The Viscount of Almeida Garrett
A lithograph of Garrett, by Pedro Augusto Guglielmi
|Born||João Baptista da Silva Leitão de Almeida Garrett|
4 February 1799
Porto, Kingdom of Portugal
|Died||9 December 1854 55) (aged|
Lisbon, Kingdom of Portugal
|Occupation||Poet, playwright, novelist, politician, journalist|
|Notable works||Viagens na Minha Terra , Camões, Frei Luís de Sousa|
| Minister and Secretary of State|
of Foreign Affairs
4 March 1852 –17 August 1852
|Prime Minister||The Duke of Saldanha|
|Preceded by||António Jervis de Atouguia|
|Succeeded by||António Jervis de Atouguia|
|Chief Chronicler of the Kingdom of Portugal|
20 December 1838 –16 July 1841
|Prime Minister||The Viscount of Sá da Bandeira|
|Preceded by||João Bernardo da Rocha Loureiro|
|Succeeded by||The Viscount of Santarém|
(as Guardian of the Royal Archives)
|Inspector-General of the National Theatres and Shows|
22 November 1836 –16 July 1841
|Prime Minister||The Viscount of Sá da Bandeira|
|Preceded by||Position established|
|Succeeded by||Joaquim Larcher|
João Baptista da Silva Leitão de Almeida Garrett, 1st Viscount of Almeida Garrett (Portuguese pronunciation: [aɫˈmɐjdɐ ɡɐˈʁɛt(ɨ)] ; 4 February 1799 – 9 December 1854) was a Portuguese poet, orator, playwright, novelist, journalist, politician, and a peer of the realm. A major promoter of theater in Portugal he is considered the greatest figure of Portuguese Romanticism and a true revolutionary and humanist. He proposed the construction of the D. Maria II National Theatre and the creation of the Conservatory of Dramatic Art.
Portuguese people are a Romance ethnic group indigenous to Portugal that share a common Portuguese culture and speak Portuguese. Their predominant religion is Christianity, mainly Roman Catholicism, though vast segments of the population, especially the younger generations, have no religious affiliation. Historically, the Portuguese people's heritage largely includes the pre-Celts and Celts, who became culturally Romanized during the conquest of the region by the ancient Romans. A number of Portuguese also can trace descent from Germanic tribes who arrived after the Roman period as ruling elites, including the Suebi and Visigoths in northern Portugal and central Portugal. Finally, also limited converted Jewish and Berbers as a result of the Moorish occupation of the Iberian Peninsula, especially in the Algarve region of southern Portugal.
A poet is a person who creates poetry. Poets may describe themselves as such or be described as such by others. A poet may simply be a writer of poetry, or may perform their art to an audience.
An orator, or oratist, is a public speaker, especially one who is eloquent or skilled.
Garrett was born in Porto, the son of António Bernardo da Silva Garrett (1739–1834), a fidalgo of the Royal Household and knight of the Order of Christ, and his wife (they were married in 1796) Ana Augusta de Almeida Leitão (b. Porto, c. 1770), the daughter of an Irish father born in exile in France and an Italian mother born in Spain. At an early age, around 4 or 5 years old, Garrett changed his name to João Baptista da Silva Leitão, adding a name from his godfather and altering the order of his surnames.
Porto, also known as Oporto in some languages, is the second-largest city in Portugal, one of the Iberian Peninsula's major urban areas, famous for Port wine and football team FC Porto. Porto city has a population of 287,591 and a metropolitan area with 2.3 million people (2011) in an area of 2,395 km2 (925 sq mi), making it the second-largest urban area in Portugal. It is recognized as a gamma-level global city by the Globalization and World Cities (GaWC) Study Group, the only Portuguese city besides Lisbon to be recognised as a global city.
Fidalgo, from Galician fillo de algo and Portuguese filho de algo—equivalent to nobleman, but sometimes literally translated into English as "son of somebody" or "son of some "—is a traditional title of Portuguese nobility that refers to a member of the titled or untitled nobility. A fidalgo is comparable in some ways to the French gentilhomme and to the Italian nobile. The title was abolished after the overthrow of the Monarchy in 1910. It is also a family surname.
A knight is a man granted an honorary title of knighthood by a monarch, bishop or other political or religious leader for service to the monarch or a Christian church, especially in a military capacity.
In 1809, his family fled the second French invasion carried out by Soult's troops, seeking refuge in Angra do Heroísmo, Terceira Island, Azores. While in the Azores, he was taught by his uncle, Dom Frei Alexandre da Sagrada Família (Faial, Horta, 22 May 1737 – Terceira, Angra do Heroísmo, 22 April 1818), also a freemason, then the 25th Bishop of Angra (1816–1818) and former Bishop of Malacca and Timor; his two other uncles were Manuel Inácio da Silva Garrett, Archdeacon of Angra, and Inácio da Silva Garrett, also a clergyman of Angra. In childhood, his mulatto Brazilian nanny Rosa de Lima taught him some traditional stories that later influenced his work.
The Peninsular War (1807–1814) was a military conflict between Napoleon's empire and Bourbon Spain, for control of the Iberian Peninsula during the Napoleonic Wars. The war began when the French and Spanish armies invaded and occupied Portugal in 1807, and escalated in 1808 when France turned on Spain, previously its ally. The war on the peninsula lasted until the Sixth Coalition defeated Napoleon in 1814, and is regarded as one of the first wars of national liberation, significant for the emergence of large-scale guerrilla warfare.
Angra do Heroísmo, or simply Angra, is a city and municipality on Terceira Island, Portugal, and one of the three capital cities of the Azores. Founded in 1478, Angra was historically the most important city in the Azores, as seat of the Bishop of the Azores, government entities, and having previously served as the capital city of Portugal, during the Liberal Wars. The population in 2011 was 35,402, in an area of 239.00 km². It was classified as a World Heritage site by UNESCO in 1983.
Terceira is a volcanic island in the Azores archipelago, in the middle of the North Atlantic Ocean. It is one of the larger islands of the archipelago, with a population of 56,000 inhabitants in an area of approximately 396.75 square kilometres. It is the location of the Azores' oldest city, Angra do Heroísmo, the historical capital of the archipelago and UNESCO World Heritage Site; the seat of the judicial system ; and the main base of the Azores Air Zone Command, Base Aérea nº 4, and a United States Air Force detachment.
In 1818, he moved to Coimbra to study at the University law school. In 1818, he published O Retrato de Vénus , a work for which was soon to be prosecuted, as it was considered "materialist, atheist, and immoral"; it was during this period that he adopted and added his pen name de Almeida Garrett, who was seen as more aristocratic.
Coimbra is a city and a municipality in Portugal. The population at the 2011 census was 143,397, in an area of 319.40 square kilometres (123.3 sq mi). The fourth-largest urban centre in Portugal, it is the largest city of the district of Coimbra and the Centro Region. About 460,000 people live in the Região de Coimbra, comprising 19 municipalities and extending into an area of 4,336 square kilometres (1,674 sq mi).
The University of Coimbra is a Portuguese public university in Coimbra, Portugal. Established in 1290 in Lisbon, it went through a number of relocations until it was moved permanently to its current city in 1537, being one of the oldest universities in continuous operation in the world, the oldest university of Portugal, and one of the country's largest museums of higher education and research institutions.
A pen name is a pseudonym adopted by an author and printed on the title page or by-line of their works in place of their real name. A pen name may be used to make the author's name more distinctive, to disguise the author's gender, to distance the author from their other works, to protect the author from retribution for their writings, to combine more than one author into a single author, or for any of a number of reasons related to the marketing or aesthetic presentation of the work. The author's name may be known only to the publisher or may come to be common knowledge.
Although he did not take active part in the Liberal Revolution that broke out in Porto in 1820, he contributed with two patriotic verses, the Hymno Constitucional and the Hymno Patriótico, which his friends copied and distributed in the streets of Porto. After the "Vilafrancada", a reactionary coup d'état led by the Infante Dom Miguel in 1823, he was forced to seek exile in England. He had just married the beautiful Luísa Cândida Midosi who was only 12 or 13 years old at the time and was the sister of his friend Luís Frederico Midosi, later married to Maria Teresa Achemon, both related to theatre and children of José Midosi (son of an Italian father and an Irish mother) and wife Ana Cândida de Ataíde Lobo. While in England, in Edgbaston, Warwickshire, he began his association with Romanticism, being subject to the first-hand influences of William Shakespeare and Walter Scott, as well as to that of Gothic aesthetics. In the beginning of 1825, Garrett left for France where he wrote Camões (1825) and Dona Branca (1826), poems that are usually considered the first Romantic works in Portuguese literature. In 1826, he returned to Portugal, where he settled for two years and founded the newspapers O Portuguez and O Chronista. In 1828, under the rule of King Miguel of Portugal, he was again forced to settle in England, publishing Adozinda and performing his tragedy Catão at the Theatre Royal in Plymouth.
The Liberal Revolution of 1820 was a Portuguese political revolution that erupted in 1820. It began with a military insurrection in the city of Porto, in northern Portugal, that quickly and peacefully spread to the rest of the country. The Revolution resulted in the return in 1821 of the Portuguese Court to Portugal from Brazil, where it had fled during the Peninsular War, and initiated a constitutional period in which the 1822 Constitution was ratified and implemented. The movement's liberal ideas had an important influence on Portuguese society and political organization in the nineteenth century.
Vilafrancada was the name of an uprising led by prince Miguel I of Portugal in Vila Franca de Xira on 27 May 1823.
A coup d'état, also known as a putsch (German:), a golpe de estado (Spanish/Portuguese), or simply as a coup, means the overthrow of an existing government; typically, this refers to an illegal, unconstitutional seizure of power by a dictator, the military, or a political faction.
Together with Alexandre Herculano and Joaquim António de Aguiar, he took part in the Landing of Mindelo, carried out during the Liberal Wars. When a constitutional monarchy was established, he briefly served as its Consul General to Brussels; upon his return, he was acclaimed as one of the major orators of Liberalism, and took initiative in the creation of a new Portuguese theatre (during the period, he wrote his historical plays Gil Vicente, D. Filipa de Vilhena, and O Alfageme de Santarém).
Alexandre Herculano de Carvalho e Araújo was a Portuguese novelist and historian.
Joaquim António de Aguiar was a Portuguese politician. He held several relevant political posts during the Portuguese constitutional monarchy, namely as leader of the Cartists and later of the Partido Regenerador. He was three times prime minister of Portugal: between 1841 and 1842, in 1860 and finally from 1865 to 1868, when he entered a coalition with the Partido Progressista, in what became known as the Governo de Fusão.
The Liberal Wars, also known as the Portuguese Civil War, the War of the Two Brothers or Miguelite War, was a war between liberal constitutionalists and conservative absolutists in Portugal over royal succession that lasted from 1828 to 1834. Embroiled parties included the Kingdom of Portugal, Portuguese rebels, the United Kingdom, France, the Catholic Church, and Spain.
In 1843, Garrett published Romanceiro e Cancioneiro Geral, a collection of folklore; two years later, he wrote the first volume of his historical novel O Arco de Santana (fully published in 1850, it took inspiration from Victor Hugo's The Hunchback of Notre Dame ). O Arco de Santana signified a change in Garrett's style, leading to a more complex and subjective prose with which he experimented at length in Viagens na Minha Terra (Travels in My Homeland, 1846). His innovative manner was also felt in his poem collections Flores sem Fruto (Flowers without Fruit, 1844) and Folhas Caídas (Fallen Leaves) 1853).
Nobled by Dona Maria II of Portugal in 1852 with the title of 1st Viscount of Almeida Garrett, he was Minister of Foreign Affairs for only a few days in the same year (in the cabinet of the Duke of Saldanha).
Almeida Garrett ended his relationship with Luísa Midosi and divorced in 1835 (who later remarried Alexandre Desiré Létrillard) to join 17-year-old Adelaide Deville Pastor in 1836 – she was to remain his partner until her early death in 1839, leaving a daughter named Maria Adelaide, whose early life tragedy and illegitimacy inspired her father to write the play Frei Luís de Sousa .
Later in his life he became the lover of Rosa de Montúfar y Infante, a Spanish noblewoman daughter of the 3rd Marques de Selva Alegre, wife of Joaquim António Velez Barreiros, 1st Baron and 1st Viscount de Nossa Senhora da Luz and twice (277th and 286th) Commander of the Order of the Immaculate Conception of Vila Viçosa, and Minister and Governor of Cape Verde, whom he celebrated at his last and probably best poetry book Folhas Caídas.
Garrett died of cancer in Lisbon at 6:30 in the afternoon of 9 December 1854. He was buried at the Cemetery of Prazeres and, on 3 May 1903, his remains were transferred to the national pantheon in the Jerónimos Monastery, where they rest near to those of Alexandre Herculano and Luís Vaz de Camões.
Despite the wish that it went to his natural daughter, one of the reasons why he accepted it, his title passed on to the descendants of his brother Alexandre José da Silva de Almeida Garrett (7 August 1797 – 24 October 1847), fidalgo of the Royal Household, who was a partisan of King Miguel I of Portugal for all his life, and wife (m. 16 June 1822) Angélica Isabel Cardoso Guimarães (2 February 1803 –). He also had a sister Maria Amália de Almeida Garrett, who married in the Azores where they were then living with Francisco de Meneses de Lemos e Carvalho (Terceira, Angra do Heroísmo, 20 September 1786 –) and had female issue.
Honour: Portugal issued a set of 4 postage stamps in honor of Joao Baptista da Silva Leitao de Almeida Garrett on 7 March 1957.
Portuguese literature is, generally speaking, literature written in the Portuguese language, particularly by citizens of Portugal; it may also refer to literature written by people living in Portugal, Brazil, Angola and Mozambique, as well as other Portuguese-speaking countries. An early example of Portuguese literature is the tradition of a medieval Galician-Portuguese poetry, originally developed in Galicia and northern Portugal. The literature of Portugal is distinguished by a wealth and variety of lyric poetry, which has characterized it from the beginning of its language, after the Roman occupation; by its wealth of historical writing documenting Portugal’s rulers, conquests, and expansion; by the then considered Golden Age of the Renaissance period of which it forms part the moral and allegorical Renaissance drama of Gil Vicente, Bernardim Ribeiro, Sá de Miranda and especially the great 16th-century national epic of Luís de Camões, author of national and epic poem Os Lusíadas.
Casimiro José Marques de Abreu was a Brazilian poet, novelist and playwright, adept of the "Ultra-Romanticism" movement. He is famous for the poem "Meus oito anos".
The Fortress of São João Baptista, also known as the Fort of São Filipe or Fort of Monte Brasil is a historic fortress and defensive emplacement, located in the civil parish of Sé, municipality of Angra do Heroísmo in the Portuguese island of Terceira, archipelago of the Azores.
The Roman Catholic diocese of Angra is a Roman Catholic diocese comprising the Portuguese archipelago of the Azores. The see is located in Angra do Heroísmo, in the Terceira island. The current bishop is João Lavrador, who succeeded António de Sousa Braga in 2016.
The Castle of Moinhos, officially known as the Castle of São Cristóvão, or Castle/Fort of São Luís is the name of the ruins of 16th-century fortification in city of Angra, on the Portuguese island of Terceira in the archipelago of the Azores. It is primarily known as the Castle of Moinhos, owing to the popular name given to the site for the number of mills that dotted the hilltop, on which the castle was erected.
Father José António Camões was a Portuguese Catholic priest, poet and historian. He wrote several works of satire, including his heroic satire O Testamento de D. Burro, Pai dos Asnos.
The Fort of Negrito is a 16th century maritime fort situated in the civil parish of São Mateus da Calheta, in the municipality of Angra do Heroísmo on the island of Terceira, Azores, Portugal.
Fortress of São Mateus da Calheta is a fort in the civil parish of São Mateus da Calheta, in the municipality of Angra do Heroísmo, island of Terceira, in the Portuguese archipelago of the Azores.
The Fort of Má Ferramenta, near the port of the civil parish of São Mateus da Calheta, municipality of Angra do Heroísmo, along the southern coast of the Portuguese island of Terceira, in the archipelago of the Azores. Located in a dominant position over this coastal stretch of coast that sheltered anchored ships, it was a fortification used as a defence against attacks from pirates and corsairs, that frequented the waters of the mid-Atlantic.
Fort of São João, also known as Fort of Biscoitinho, is a medieval fort, in the civil parish of São Mateus da Calheta, in the municipality of Angra do Heroísmo, on the Portuguese archipelago of the Azores.
The Fort of Cinco Ribeiras, also known as the Fort of Nossa Senhora do Pilar or Fort of São Bartolomeu, ruins of a 16th-century fortification located in the municipality of Angra do Heroísmo, along the southeast coast of Terceira, Portuguese archipelago of the Azores.
Fort of the Cavalas is a fort situated in the civil parish of São Sebastião in the municipality of Angra do Heroísmo, in the Portuguese archipelago of the Azores.
Manuel António Lino was a physician, politician, poet and dramatist, who became Civil Governor of the District of Horta, Portugal in 1906.
Diogo de Barcelos Machado Bettencourt was a politician and judicial magistrate, as well as judge for several districts in the Azores, as well as Civil Governor of Horta.
The Fort of the Church São Mateus da Calheta, also referred to as the Forte da Igreja, are the coastal ruins of a 16th-century fort situated in the civil parishof São Mateus da Calheta, municipality of Angra do Heroísmo, on the Portuguese island of Terceira, in the archipelago of the Azores. It was destroyed, along with the church, in 1893 during a cyclone; while the church was eventually reconstructed some years later, the fort was abandoned and left to ruin.
João de Bettencourt de Vasconcelos was an aristocrat, who served as Captain-major of Angra, involved in the acclamation of John of Braganza, as King John IV of Portugal in the islands of the central group of the Azores, and in the expulsion of Spanish forces from the island of Terceira.
Santa Cruz is a parish in the municipality of Praia da Vitória on the island of Terceira in the Portuguese Azores. The population in 2011 was 6,690, in an area of 30.09 km². It contains the localities Santa Luzia, Santa Rita, Juncal, Casa da Ribeira and Santa Cruz.
Alexandre da Sagrada Família, born Alexandre José da Silva, was the 25th Bishop of Angra, governing between 1816 until his death in 1818. The first Bishop born in the Azores, known as a poet, he was the paternal uncle of Almeida Garrett, and stayed with his parents when he visited Terceira.
The Fort of Greta is a fort along the promontory of Santa Catarina, on the western edge of the Bay of Mós, in the civil parish of Vila de São Sebastião, in the municipality of Angra do Heroísmo, on the Portuguese archipelago of the Azores.