Leiden University

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Leiden University
Universiteit Leiden
Leiden University seal.svg
Latin: Academia Lugduno-Batava
Former names
Rijksuniversiteit Leiden
MottoLibertatis Praesidium (Latin)
Motto in English
Bastion of Freedom
Type Public research university
Established8 February 1575 [1]
Budget 588 million (2016) [2]
Rector Carel Stolker
Academic staff
1,352 [3]
Administrative staff
1,142 [3]
Students26,900 (2017) [3]
Location, ,
CampusUrban/College town
Colours      Leiden Blue [4]
Website www.universiteitleiden.nl
UniversiteitLeidenLogo.svg

Leiden University (abbreviated as LEI; Dutch : Universiteit Leiden), founded in the city of Leiden, is the oldest university in the Netherlands. [5] The university was founded in 1575 by William, Prince of Orange, leader of the Dutch Revolt in the Eighty Years' War. The Dutch Royal Family and Leiden University have a close association: Queen Juliana, Queen Beatrix and King Willem-Alexander are former students. The university came into particular prominence during the Dutch Golden Age, when scholars from around Europe were attracted to the Dutch Republic due to its climate of intellectual tolerance and Leiden's international reputation. During this time Leiden was home to such figures as René Descartes, Rembrandt, Christiaan Huygens, Hugo Grotius, Baruch Spinoza and Baron d'Holbach.

Dutch language West Germanic language

Dutch(Nederlands ) is a West Germanic language spoken by around 23 million people as a first language and 5 million people as a second language, constituting the majority of people in the Netherlands and Belgium. It is the third most widely spoken Germanic language, after its close relatives English and German.

Leiden City and municipality in South Holland, Netherlands

Leiden is a city and municipality in the province of South Holland, Netherlands. The municipality of Leiden had a population of 123,856 in August 2017, but the city forms one densely connected agglomeration with its suburbs Oegstgeest, Leiderdorp, Voorschoten and Zoeterwoude with 206,647 inhabitants. The Netherlands Central Bureau of Statistics (CBS) further includes Katwijk in the agglomeration which makes the total population of the Leiden urban agglomeration 270,879, and in the larger Leiden urban area also Teylingen, Noordwijk, and Noordwijkerhout are included with in total 348,868 inhabitants. Leiden is located on the Oude Rijn, at a distance of some 20 kilometres from The Hague to its south and some 40 km (25 mi) from Amsterdam to its north. The recreational area of the Kaag Lakes (Kagerplassen) lies just to the northeast of Leiden.

Netherlands Constituent country of the Kingdom of the Netherlands in Europe

The Netherlands is a country located mainly in Northwestern Europe. The European portion of the Netherlands consists of twelve separate provinces that border Germany to the east, Belgium to the south, and the North Sea to the northwest, with maritime borders in the North Sea with Belgium, Germany and the United Kingdom. Together with three island territories in the Caribbean Sea—Bonaire, Sint Eustatius and Saba— it forms a constituent country of the Kingdom of the Netherlands. The official language is Dutch, but a secondary official language in the province of Friesland is West Frisian.

Contents

Leiden University has seven faculties (six in Leiden and one in The Hague) and over 50 departments. The university is a member of the Coimbra Group, the Europaeum and the League of European Research Universities. Leiden University houses more than 40 national and international research institutes.

The Coimbra Group (GC) is an association of 39 long-established European comprehensive, multidisciplinary universities of high international standard. It was founded in 1985 and formally constituted by Charter in 1987. The group is committed to creating special academic and cultural ties in order to promote, for the benefits of its members, internationalisation, academic collaboration, excellence in learning and research, and service to society. It is also the purpose of the Group to influence European education and research policy and to develop best practice through the mutual exchange of experience.

Europaeum organisation of ten leading European universities

The Europaeum is a network of fourteen leading European universities. It was conceived of in 1990–1991 by Lord Weidenfeld and Sir Ronnie Grierson to support the ‘advancement of education through the encouragement of European studies in the University of Oxford and other European institutions of higher education having links with Oxford’; for ‘the movement of academic staff and students between these institutions’; and for ‘the study of the languages, history, cultures and professions of the people of Europe’. The Europaeum brings together talented students and faculty working in the Humanities and the Social Sciences, to promote a better ‘sense of Europe’ through collaboration and academic mobility.

League of European Research Universities organization

The League of European Research Universities (LERU) is a consortium of European research universities.

The University is associated with ten leaders and Prime Ministers of the Netherlands including the current Prime Minister Mark Rutte, nine foreign leaders, among them the 6th President of the United States John Quincy Adams, a Secretary General of NATO, a President of the International Court of Justice, a Prime Minister of the United Kingdom and sixteen recipients of the Nobel Prize (including renowned physicists Albert Einstein [6] [7] and Enrico Fermi).

Mark Rutte Prime Minister of the Netherlands

Mark Rutte is a Dutch politician serving as the 50th and current Prime Minister of the Netherlands since 2010 and Leader of the People's Party for Freedom and Democracy since 2006. Rutte was previously appointed as State Secretary for Social Affairs and Employment from 22 July 2002 to 17 June 2004 and as State Secretary for Education, Culture and Science from 17 June 2004 until 27 June 2006, when he was elected to succeed Jozias van Aartsen as the new VVD Leader.

President of the United States Head of state and of government of the United States

The president of the United States (POTUS) is the head of state and head of government of the United States of America. The president directs the executive branch of the federal government and is the commander-in-chief of the United States Armed Forces.

John Quincy Adams 6th president of the United States

John Quincy Adams was an American statesman, diplomat, lawyer, and diarist who served as the sixth president of the United States from 1825 to 1829. He previously served as the eighth United States Secretary of State from 1817 to 1825. During his long diplomatic and political career, Adams also served as an ambassador, and represented Massachusetts as a United States Senator and as a member of the United States House of Representatives. He was the eldest son of John Adams, who served as the second US president from 1797 to 1801. Initially a Federalist like his father, he won election to the presidency as a member of the Democratic-Republican Party, and in the mid-1830s became affiliated with the Whig Party.

History

Foundation and early history

William the Silent, founder of the university, in the 16th century. William the Silent 16th century.jpg
William the Silent, founder of the university, in the 16th century.
The Academy building of Leiden University in 1614. Academia Leidensis (cropped).jpg
The Academy building of Leiden University in 1614.
Anatomical theatre Leiden. Anatomical theatre Leiden.jpg
Anatomical theatre Leiden.

In 1575, the emerging Dutch Republic did not have any universities in its northern heartland. The only other university in the Habsburg Netherlands was the University of Leuven in southern Leuven, firmly under Spanish control. The scientific renaissance had begun to highlight the importance of academic study, so Prince William founded the first Dutch university in Leiden, to give the Northern Netherlands an institution that could educate its citizens for religious purposes, but also to give the country and its government educated men in other fields. [8] It is said the choice fell on Leiden as a reward for the heroic defence of Leiden against Spanish attacks in the previous year. Ironically, the name of Philip II of Spain, William's adversary, appears on the official foundation certificate, as he was still the de jure count of Holland. Philip II replied by forbidding any subject to study in Leiden. Originally located in the convent of St Barbara, the university moved to the Faliede Bagijn Church in 1577 (now the location of the University museum) and in 1581 to the convent of the White Nuns, a site which it still occupies, though the original building was destroyed by fire in 1616. [8]

Dutch Republic Republican predecessor state of the Netherlands from 1581 to 1795

The Dutch Republic, or the United Provinces, was a confederal republic that existed from the formal creation of a confederacy in 1581 by several Dutch provinces—seceded from Spanish rule—until the Batavian Revolution of 1795. It was a predecessor state of the Netherlands and the first Dutch nation state.

Habsburg Netherlands Historical region in the Low Countries, 1482–1581

Habsburg Netherlands, also referred to as Flanders during the early modern period, is the collective name of Holy Roman Empire fiefs in the Low Countries held by the House of Habsburg. The rule began in 1482, when after the death of the Valois-Burgundy duke Charles the Bold the Burgundian Netherlands fell to the Habsburg dynasty by the marriage of Charles's daughter Mary of Burgundy to Archduke Maximilian I of Austria. Charles V, Holy Roman Emperor was born in the Habsburg Netherlands and made the Low Countries the core of his "empire on which the sun never sets".

Old University of Leuven Studium Generale Lovaniense

The Old University of Leuven is the name historians give to the university, or studium generale, founded in Leuven, Brabant, in 1425. The university was closed in 1797, a week after the cession to the French Republic of the Austrian Netherlands and the principality of Liège by the Treaty of Campo Formio.

The presence within half a century of the date of its foundation of such scholars as Justus Lipsius, Joseph Scaliger, Franciscus Gomarus, Hugo Grotius, Jacobus Arminius, Daniel Heinsius and Gerhard Johann Vossius, rapidly made Leiden university into a highly regarded institution that attracted students from across Europe in the 17th century. [9] Renowned philosopher Baruch Spinoza was based close to Leiden during this period and interacted with numerous scholars at the university. The learning and reputation of Jacobus Gronovius, Herman Boerhaave, Tiberius Hemsterhuis and David Ruhnken, among others, enabled Leiden to maintain its reputation for excellence down to the end of the 18th century.

Justus Lipsius Southern-Netherlandish philologist

Justus Lipsius was a Flemish philologist, philosopher and humanist. Lipsius wrote a series of works designed to revive ancient Stoicism in a form that would be compatible with Christianity. The most famous of these is De Constantia. His form of Stoicism influenced a number of contemporary thinkers, creating the intellectual movement of Neostoicism. He taught at the universities in Jena, Leiden and Leuven.

Joseph Justus Scaliger French historian

Joseph Justus Scaliger was a French religious leader and scholar, known for expanding the notion of classical history from Greek and ancient Roman history to include Persian, Babylonian, Jewish and ancient Egyptian history. He spent the last sixteen years of his life in the Netherlands.

Franciscus Gomarus Dutch theologian

Franciscus Gomarus was a Dutch theologian, a strict Calvinist and an opponent of the teaching of Jacobus Arminius, whose theological disputes were addressed at the Synod of Dort (1618–19).

At the end of the nineteenth century, Leiden University again became one of Europe's leading universities. At the world’s first university low-temperature laboratory, professor Heike Kamerlingh Onnes achieved temperatures of only one degree above absolute zero of −273 degrees Celsius. In 1908 he was also the first to succeed in liquifying helium and can be credited with the discovery of the superconductivity in metals. [10]

Heike Kamerlingh Onnes Dutch physicist, Nobel prize winner

Professor Heike Kamerlingh Onnes FRSFor HFRSE FCS was a Dutch physicist and Nobel laureate. He exploited the Hampson–Linde cycle to investigate how materials behave when cooled to nearly absolute zero and later to liquefy helium for the first time, in 1908. He was also the discoverer of superconductivity in 1911.

Liquid helium liquid state of the element helium

At standard pressure, the chemical element helium exists in a liquid form only at the extremely low temperature of −270 °C. Its boiling point and critical point depend on which isotope of helium is present: the common isotope helium-4 or the rare isotope helium-3. These are the only two stable isotopes of helium. See the table below for the values of these physical quantities. The density of liquid helium-4 at its boiling point and a pressure of one atmosphere is about 0.125 grams per cm3, or about 1/8th the density of liquid water.

Modern day

Leiden University Library in 1610 Leiden 1610.jpg
Leiden University Library in 1610

The University Library, which has more than 5.2 million books and fifty thousand journals, also has a number of internationally renowned special collections of western and oriental manuscripts, printed books, archives, prints, drawings, photographs, maps, and atlases. It houses the largest collections worldwide on Indonesia and the Caribbean. The research activities of the Scaliger Institute focus on these special collections and concentrate particularly on the various aspects of the transmission of knowledge and ideas through texts and images from antiquity to the present day.

Leiden Observatory of the university. Leiden-Sterrewacht-06.jpg
Leiden Observatory of the university.

In 2005 the manuscript of Einstein on the quantum theory of the monatomic ideal gas (the Einstein-Bose condensation) was discovered in one of Leiden's libraries. [11]

The portraits of many famous professors since the earliest days hang in the university aula, one of the most memorable places, as Niebuhr called it, in the history of science.[ citation needed ]

In 2012 Leiden entered into a strategic alliance with Delft University of Technology and Erasmus University Rotterdam in order for the universities to increase the quality of their research and teaching. The university is also the unofficial home of the Bilderberg Group, a meeting of high-level political and economic figures from North America and Europe.

Location and buildings

The Academy building of Leiden University in modern days Leiden - Rapenburg - universiteit.JPG
The Academy building of Leiden University in modern days

The university has no central campus; its buildings are spread over the city. Some buildings, like the Gravensteen, are very old, while buildings like Lipsius and Gorlaeus are much more modern. [12]

Among the institutions affiliated with the university are The KITLV or Royal Netherlands Institute of Southeast Asian and Caribbean Studies (founded in 1851), the observatory 1633; the natural history museum, with a very complete anatomical cabinet; the Rijksmuseum van Oudheden (National Museum of Antiquities), with specially valuable Egyptian and Indian departments; a museum of Dutch antiquities from the earliest times; and three ethnographical museums, of which the nucleus was Philipp Franz von Siebold's Japanese collections. The anatomical and pathological laboratories of the university are modern, and the museums of geology and mineralogy have been restored.

The Hortus Botanicus (botanical garden) is the oldest botanical garden in the Netherlands, and one of the oldest in the world. Plants from all over the world have been carefully cultivated here by experts for more than four centuries. The Clusius garden (a reconstruction), the 18th century Orangery with its monumental tub plants, the rare collection of historical trees hundreds of years old, the Japanese Siebold Memorial Museum symbolising the historical link between East and West, the tropical greenhouses with their world class plant collections, and the central square and Conservatory exhibiting exotic plants from South Africa and southern Europe.

Campus The Hague

In 1998, the university has also expanded to The Hague which has become home to Campus The Hague, with six of the seven faculties represented and exclusive home to the Faculty Governance and Global Affairs, International Studies and Leiden University College The Hague, a liberal arts and sciences college. Here, the University offers academic courses in the fields of law, political science, public administration and medicine. It occupies a number of buildings in the centre of the city, including a college building at Lange Voorhout.

The Faculty of Governance and Global Affairs was established in 2011, together with the University College, and one of the largest programmes of the Faculty of Humanities, International Studies. Since 2017 Leiden University Medical Center also has a branch at Campus The Hague.

Organisation

The Leiden University Medical Centre Leiden163.JPG
The Leiden University Medical Centre
Entrance of Gorlaeus building of the Faculty of Science Leiden92.JPG
Entrance of Gorlaeus building of the Faculty of Science
Huygens and Oort Buildings of the Faculty of Science Huygens and Oort Buildings.JPG
Huygens and Oort Buildings of the Faculty of Science
Faculty of Law Kamerlingh Onnes Gebouw.jpg
Faculty of Law

The university is divided into seven major faculties which offer approximately 50 undergraduate degree programmes and over 100 graduate programmes.

Academic profile

Undergraduate studies

Most of the university's departments offer their own degree programme(s). Undergraduate programmes lead to either a B.A., B.Sc. or LL.B. degree. Other degrees, such as the B.Eng. or B.F.A., are not awarded at Leiden University.

Graduate studies

Students can choose from a range of graduate programmes. Most of the above-mentioned undergraduate programmes can be continued with either a general or a specialised graduate program. Leiden University offers more than 100 graduate programs leading to either MA, MSc, MPhil, or LLM degrees. The MPhil is the most advanced graduate degree and is awarded by select departments of the university (mostly in the fields of Arts, Social Sciences, Archeology, Philosophy, and Theology). Admission to these programmes is highly selective and primarily aimed at those students opting for an academic career or before going into law or medicine. Traditionally, the MPhil degree enabled its holder to teach at the university levels as an associate professor. The MPhil degree is also common in elite universities in the UK (Oxford and Cambridge), and the Ivy League in the United States.

The Pieter de la Court-building, the main building of the Faculty of Social and Behavioural Sciences Faculteit der Sociale Wetenschappen Leiden.jpg
The Pieter de la Court-building, the main building of the Faculty of Social and Behavioural Sciences

Doctorate programmes

In addition, most departments, affiliated (research) institutes or faculties offer doctorate programmes or positions, leading to the PhD degree. Most of the PhD programmes offered by the university are concentrated in several research schools or institutes.

Research schools and affiliated institutes

Research building of the Leiden University Medical Centre Onderzoeksgebouw LUMC Leiden.jpg
Research building of the Leiden University Medical Centre
logo of the Leiden academy, founded in 2008. Leyden-academy-logo.jpg
logo of the Leiden academy, founded in 2008.

Leiden University has more than 50 research and graduate schools and institutes. Some of them are fully affiliated with one faculty of the university, while others are interfaculty institutes or even interuniversity institutes.

Institute
ACPAAcademy of Creative and Performing Arts
ASC African Studies Centre Leiden
CML Institute of Environmental Sciences (CML) [13]
CRCCrisis Research Centre [14]
CTICentre for Language and Identity
CWTSCentre for Science and Technology Studies
The Meijers Research InstituteResearch School for Legal Studies
eLaw@LeidenCentre for Law in the Information Society
Grotius CentreResearch Centre for International Legal Studies
GSSLeiden Graduate School of Science
Historical InstituteLeiden University Institute for History
Huizinga InstituutResearch Institute and Graduate School for Cultural History
IBLInstitute of Biology Leiden
IIASInternational Institute for Asian Studies
IIASL International Institute of Air and Space Law
IOPSInteruniversity Graduate School of Psychometrics and Sociometrics
ITCInternational Tax Centre (ITC) [15]
LACDRThe Leiden Academic Centre for Drug Research
LCMBSLeiden Centre for Molecular BioScience
LEADLeiden Ethnosystems and Development Programme, Faculty of Science [16]
Leyden AcademyLeyden Academy on Vitality and Ageing [17]
LGSASLeiden Graduate School for Archeology
LIACSLeiden Institute of Advanced Computer Science [18]
LIASLeiden Institute for Area Studies
LIBC Leiden Institute for Brain and Cognition [19]
LICLeiden Institute of Chemistry
LIONLeiden Institute of Physics
LISORLeiden Institute for the Study of Religion
LUCASLeiden University Centre for the Arts in Society
LUCLLeiden University Centre for Linguistics
LUMCLeiden University Medical Centre
LUMIMathematical Institute of Leiden University
MediëvistiekNetherlands Research School for Medieval Studies
NIGNetherlands Institute of Government
NINONetherlands Institute for the Near East
NOVANetherlands Research School for Astronomy
N.W. Posthumus InstituutNetherlands Research Institute and School for Economic and Social History
OIKOSNational Research School in Classical Studies
Onderzoekschool KunstgeschiedenisDutch Postgraduate School for Art History
OSLNetherlands Research School for Literary Studies
PALLASPallas Institute for Cultural Disciplines
Sterrewacht Leiden Leiden Astronomical Observatory
The Europa InstituteLeiden Law School
Van Vollenhoven InstituteResearch Institute for Law, Governance and Society

Rankings and reputation

University rankings
Global
ARWU World [20] 74 (2018)
THE World [21] 68 (2019)
USNWR World [22] 86 (2019)
QS World [23] 122 (2019)

Notable alumni and professors

Of the eighty-nine Spinozapremie (the highest scientific award of The Netherlands), twenty-two were granted to professors of the Universiteit Leiden. Literary historian Frits van Oostrom was the first professor of Leiden to be granted the Spinoza award for his work on developing the NLCM centre (Dutch literature and culture in the Middle Ages) into a top research centre. Other Spinozapremie winners are linguists Frederik Kortlandt and Pieter Muysken, mathematician Hendrik Lenstra, physicists Carlo Beenakker, Jan Zaanen and Dirk Bouwmeester, astronomers Ewine van Dishoeck, Marijn Franx and Alexander Tielens, transplantation biologist Els Goulmy, clinical epidemiologist Frits Rosendaal, pedagogue Marinus van IJzendoorn, archeologists Wil Roebroeks and Corinne Hofman, neurologist Michel Ferrari, classicist Ineke Sluiter, social psychologist Naomi Ellemers, statistician Aad van der Vaart, cognitive psychologist Eveline Crone, Rector of The Potchefstroom University for Christian Higher Education Carolus Johannes Reinecke, physicist Michel Orrit, organisation psychologist Carsten de Dreu. [24] Among other leading professors are Wim Blockmans, professor of Medieval History, and Willem Adelaar, professor of Amerindian Languages.

Nobel laureates

Kamerlingh Onnes was awarded the Nobel Prize for Physics in 1913. Three other professors received the Nobel Prize for their research performed at Universiteit Leiden: Hendrik Antoon Lorentz and Pieter Zeeman received the Nobel Prize for their pioneering work in the field of optical and electronic phenomena, and the physiologist Willem Einthoven for his invention of the string galvanometer, which among other things, enabled the development of electrocardiography.

Nobel laureates associated with Leiden include: the physicists Albert Einstein, Enrico Fermi and Paul Ehrenfest, the Arabist and Islam expert Christiaan Snouck Hurgronje, the law expert Cornelis van Vollenhoven and historian Johan Huizinga, all during the 1920s and 1930s.

Also, Jacobus Henricus van 't Hoff, Johannes Diderik van der Waals, Tobias Asser, Albert Szent-Györgyi, Igor Tamm, Jan Tinbergen, Nikolaas Tinbergen, Tjalling Koopmans, Nicolaas Bloembergen and Niels Jerne. [25]

See also

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References

  1. "De Tachtigjarige Oorlog en het ontstaan van universiteiten in de Noordelijke Nederlanden". Historiek (in Dutch). 16 May 2017. Retrieved 19 May 2017.
  2. "The University at a glance". Leiden University. Archived from the original on 2016-06-08. Retrieved 2017-05-08.
  3. 1 2 3 "The University in figures". Leiden University. Archived from the original on 2016-02-07. Retrieved 2016-01-29.
  4. "Universiteit Leiden basiselementen: kleur". Leiden University. Retrieved 2018-08-22.
  5. Technically the University of Leuven, currently in Belgium but in the year of its foundation (1425) located in the Netherlands, is the oldest university ever founded in the Netherlands, but Leuven is no longer part of the Netherlands.
  6. Albert Einstein was known as a professor at Leiden University. Einstein regularly taught Leiden students for a few weeks per year. His first lecture at Leiden was about "Ether and Relativity Theory".
  7. University, Leiden. "Einstein in Leiden". Leiden University. Retrieved 9 May 2014.
  8. 1 2 Otterspeer, Willem (2000). Groepsportret met Dame: de Leidse universiteit, 1575-1672. ISBN   978-90-351-2240-6.
  9. Schnappen, H. (1960). Niederländische Universitäten und deutsches Geistesleben von der Gründung der Universität Leiden bis ins späte 18. Jahrhundert. Neue Münstersche Beiträge zur Geschichtsforschung. 6. Münster. OCLC   3783378.
  10. Website Nobel Prizes
  11. BBC NEWS | Europe | Student unearths Einstein paper.
  12. Vier eeuwen geschiedenis in steen. Universitaire gebouwen in Leiden. Leiden, 2005 ISBN   90-9018052-4
  13. "Institute of Environmental Sciences". Cml.leiden.edu. 2012-09-20. Retrieved 2012-09-26.
  14. "Crisis and Security Management". En.mastersinleiden.nl. Retrieved 2012-09-26.
  15. "International Tax Centre". Itc-leiden.nl. Retrieved 2012-09-26.
  16. Leiden Ethnosystems and Development Programme, [http://science.leidenuniv.nl/index.php/lead/index/ LEAD]
  17. "Leiden Academy on Vitality and Ageing". Leydenacademy.nl. Retrieved 2015-07-16.
  18. "LIACS (Advanced Computer Science)". Liacs.nl. Retrieved 2012-09-26.
  19. "Brain & Cognition". Libc-leiden.nl. Retrieved 2012-09-26.
  20. Academic Ranking of World Universities 2018
  21. "World University Rankings 2019 - Leiden University". Times Higher Education (THE). Retrieved 2018-09-28.
  22. U.S. News Education: Best Global Universities 2019
  23. QS World University Rankings 2019
  24. "Spinoza Prize". Leiden University. 20 July 2015. Retrieved 1 August 2015.
  25. Leiden's Nobel Laureates - website of the Leiden University

Further reading

Coordinates: 52°09′22″N4°29′13″E / 52.156071°N 4.486949°E / 52.156071; 4.486949