University of Coimbra

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University of Coimbra
Universidade de Coimbra
Logo of the University of Coimbra, Portugal.png
University of Coimbra seal
Latin: Universitas Conimbrigensis
Type Public university
Established1290;731 years ago (1290)
Rector Amílcar Falcão
Academic staff
1,482 [1]
Administrative staff
1,359 [1]
Students23,386 (2013) [1]
Undergraduates 9,589 [1]
Postgraduates 13,363 [1]
2,323 [1]
Location,
40°12′27″N8°25′35″W / 40.2074°N 8.4265°W / 40.2074; -8.4265 Coordinates: 40°12′27″N8°25′35″W / 40.2074°N 8.4265°W / 40.2074; -8.4265
Campus Urban/College Town
Students' union Associação Académica de Coimbra (AAC)
Colours   forest green (University)

  yellow (Medicine)

  red (Law)

   sky blue and white (Sciences and Technology)

  royal blue (Humanities)

  purple (Pharmacy)

   red and white (Economics)

  orange (Psychology)

  brown (Sports Sciences)

   black and white (Students' union)
Affiliations EUA
Coimbra Group
Utrecht Network
Sports25 varsity teams
Website uc.pt
Official nameUniversity of Coimbra – Alta and Sofia
TypeCultural
Criteriaii, iv, vi
Designated 2013 (37th session)
Reference no. 1387
Region Europe and North America

The University of Coimbra (UC; Portuguese : Universidade de Coimbra, pronounced  [univɨɾsiˈðad(ɨ) dɨ kuˈĩbɾɐ] ) is a Portuguese public university in Coimbra, Portugal. First established in Lisbon in 1290, it went through a number of relocations until moving permanently to Coimbra in 1537. The university is among the oldest universities in continuous operation in the world, the oldest in Portugal, and played a influential role in the development of higher education in the Portuguese-speaking world. [2] In 2013, UNESCO declared the university a World Heritage Site, noting its architecture, unique culture and traditions, and historical role. [2]

Contents

The contemporary university is organized into eight faculties, granting bachelor's (licenciado), master's (mestre) and doctorate (doutor) degrees in nearly all major fields. It lends its name to the Coimbra Group of European research universities founded in 1985, of which it was a founding member. Enrolling over 20,000 students, more than 15% of whom are international, it is one of Portugal's most cosmopolitan universities. [3] [4]

Coimbra's alumni over the centuries include Portugal's national poet Luís de Camões, the mathematician Pedro Nunes, many statemen, prime ministers and presidents of Portugal, and Nobel Prize laureate António Egaz Moniz.

History

King Denis I of Portugal ratified the Studium Generale in Portugal in 1290. Dinis-P.jpg
King Denis I of Portugal ratified the Studium Generale in Portugal in 1290.
Statue of King Denis, in Coimbra DinisI-UniCoimbra.jpg
Statue of King Denis, in Coimbra

The university was founded, or ratified, in 1290 by King Dinis, having begun its existence in Lisbon with the name Studium Generale (Estudo Geral). [5] Scientiae thesaurus mirabilis, the royal charter announcing the institution of the University was dated 1 March of that year, although efforts had been made at least since 1288 to create this first University in Portugal; it is thus the second oldest of such establishments in the Iberian Peninsula. The Papal confirmation was also given in 1290 (on 9 August of that year), during the Papacy of the Pope Nicholas IV. In accordance with the Papal Bull, all the "licit" Faculties, with the exception of that of Theology, could be established. Thus the Faculties of Arts, Law, Canon Law and Medicine were the first to be created. It was, however, not to remain in Lisbon for long. In 1308, likely due to problems of emancipation from the Church (relations between the latter and the political power being somewhat strained at the time) and conflicts between the inhabitants of the city and the students, the University moved to Coimbra. This town already had old traditions in education, being home to the highly successful school of the Monastery of Santa Cruz. The university was then established on the site known as "Estudos Velhos", which corresponds roughly to the area where the Main Library now stands.

In 1338, during the reign of Afonso IV, it was once again transferred to Lisbon, from whence it returned in 1354, this time to the centre of the town which was then in full expansion. In 1377, during the reign of King Fernando, it was transferred yet again to Lisbon, where it would remain for over a century and a half. The authorization for a Faculty of Theology probably dates from this period – around 1380. In 1537, during the reign of João III, the university moved definitively to Coimbra, where it was installed in the Alcaçova Palace which was subsequently purchased from the Royal Family in 1597. [6]

The university institution, including all the books from its library, were moved from Lisbon to Coimbra. Teachers were not guaranteed a position at the new location and many did not move; in fact, most of the new faculty were previously with the University of Salamanca. For the most part, the curriculum was retained. [7]

At the same time, university colleges were created (abolished in the 19th century), a restructuring of the curricula was undertaken and new teachers, both Portuguese and foreign, were admitted.

King John III of Portugal made Coimbra the definite home of the university. Joao iii REI.jpg
King John III of Portugal made Coimbra the definite home of the university.

In the 18th century, the Marquis of Pombal, Minister of the kingdom, made radical reforms in the University, especially regarding the teaching of sciences, in accordance to his Enlightenment and anticlerical creed. During many decades it was the only university in Portugal, since its foundation in 1290 until 1559 (a university in Évora operated between 1559 and 1759), and again between 1759 and 1911 (University of Lisbon and University of Porto were created in 1911). The long history and past predominance of the University of Coimbra made it an important focus of influence in Portugal, not only educational, but also political and social.

Initial steps towards some convergence of European higher education systems were taken with the signature of the Sorbonne declaration by the Ministers in charge of higher education in France, Italy, the United Kingdom and Germany, in 1998, and later, in 1999, with the signature of the Bologna declaration. The Bologna process, aimed at creating a European Higher Education Area by implementing a comparable degree structure, common quality assurance standards and by promoting the mobility of students and faculty members, was a major revolution in Europe's higher education. Globalization, technological change and increased international competition for scarce high-skilled labor highlighted the importance of making European higher education institutions attractive and competitive worldwide. A more integrated European Higher Education Market enhanced competition between European universities—a necessary condition for producing leading-edge innovations and for catching up with the US economy. In Portugal, the University of Coimbra decided to defer the adoption of the new Bologna Process model from 2006 to 2007/2008 (with exceptions authorized for a few programs on which a national consensus for change had been reached among institutions) in order to make the transition maintaining the highest standards of quality and academic integrity. Only in the 2008/2009 school year did the entire university fully adopt the new programs within its 8 faculties.

Organisation

Some of the University buildings, September 2019 Some of the University of Coimbra buildings, September 2019.jpg
Some of the University buildings, September 2019

Its governance is assured by the Rector, the Senate and the University Assembly, the last responsible for the election of the Rector and the Senate. The Rector has the main responsibility for the strategic direction and the overall administration of the university, together with the Senate and assisted by the Administrative Council.

The university is divided into eight different faculties (Letters, Law, Medicine, Sciences & Technology, Pharmacy, Economics, Psychology & Education Sciences and Sports Sciences & Physical Education), comprising about 25,000 students. The Faculty of Sciences and Technology (FCTUC) is the largest by number of professors and students, awards the highest number of academic degrees, and manages more classrooms and research units than any other in the UC. Both the National Legal Medicine Institute, an organization under direct supervision of the Portuguese Ministry of the Justice, which provides forensic science services to the police forces and government agencies of Portugal, and the University of Coimbra's teaching hospital, HUC ( Hospitais da Universidade de Coimbra ), a university hospital known as a centre of research with a broad range of clinical services and medical specialties, are managed by the Faculty of Medicine (FMUC).

The Joanine Library. Coimbra November 2012-7.jpg
The Joanine Library.

The university harbours a huge central library (University of Coimbra General Library), botanical gardens (Botanical Garden of the University of Coimbra), stadiums and other sports facilities ( Estádio Universitário de Coimbra sports complex and Campo de Santa Cruz stadium), an astronomical observatory, a publishing house, a private chapel (São Miguel Chapel), a theatre (Teatro Académico de Gil Vicente), and many support facilities such as dining halls and studying rooms. In addition, the university manages several museums and other cultural organizations, including a science museum (Science Museum of the University of Coimbra), a museum of sacred art (Sacred Art Museum of the University of Coimbra), and an academic museum (Academic Museum of the University of Coimbra).

A mosaic of the University's seal in front of the main gate. Pacos das Escolas - Mosaico.jpg
A mosaic of the University's seal in front of the main gate.

The university has five main campuses or other sites:

Students

The students' union of the university logo Associacao Academica de Coimbra logo.svg
The students' union of the university logo
Coimbra University, students in robes, for the first week of classes (2019) Coimbra University robes burian 5588.jpg
Coimbra University, students in robes, for the first week of classes (2019)

Students are represented by the students' union Associação Académica de Coimbra (AAC). Formed on 3 November 1887, it is the oldest university students' union in Portugal, with a long history of struggle against unpopular state policies, forming notable politicians and intellectuals along the way. It also harbours a very dynamic associative life, with its numerous sports and cultural sections, as well as a number of other autonomous organizations. It is an important structure of extracurricular formation of the University of Coimbra's students and a major institution of the city itself. The AAC develops activities such as theatre, cinema, radio and television broadcast, music, choral singing, journalism or philately, as well as rowing, athletics and many other sports. Every student, and occasionally some non-students, are entitled to belong to these sections.

Culture, sports and traditions

The university's academic traditions and institutions color the life of the city. The old "Republics" (autonomous students' residences) remain, as well as some traditional festivities, most notably the "Queima das Fitas" (a celebration of graduation's end, symbolized by the burning of the ribbons with the colors of each of the eight faculties), the "Festa das Latas" (a homecoming), the frequent use of traditional attire, the "Fado de Coimbra" (Coimbra's fado, now sung in organized shows rather than the traditional street serenades), and the academic ceremonies (namely the conferring of doctorate degrees).

The University's Queima das Fitas Parade. Coimbra Queima das Fitas.jpg
The University's Queima das Fitas Parade.

The official colors of the Faculties of the University of Coimbra are:

These colors are used in the institutional seal and other symbols of each faculty, in the university ceremonies conferring doctorate degrees, and are also used by the students in their ribbons related with the academic traditions (see Queima das Fitas (The Burning of the Ribbons)). The color of the university seal and of the Rector's office, representing the entire institution as a whole, is dark green. The flag of the University of Coimbra (white flag with the dark green seal in the middle) is always erected, over the top of the old university tower, on 1 March, which is the day of the university, being an occasion for a week of debates, conferences, workshops, and special events related with multiple aspects of the institution.

The University's Sao Miguel Chapel. Coimbra university church.jpg
The University's São Miguel Chapel.

The Praxe is a body of ritual and custom founded upon ancient traditions and it is a controversial part of Coimbra's academic life to which no university student is indifferent. Part of the attraction of Coimbra's academic life, aside from its recognized excellence is that it is more Praxe, having unique rituals that set it apart from other institutions and give its students a special sense of participation in academic rituals that developed hundreds of years ago. Though these rituals are seen as crude and violent by some, they remain an important reference in the academic experience of the students for others. The rules of the Praxe are contained in a book (The Code of Academic Praxe, by a committee of older students of the AAC – Associação Académica de Coimbra), which prescribes appropriate student behavior for activities like drafting, evaluation, groups or bands and the Burning of the Ribbons rituals. Even inside the AAC, Coimbra's student organisation, there are anti-Praxe groups and people who advocate for more thorough reforms in traditional rituals. The Freshman (1st yr.) period (the lowest category in the Praxe hierarchy) is, for many students, a time of good and lasting memories of never to be repeated events. One of the most visible and distinctive traditions is the use of the academic costume of the University of Coimbra, a black suit and cape worn on special occasions by the students, which was adopted by other Portuguese universities and is actually used by students of almost all higher education institutions in the city and across the country.

Praxis almost disappeared in the years after the 25 de Abril revolution of 1974. Timidly it was reinstated in the 1980s. However the significance of the traditional academic attire changed substantially. In earlier centuries it was common practice for a student to wear if for the length of his studies. Students occasionally slept in it when consumption of wine frustrated their efforts to reach home. The cape would get to the end of studies, heavily cut by friends and particularly with a deep cut for each girlfriend. Today the academic attire is a ceremonial dress to use in formal students ceremonial. It is also somewhat expensive, and not the practical dress of time past.

A student who had been enrolled more than the years of his course was a "veteran". In the past, when University enrollment was a matter of social class, some students would accumulate quite a number of enrollments. The individual who had the most was Dux Veteranorum, a notable figure in the student scene at the University. In the middle 1980s for instance, the Dux Veteranorum had more than 20 enrollments in Law School but had graduated in only 2 or 3 courses. This tradition is disappearing as the University is putting constraints in the number of years a student can enroll. Most student costs are supported with public money and it is no longer found acceptable that some individuals burden finances to extend their stays without graduating. However, with the increasing tuition fees a student has to pay to attend the university and the attraction of new types of mature students (almost always as part-time or evening class students) like employees, businessmen, parents, and pensioners, many departments make a substantial profit from every additional student enrolled in courses, with benefits for the university's gross tuition revenue and without loss of educational quality (teacher per student, computer per student, classroom size per student, etc.).

The University's Palace Gate. Pacos da Universidade ou Pacos das Escolas - Porta Ferrea.jpg
The University's Palace Gate.

The sports sections of the AAC play a significant role in Coimbra's sport life, often being the city's main representative in that area. They include rugby, handball, basketball, baseball, martial arts, athletics, gymnastic or swimming, among others. Just as with the cultural sections, every student, including professional or semi-professional athletes, may belong to them.

The city's main football club, usually known as "Académica" or "Briosa", is in formal terms an autonomous organism of the AAC and is called AAC-OAF, but in practical terms it is an independent club, only loosely connected to its mother institution. It is a relatively important team, especially as regards to its huge number of followers nationwide, and plays in the top Portuguese football leagues, having been the first winner in history of the Portuguese Football Cup, in 1939.

Recepção ao Caloiro

In Portugal, the homecoming is known as Recepção ao Caloiro (The Freshman's Reception). It includes numerous events and traditions born in the 19th century in the University of Coimbra. It is defined as a welcome to the new students, the freshmen (caloiros), and takes place at the beginning of the academic year in Portuguese university towns. In every classic public university of Portugal the homecoming is celebrated yearly. The events are followed in varying degrees by other less traditional or smaller institutions. A street parade of students, concerts, and sports events are always organized for the freshmen's reception. The street parade organized in several major Portuguese universities is known as Latada, and its name comes from the tradition of tying tin cans to the freshmen's legs (the word lata is tin can in Portuguese). [8]

History

"The Freshman's Reception" (Recepção ao Caloiro, the Portuguese name for university homecoming) goes back to the 19th century when the law students of the University of Coimbra felt the need to express their joy at finishing the school year in as loud a way as possible, using everything at their disposal that would make noise, namely tin cans, which is the original root of "The Tin Can Parade". [8]

Coimbra

The University's Grand Examination Room. Universitat de Coimbra - Sala d'actes.JPG
The University's Grand Examination Room.

In Coimbra, where the oldest Portuguese university was founded in the Middle Ages, the Recepção ao Caloiro (The Freshman's Reception) week, includes the Festa das Latas (The Tin Can Festival). The Tin Can Festival's name comes from the tradition of tying tin cans to the freshmen's legs for the parade (The Tin Can Parade) which is known as Latada. The events are organized by the students' union of the University of Coimbra, the Associação Académica de Coimbra, and takes place during the fall. It is an important part of the praxe académica (student praxis) in Coimbra, followed by the city population as an ancient cultural manifestation and local tradition, and has become a tourist attraction for a number of visitors every year.

Events
A statue of King Joao III, who based the University permanently in Coimbra. Coimbra November 2012-2.jpg
A statue of King João III, who based the University permanently in Coimbra.

The highlight of this homecoming, which now takes place at the beginning of the academic year (October/November) is the special parade known as the Latada. After marching through the streets of the city the new students are baptized in the Mondego River thus entering into the Coimbra academic fraternity. The second-year students are awarded their Grelos (a small ribbon). The Grelo is a small, woollen ribbon with the color(s) of the student's faculty, that is attached to a student's briefcase. Before this, the students must have visited the Dom Pedro V market during the morning, where they must get a turnip to sustain the Caloiros during the day's festivities. Besides the tin cans they have tied to their legs, the new students wear all kinds of costumes made up according to the creativity and imagination of their godmothers or godfathers, who are older students. They also carry placards with ironic criticisms alluding to certain teachers, the educational system, national events and leaders. The homecoming includes the "Tin Can Festival" week, with concerts and several other cultural events and sports activities beyond the parade, which always happens on a Tuesday. These include the historical night-time student fado serenade which happens in the stairs of the Old Cathedral of Coimbra to a crowd of thousands of students and other spectators, every year during the celebrations. [8]

Queima das Fitas

One of the main squares Coimbra University.jpg
One of the main squares

Coimbra's Queima das Fitas (Burning of the Ribbons), the oldest and most famous in the country, is organized by a students' commission formed by members of the students' union of the University of Coimbra, the Associação Académica de Coimbra. Celebrating the end of graduation courses, symbolized by the ritual burning of the ribbons representing each faculty, it takes place at the second semester (first weekend of May), being among the biggest student festivities in Europe. It lasts for 8 days, one for each Faculty: Letters, Law, Medicine, Sciences & Technology, Pharmacy, Economics, Psychology & Education Sciences and Sports Sciences & Physical Education. During this period, a series of concerts and performances are held, turning Coimbra in a lively and vibrant city.

Students Lore

Stories passed along over generations of students, the University folklore is plentiful. One student usually asked his father for money, stating "Rent 20, Food 30". One day he asked "Rent 20, Food 30, Hammering 20, Fixing of the hammer and medication 40." Another student had oral examinations at Law School. Unresponsive to the simplest of questions, the professor already impatient, turned to the bailiff and asked "Bring in a stack of hay" to which the student very quickly added "And I'll have a glass of water please."

The University's Joanine Library, founded in 1717 CoimbraUniLibrary-CCSA.jpg
The University's Joanine Library, founded in 1717

The years of dictatorship were gruesome. Apart from the students that got 7 years in prison for toasting to freedom which led directly to the foundation of Amnesty International in 1961, in 1968 students would spend the whole night greasing streets and sidewalks with soap so the mounted police would have a hard time chasing them down to break a demonstration. It is said that a student dared a policeman to get his shoes and feet wet chasing after a cigarette lighter, thrown in the duck pond, while he had the license for it in his pocket. In those days one needed a permit to own a cigarette lighter, as imposed by Salazar to protect the matches industry.

Other items are plain local knowledge:

Freshmen on first day of classes may have rough stuff to go through. In the escalator of the Mathematics Department it is common to see them buying season tickets to take the ride all year round, and at least once, as urban myth has it, a poster announcing "Flight Insurance For This Elevator, At Sale in The Lobby", was inquired about by the newcomers.

Business incubator and science park

The Instituto Pedro Nunes (IPN), founded by the University of Coimbra, is a business incubator and an innovation and technology transfer center of the university, working for the business and applied research communities. The Coimbra iParque is a science park which has among its several founders and associates the University of Coimbra. Notable startup companies born from the University of Coimbra include ISA, Critical Software, Crioestaminal, Ciberbit and Feedzai .

Academics

Reputation

University rankings
Global – Overall
ARWU World [9] 501–600 (2019)
CWTS World [10] 386 (2019)
QS World [11] 406 (2020)
THE World [12] 601–800 (2020)
USNWR Global [13] 412 (2020)

University of Coimbra's reputation in teaching and research is testified by independent external rankings and reports. According to The Times Higher Education Supplement (2007 QS World University Rankings, by QS – Quacquarelli Symonds), the University of Coimbra is ranked number 3 among the universities in the Portuguese-speaking countries (behind the University of São Paulo and the University of Campinas), and ranked 318 in the overall world rank. It was ranked number one among the universities of the Portuguese-speaking countries in 2006. [14] [15] It is now ranked number one in Portugal, number 3 among the universities in the Portuguese-speaking countries, and number 394 in the world (234 in Natural Sciences, 260 in Engineering & IT, 282 in Social Sciences, 290 in Arts & Humanities, 325 in Life Sciences). [16] In addition, it has students from 70 different nationalities; almost 20% of its students are foreigners, being among Portugal's most international universities. [17]

Allegorical figures of the University. CoimbraUniversity-AllegoricalFigures.jpg
Allegorical figures of the University.

The University of Coimbra is among the major science and technology hubs for applied and fundamental research in Portugal. One of the most powerful supercomputers in Portugal belongs to the University of Coimbra and is managed by the Laboratory for Advanced Computing of the Department of Physics at the University of Coimbra. [18] Built in the mid 2000s, the supercomputer was called Milipeia, using 528 processors and 1000 GB of memory. Its capacity has been expanded since then. The main tasks of the university's supercomputer include modeling and calculus in molecular biology, genetics, particle physics, astrophysics, mathematics, engineering, geophysics, condensed matter physics, etc. Besides University of Coimbra's researchers, other Portuguese scientific community members are allowed to work with Milipeia. [19]

Organisation and length of courses

Courtyard of the old Faculty of Pharmacy UniCoimbra2.jpg
Courtyard of the old Faculty of Pharmacy

School year calendar starts in October and finishes in July. In 2004, it was among the first universities in Portugal limiting the time for degree completion. The degree programmes have a specified minimum and maximum time for completion. The time limit is 6 years from the date of first enrolment for the 4 years degrees, and 8 years from the date of first enrolment for 6 years degrees (i.e. Medicine). After that, students have to pay the entire costs of their courses. The tuition fee for undergraduate degrees was €356/year in 2002/2003. It was increased to €880/year in 2004/2005 and to €901,23/year in 2005/2006, the maximum fee allowed to state universities by law. Even with the time limit and the increased tuition fees, the university has had a high number of applicants every year. Like other universities in Portugal, and unlike the polytechnical institutes and many private universities, the university does not have special classes for workers or night classes. Overcrowded classrooms have been frequent in some disciplines at the Faculties of Science and Technology, Law, and Economics. In those occasions, students may stand during the classes or even stay outside the classroom. These faculties have the highest abandon rate and the biggest average time for degree completion. New buildings, campus expansion and modernized infrastructures since the late 1990s and the 2000s, have solved almost all these problems.

Admission

University's botanical garden Coimbra November 2012-11.jpg
University's botanical garden

Admission is strictly merit-based, and the university has several departments which are known for higher-than-average selectiveness. Numerus clausus is applied to select among competing applicants. To programmes such as medicine, pharmacy, biomedical engineering, and architecture, admission is an extraordinarily difficult process, and demand a minimum grade point average from high school plus the entrance exams, that usually ranges from 170 to 200 (out of 200). Acceptance rates may vary significantly from faculty to faculty or from department to department. Foreign applicants usually make up more than 10 percent of the applicant pool, and are considered individually by the merits achieved in their respective state of origin or through bilateral protocols between the governments of Portugal and foreign governments. There are also a number of other extraordinary admission processes for older people (admission for candidates older than 23 years old), sportsmen, degree owners from other institutions, students from other institutions (academic transfer), former students (readmission), etc., which are subject to specific standards and regulations set by each department or faculty.

Notable alumni and students

Many Portuguese historical figures and renowned personalities noted for their activity in fields ranging from politics to culture to the sciences, attended the University of Coimbra as students or lecturers. The long list of personalities includes Luís Vaz de Camões, considered Portugal's greatest poet, the only Portuguese Nobel Prize in Medicine Egas Moniz, Portuguese dictator António de Oliveira Salazar who was the founder and leader of the regime that presided over the last period of the Portuguese Empire from 1933 to 1974, Aristides de Sousa Mendes, consul-general in Bordeaux, who in June 1940 defied Salazar’s regime to issue tens of thousands of visas to fleeing Jewish and other refugees, subsequently stripped of his position and 12 years after his death recognized by Israel as one of the Righteous Among the Nations, the first diplomat honored, or famous 16th century mathematicians like Pedro Nunes, who is considered one of the greatest Portuguese mathematicians ever, and the German Christopher Clavius, who was the main architect of the modern Gregorian calendar.

List of faculties

The university is organized into 8 faculties and each faculty into departments:

Courtyard of the old Royal Palace turned University Coimbra December 2011-19a.jpg
Courtyard of the old Royal Palace turned University
Courtyard of the old Royal Palace turned University Coimbra December 2011-6b.jpg
Courtyard of the old Royal Palace turned University
View from the top of the bell-tower of the old Royal Palace Panoramic view of Coimbra from highest building.jpg
View from the top of the bell-tower of the old Royal Palace

List of research units

Research and Studies centers of the University of Coimbra include:

In chapter 6 of Voltaire's novella Candide , first published in 1759, the narrator remarks that the University of Coimbra had decided that "the burning of a few people alive by a slow fire, and with great ceremony, is an infallible secret to hinder the earth from quaking."

In the comics series Tintin, Senhor Pedro João Dos Santos is a Portuguese Physicist of the University of Coimbra. He was a member of Decimus Phostle's expedition team to recover samples from a fallen meteorite in the Arctic Ocean, the Aurora Expedition. He is seen only in The Shooting Star, the tenth volume of The Adventures of Tintin. The story was serialised daily in Le Soir, Belgium's leading francophone newspaper, from October 1941 to May 1942.

See also

Notes and references

  1. 1 2 3 4 5 6 "Facts & Figures". uc.pt. Retrieved 7 March 2015.
  2. 1 2 "University of Coimbra – Alta and Sofia". UNESCO World Heritage Centre. UNESCO World Heritage. Retrieved 24 March 2021.
  3. "University of Coimbra". Times Higher Education (THE). 20 January 2021. Retrieved 24 March 2021.
  4. "ShanghaiRanking-Univiersities". www.shanghairanking.com. Retrieved 13 July 2021.
  5. "topuniversities". UNIVERSITY OF COIMBRA. Retrieved 21 August 2013.
  6. https://www.uc.pt/en/informacaopara/visit/paco/greathall, The Royal Palace
  7. Mary Elizabeth Devine; Carol Summerfield (2013). International Dictionary of University Histories. Taylor & Francis. p. 469. ISBN   978-1-134-26217-5.
  8. 1 2 3 (in Portuguese) Festa das Latas Archived 22 February 2010 at the Wayback Machine from "Manual do Caloiro" (The freshman's handbook) of the Associação Académica de Coimbra, website of the IX Congresso Ibérico de Parasitologia (9th Iberian Congress of Parasitology) of the Faculty of Pharmacy of the University of Coimbra
  9. "Academic Ranking of World Universities 2019 – University of Coimbra". ShanghaiRanking. Retrieved 15 December 2019.
  10. "CWTS Leiden Ranking 2019" . Retrieved 2019-15-18.Check date values in: |access-date= (help)
  11. QS World University Rankings 2020 – University of Coimbra|accessdate=2019-12-15
  12. "World University Rankings 2020 – University of Coimbra". Times Higher Education (THE). Retrieved 15 December 2019.
  13. U.S. News Education: Best Global Universities 2020 – University of Coimbra
  14. Information for international students and researchers, University of Coimbra Archived 2 June 2007 at the Wayback Machine
  15. "THES – QS World University Rankings 2007 (www.topuniversities.com)". Archived from the original on 18 April 2009. Retrieved 24 June 2008.
  16. QS World University Rankings 2011/12 Archived 1 October 2011 at the Wayback Machine
  17. "ShanghaiRanking-Univiersities". www.shanghairanking.com. Retrieved 13 July 2021.
  18. Laboratório de Computação Avançada [ permanent dead link ]
  19. (in Portuguese) Coimbra: Super computador «Milipeia» disponível em Dezembro Archived 29 September 2011 at the Wayback Machine , in Diário Digital (24 October 2006)

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Coimbra is a city and a municipality in Portugal. The population of the municipality at the 2011 census was 143,397, in an area of 319.40 square kilometres (123.3 sq mi). The fourth-largest urban centre in Portugal, it is the largest city of the district of Coimbra and the Centro Region. About 460,000 people live in the Região de Coimbra, comprising 19 municipalities and extending into an area of 4,336 square kilometres (1,674 sq mi).

Federal University of Minas Gerais

The Federal University of Minas Gerais is a federal research university located in the state of Minas Gerais. Its main, biggest campus in the city Belo Horizonte, Brazil. It is one of Brazil's five largest and best universities, being the largest federal university. It offers 79 undergraduate education programs, each upon completion of whose curricular schedule can lead the student to be awarded either a Bachelor's degree, a Licenciate degree, or a Professional title, all officialized by the issue of a University Diploma. It also has 90 postgraduate education programs, awarding 30 postbaccalaureate specialization degrees, 92 Master's degrees, and 72 Doctoral degrees, as well as 41 medical residency programs offered at UFMG's hospital facilities complexes. The UFMG has a population of roughly 72 thousand people among 34,482 undergraduate students, 2,247 postbaccalaureate specialization students, 10,556 Master's and Doctoral students, 3,202 professors, and 4,246 administrative employees. Competition to get into undergraduate programs involved 111,718 candidates to 6740 vacancy openings. It is research-oriented, even at the undergraduate level, whose students are encouraged to take part in research development through the Scientific Initiation program. Out of the number of professors, 761 (24%) are CNPq award-recipients due to outstanding research productivity. It encompasses 860 research groups, 1051 patent deposits in Brazil and abroad, and has the highest score at the Ministry of Education's undergraduate assessment.

University of Beira Interior Public university in Covilhã, Portugal

The University of Beira Interior is a public university located in the city of Covilhã, Portugal. It was created in 1979, and has about 6,879 students distributed across a multiplicity of graduation courses, awarding all academic degrees in fields ranging from medicine, biochemistry, biomedical sciences and industrial design to aeronautical engineering, mathematics, economics and philosophy. The university is named after the historical Beira region, meaning Beira Interior the most interior area of Beira, mainly composed by the district of Guarda and the district of Castelo Branco, in today's Centro region.

University of São Paulo Public state university in Brazil

The University of São Paulo is a public university in the Brazilian state of São Paulo. It is the largest Brazilian public university and the country's most prestigious educational institution, the best university in Ibero-America, and holds a high reputation among world universities, being ranked 100 worldwide in reputation by the Times Higher Education World University Rankings. USP is involved in teaching, research and university extension in all areas of knowledge, offering a broad range of courses.

University of Lisbon public research university in Lisbon, Portugal

The University of Lisbon is a public research university in Lisbon, and the largest university in Portugal. It was founded in 2013, from the merger of two previous public universities located in Lisbon, the former University of Lisbon (1911–2013) and the Technical University of Lisbon (1930–2013). The history of a university in Lisbon dates back to the 13th century.

Coimbra Academic Association

The Associação Académica de Coimbra is the students' union of the University of Coimbra (UC). Founded in Coimbra on November 3, 1887, it is the oldest students' union in Portugal. It is also the biggest Portuguese students' union belonging to an independent institution, since it represents all the students of its university, who gain automatic membership into the AAC as students of the University of Coimbra.

Queima das Fitas

The Queima das Fitas is a traditional festivity of the students of some Portuguese universities, organized originally by the students of the University of Coimbra.

Federal University of Rio Grande do Sul

The Federal University of Rio Grande do Sul is a Brazilian public federal research university based in Porto Alegre, Rio Grande do Sul. UFRGS is among the largest and highest-rated universities in Brazil, having one of the largest number of scientific publications. From 2012 to 2019, the university has been elected as the best federal university of Brazil. UFRGS has over 31,000 undergraduate students, over 12,000 graduate students, and more than 2,600 faculty members. As a Brazilian public federal institution, students do not pay tuition fees to enroll in courses offered by the university.

University of Macau Public university in Macau

The University of Macau is the only public research university in Macau. The UM campus is located in the east of Hengqin Island, Guangdong province in Mainland China, on a piece of land leased to the Macau SAR government, but is under the jurisdiction of Macau.

Technical University of Lisbon

The Technical University of Lisbon was a Portuguese public university. It was created in 1930 in Lisbon, as a confederation of preexisting schools, and comprised the faculties and institutes of veterinary medicine; agricultural sciences; economics and business administration; engineering, social and political sciences; architecture; and human kinetics.

São Paulo State University Public university in São Paulo

São Paulo State University is one of the six public universities of the Brazilian state of São Paulo. UNESP is part of the state’s higher education system and the only Brazilian member of the Compostela Group of Universities. It is one of the few Latin American universities to be constantly listed as one of the best universities worldwide.

Praxe

The Portuguese term praxe describes the whole of student traditions in universities or, more often, to the initiation rituals freshmen are subjected to in some Portuguese universities. Praxe is replicated by other higher education institutions across the country. Examples include Queima das Fitas and its parade, the Cortejo da Queima, the Festa das Latas and the Latada, where the freshmen walk throughout the streets with cans on their feet, and the ripping of the traditional academic suit of the students when they finish their first cycle of studies. Its roots go as far back as the 14th century, but it became most known in the 16th, under the name of the "Investidas", in the University of Coimbra, the oldest of its kind in the country. The praxe is meant to initiate the freshmen into the University institution and to encourage the loss of social inhibitions. Tradition, ritual, humor, joy and parody are some of the main ingredients of Praxe. Older students tend to produce funny situations and jokes with the freshmen; giving a warm welcome to them through initiation rituals. In most Portuguese higher education institutions, girls and boys have some gender-separated rituals to preserve dignity and respect. Most of the freshmen's rituals are performed collectively in order to avoid open ground for abusers. However, the older students sometimes take the Praxe too far, when the initiation rituals, jokes and traditions are degraded into humiliation and violence, a violation of the code and values of the praxe. The president of the Associação Académica de Coimbra and the Dux Veteranorum of Coimbra has described such incidents as a stain in its principles, and supports legal action being taken against perpetrators. One of the mottos of Praxe is Dura Praxis Sed Praxis. These incidents have led to criticism against the Praxe, and the creation of student organizations against it.

Polytechnic Institute of Viseu

Founded on December 26, 1979, the Polytechnic Institute of Viseu is the first and only public higher education institution in the district, marking an important development milestone for the region of Viseu.

Coimbra University Stadium

The Coimbra University Stadium, or EUC, is an extensive sports complex of the University of Coimbra on Mondego's left bank, in Santa Clara parish, in the city of Coimbra, Portugal. The stadium was opened in 1963.

Higher education in Portugal is divided into two main subsystems: university and polytechnic education. It is provided in autonomous public and private universities, university institutes, polytechnic institutes and higher education institutions of other types.

Since early ages, Coimbra developed into an important cultural centre, firstly due to the school founded in 1131 in the Santa Cruz Monastery, essential on medieval times and a meeting point for the intellectual and power elites, where famous medieval figures studied, like Saint Anthony of Lisbon. Later the city saw its educational and cultural importance greatly improved because of the establishment of the University of Coimbra which was founded in the 13th century in Lisbon, was moved in 1308 for the first time to Coimbra and was settled definitely in the city in 1537. For this old tradition in education, Coimbra is called A cidade dos estudantes and Lusa-Atenas, because it is a center of culture and erudition, as well as the site of the oldest university which turned Coimbra into a noted university town.

Pontifical Catholic University of Rio Grande do Sul Private non-profit Catholic university in Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil

The Pontifical Catholic University of Rio Grande do Sul is a private non-profit Catholic university. With campuses in the Brazilian cities of Porto Alegre and Viamão, it is the largest private university of the state of Rio Grande do Sul and the first university founded by the Catholic religious institute of the Marist Brothers. PUCRS is considered the best private university of Brazil's Southern Region by the Ministry of Education (MEC), and one of the best private universities in the country, with FGV, PUC-Rio and the PUC-SP.

Escola Politécnica da UFRJ

The Polytechnic School of Federal University of Rio de Janeiro, also called "Poli", founded in 1792, is the third oldest engineering school in the world and oldest in the Americas, with the Military Institute of Engineering being one of the first institutions of higher education in Brazil. It is considered one of the best institutions of Latin America in engineering education. It is located in the UFRJ Center of Technology (CT), in the Cidade Universitária, Rio de Janeiro.

The University of Porto is a Portuguese public university located in Porto, and founded on 22 March 1911. It is the second largest Portuguese university by number of enrolled students, after the University of Lisbon, and has one of the most noted research outputs in Portugal.

University of Lisbon (1911–2013)

The University of Lisbon was a public university in Lisbon, Portugal. It was founded in 1911 after the fall of the Portuguese monarchy and was later integrated in the new University of Lisbon along with the former Technical University of Lisbon. The history of a university in Lisbon dates back to the 13th century.