Venus and Adonis Embracing". Royal Collection Trust. Inventory no. 406050.
  3. "The Flood". Royal Collection Trust. Inventory no. 406106.
  4. "Diligence". Royal Collection Trust. Inventory no. 402941.
  5. "Charles I with M. de St Antoine". Royal Collection Trust. Inventory no. 404552.
  6. "Fame". Royal Collection Trust. Inventory no. 402942.
  7. Stuart Jeffries (21 November 2002). "Kindness of strangers". The Guardian. Retrieved 15 July 2016.
  8. Jerry Brotton (2 April 2006). "The great British art swindle". The Sunday Times. Archived from the original on 2 December 2016. Some people know that this is perhaps the finest, and certainly what the royal palaces website proudly calls "the largest private collection of art in the world".
  9. 1 2 "FAQs about the Royal Collection". Royal Collection Trust. Archived from the original on 4 April 2016.
  10. "Jeremy, Curator of Prints and Drawings", RC website
  11. "Secrets of the Queen's paintings". The Telegraph. 15 February 2015. Retrieved 21 March 2016.
  12. "About the Collection: Photographs". Royal Collection Trust. Retrieved 4 March 2019.
  13. Michael Prodger (22 January 2018). "The cavalier collector: how Charles I gained (and lost) some of the world's best art". New Statesman. Retrieved 4 March 2019.
  14. 1 2 3 Michael Prodger (17 December 2017). "The Royals' Treasures". Culture. The Sunday Times. pp. 44–45.
  15. "Lady at the Virginals with a Gentleman". Royal Collection Trust. Inventory no. 405346.
  16. Lloyd (1991), 143, 164, 166
  17. "George III", Royal Collection
  18. "King George IV", Royal Collection; Lloyd (1991), 143
  19. "The King's Library, British Library
  20. "Royal manuscripts", British Library
  21. R. Brinley Jones, ‘Llwyd, Humphrey (1527–1568)’, Oxford Dictionary of National Biography, Oxford University Press, Sept 2004
  22. "Prince Albert and the Gallery", National Gallery
  23. Sir Hugh Roberts in Roberts, pp. 25 and 391.
  24. Jackson, p. 59.
  25. Hall, p. 660.
  26. "The Triumphs of Caesar: 4. The Vase-Bearers". Royal Collection Trust. Inventory no. 403961.
  27. "Portrait of Jacopo Sannazaro". Royal Collection Trust. Inventory no. 407190.
  28. "Works of Art". Parliamentary Debates (Hansard) . 216. United Kingdom: House of Commons. 11 January 1993. col. 540W.
  29. "Royal Collection". Parliamentary Debates (Hansard) . 315. United Kingdom: House of Commons. 7 July 1998. col. 429W.
  30. Hardman, p. 102.
  31. "Explore the Collection", Royal Collection, accessed 1 March 2019
  32. "Art Collections". Parliamentary Debates (Hansard) . 219. United Kingdom: House of Commons. 19 February 1993. col. 366W.
  33. 1 2 "The convenient fiction of who owns priceless treasure". The Guardian. 30 May 2002. Retrieved 1 December 2016.
  34. Clayton and Whitaker, pp. 12 and 16.
  35. The Social Affairs Unit – at least Web Review: Dutch Paintings at the Royal Collection
  36. Jones, Jonathan (30 August 2006). "The real Da Vinci code". The Guardian. London. Retrieved 22 May 2010.
  37. "The story of the Raphael Cartoons". V&A. Retrieved 12 February 2019.
  38. "Rillaton Cup", Royal Collection
  39. "Queen Victoria's wedding dress, 1840", Royal Collection
  40. "War coat of Tipu Sultan, 1785-90", Royal Collection
  41. Piacenti and Boardman, p. 11.
  42. Lloyd, p. 11. "It is, therefore, a private collection, although its sheer size (some 7,000 pictures) and its display in palaces and royal residences (several of which are open to the public) give it a public dimension".
  43. "Royal Taxation". Parliamentary Debates (Hansard) . 351. United Kingdom: House of Commons. 7 June 2000. col. 273W. There is a computerised inventory of the Royal Collection which identifies assets held by the Queen as Sovereign and as a private individual.
  44. "Force the Royal Family to declare gifts, say MPs". Evening Standard. London. 30 January 2007. Retrieved 26 November 2016.
  45. 1 2 Morton, p. 156.
  46. McClure, pp. 209–210.
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Further reading