Times Higher Education World University Rankings

Last updated

Times Higher Education World University Rankings
WUR logo large.jpg
EditorPhil Baty
Categories Higher education
FrequencyAnnual
Publisher Times Higher Education
First issue2010
Country United Kingdom
Language English
Website www.timeshighereducation.com/world-university-rankings/

Times Higher Education World University Rankings is an annual publication of university rankings by Times Higher Education (THE) magazine. The publisher had collaborated with Quacquarelli Symonds (QS) to publish the joint THE-QS World University Rankings from 2004 to 2009 before it turned to Thomson Reuters for a new ranking system from 2010–2013. The magazine signed a new deal with Elsevier in 2014 who now provide them with the data used to compile the rankings. [1]

Contents

The publication now comprises the world's overall, subject, and reputation rankings, alongside three regional league tables, Asia, Latin America, and BRICS & Emerging Economies which are generated by different weightings.

THE Rankings is often considered as one of the most widely observed university rankings together with Academic Ranking of World Universities and QS World University Rankings . [2] [3] [4] [5] [6] It is praised for having a new, improved ranking methodology since 2010; however, undermining of non-science and non-English instructing institutions and relying on subjective reputation survey are among the criticism and concerns. [3] [7] [8]

History

The creation of the original Times Higher Education–QS World University Rankings was credited in Ben Wildavsky's book, The Great Brain Race: How Global Universities are Reshaping the World, [9] to then-editor of Times Higher Education, John O'Leary. Times Higher Education chose to partner with educational and careers advice company QS to supply the data.

After the 2009 rankings, Times Higher Education took the decision to break from QS and signed an agreement with Thomson Reuters to provide the data for its annual World University Rankings from 2010 onwards. The publication developed a new rankings methodology in consultation with its readers, its editorial board and Thomson Reuters. Thomson Reuters will collect and analyse the data used to produce the rankings on behalf of Times Higher Education. The first ranking was published in September 2010. [10]

Commenting on Times Higher Education's decision to split from QS, former editor Ann Mroz said: "universities deserve a rigorous, robust and transparent set of rankings – a serious tool for the sector, not just an annual curiosity." She went on to explain the reason behind the decision to continue to produce rankings without QS' involvement, saying that: "The responsibility weighs heavy on our shoulders...we feel we have a duty to improve how we compile them." [11]

Phil Baty, editor of the new Times Higher Education World University Rankings, admitted in Inside Higher Ed: "The rankings of the world's top universities that my magazine has been publishing for the past six years, and which have attracted enormous global attention, are not good enough. In fact, the surveys of reputation, which made up 40 percent of scores and which Times Higher Education until recently defended, had serious weaknesses. And it's clear that our research measures favored the sciences over the humanities." [12]

He went on to describe previous attempts at peer review as "embarrassing" in The Australian : "The sample was simply too small, and the weighting too high, to be taken seriously." [13] THE published its first rankings using its new methodology on 16 September 2010, a month earlier than previous years. [14]

The Times Higher Education World University Rankings, along with the QS World University Rankings and the Academic Ranking of World Universities are described to be the three most influential international university rankings. [4] [15] The Globe and Mail in 2010 described the Times Higher Education World University Rankings to be "arguably the most influential." [16]

In 2014 Times Higher Education announced a series of important changes to its flagship THE World University Rankings and its suite of global university performance analyses, following a strategic review by THE parent company TES Global. [17]

Methodology

Criteria and weighing

The inaugural 2010-2011 methodology contained 13 separate indicators grouped under five categories: Teaching (30 percent of final score), research (30 percent), citations (research impact) (worth 32.5 percent), international mix (5 percent), industry income (2.5 percent). The number of indicators is up from the Times-QS rankings published between 2004 and 2009, which used six indicators. [18]

A draft of the inaugural methodology was released on 3 June 2010. The draft stated that 13 indicators would first be used and that this could rise to 16 in future rankings, and laid out the categories of indicators as "research indicators" (55 percent), "institutional indicators" (25 percent), "economic activity/innovation" (10 percent), and "international diversity" (10 percent). [19] The names of the categories and the weighting of each was modified in the final methodology, released on 16 September 2010. [18] The final methodology also included the weighting signed to each of the 13 indicators, shown below: [18]

Overall indicatorIndividual indicatorPercentage weighting
Industry Income – innovation
  • Research income from industry (per academic staff)
  • 2.5%
International diversity
  • Ratio of international to domestic staff
  • Ratio of international to domestic students
  • 3%
  • 2%
Teaching – the learning environment
  • Reputational survey (teaching)
  • PhDs awards per academic
  • Undergrad. admitted per academic
  • Income per academic
  • PhDs/undergraduate degrees awarded
  • 15%
  • 6%
  • 4.5%
  • 2.25%
  • 2.25%
Research – volume, income and reputation
  • Reputational survey (research)
  • Research income (scaled)
  • Papers per research and academic staff
  • Public research income/ total research income
  • 19.5%
  • 5.25%
  • 4.5%
  • 0.75%
Citations – research influence
  • Citation impact (normalised average citation per paper)
  • 32.5%

The Times Higher Education billed the methodology as "robust, transparent and sophisticated," stating that the final methodology was selected after considering 10 months of "detailed consultation with leading experts in global higher education," 250 pages of feedback from "50 senior figures across every continent" and 300 postings on its website. [18] The overall ranking score was calculated by making Z-scores all datasets to standardize different data types on a common scale to better make comparisons among data. [18]

The reputational component of the rankings (34.5 percent of the overall score – 15 percent for teaching and 19.5 percent for research) came from an Academic Reputation Survey conducted by Thomson Reuters in spring 2010. The survey gathered 13,388 responses among scholars "statistically representative of global higher education's geographical and subject mix." [18] The magazine's category for "industry income – innovation" came from a sole indicator, institution's research income from industry scaled against the number of academic staff." The magazine stated that it used this data as "proxy for high-quality knowledge transfer" and planned to add more indicators for the category in future years. [18]

Data for citation impact (measured as a normalized average citation per paper), comprising 32.5 percent of the overall score, came from 12,000 academic journals indexed by Thomson Reuters' large Web of Science database over the five years from 2004 to 2008. The Times stated that articles published in 2009–2010 have not yet completely accumulated in the database. [18] The normalization of the data differed from the previous rankings system and is intended to "reflect variations in citation volume between different subject areas," so that institutions with high levels of research activity in the life sciences and other areas with high citation counts will not have an unfair advantage over institutions with high levels of research activity in the social sciences, which tend to use fewer citations on average. [18]

The magazine announced on 5 September 2011 that its 2011–2012 World University Rankings would be published on 6 October 2011. [20] At the same time, the magazine revealed changes to the ranking formula that will be introduced with the new rankings. The methodology will continue to use 13 indicators across five broad categories and will keep its "fundamental foundations," but with some changes. Teaching and research will each remain 30 percent of the overall score, and industry income will remain at 2.5 percent. However, a new "international outlook – staff, students and research" will be introduced and will make up 7.5 percent of the final score. This category will include the proportion of international staff and students at each institution (included in the 2011–2012 ranking under the category of "international diversity"), but will also add the proportion of research papers published by each institution that are co-authored with at least one international partner. One 2011–2012 indicator, the institution's public research income, will be dropped. [20]

On 13 September 2011, the Times Higher Education announced that its 2011–2012 list will only rank the top 200 institutions. Phil Baty wrote that this was in the "interests of fairness," because "the lower down the tables you go, the more the data bunch up and the less meaningful the differentials between institutions become." However, Baty wrote that the rankings would include 200 institutions that fall immediately outside the official top 200 according to its data and methodology, but this "best of the rest" list from 201 to 400 would be unranked and listed alphabetically. Baty wrote that the magazine intentionally only ranks around 1 percent of the world's universities in a recognition that "not every university should aspire to be one of the global research elite." [21] However, the 2015/16 edition of the Times Higher Education World University Rankings ranks 800 universities, while Phil Baty announced that the 2016/17 edition, to be released on 21 September 2016, will rank "980 universities from 79 countries". [22] [23]

The methodology of the rankings was changed during the 2011-12 rankings process, with details of the changed methodology here. [24] Phil Baty, the rankings editor, has said that the THE World University Rankings are the only global university rankings to examine a university's teaching environment, as others focus purely on research. [25] Baty has also written that the THE World University Rankings are the only rankings to put arts and humanities and social sciences research on an equal footing to the sciences. [26] However, this claim is no longer true. In 2015, QS introduced faculty area normalization to their QS World University Rankings, ensuring that citations data was weighted in a way that prevented universities specializing in the Life Sciences and Engineering from receiving undue advantage. [27]

In November 2014, the magazine announced further reforms to the methodology after a review by parent company TES Global. The major change being all institutional data collection would be bought in house severing the connection with Thomson Reuters. In addition, research publication data would now be sourced from Elsevier's Scopus database. [28]

Reception

The reception to the methodology was varied.

Ross Williams of the Melbourne Institute, commenting on the 2010–2011 draft, stated that the proposed methodology would favour more focused "science-based institutions with relatively few undergraduates" at the expense of institutions with more comprehensive programmes and undergraduates, but also stated that the indicators were "academically robust" overall and that the use of scaled measures would reward productivity rather than overall influence. [7] Steve Smith, president of Universities UK, praised the new methodology as being "less heavily weighted towards subjective assessments of reputation and uses more robust citation measures," which "bolsters confidence in the evaluation method." [29] David Willetts, British Minister of State for Universities and Science praised the rankings, noting that "reputation counts for less this time, and the weight accorded to quality in teaching and learning is greater." [30] In 2014, David Willetts became chair of the TES Global Advisory Board, responsible for providing strategic advice to Times Higher Education. [31]

Criticism

Times Higher Education places a high importance on citations to generate rankings. Citations as a metric for effective education is problematic in many ways, placing universities who do not use English as their primary language at a disadvantage. [32] Because English has been adopted as the international language for most academic societies and journals, citations and publications in a language different from English are harder to come across. [33] Thus, such a methodology is criticized for being inappropriate and not comprehensive enough. [34] A second important disadvantage for universities of non-English tradition is that within the disciplines of social sciences and humanities the main tool for publications are books which are not or only rarely covered by digital citations records. [35]

Times Higher Education has also been criticized for its strong bias towards institutions that taught 'hard science' and had high quality output of research in these fields, often to the disadvantage of institutions focused on other subjects like the social sciences and humanities. For instance in the former THE-QS World University Rankings, the London School of Economics (LSE) was ranked 11th in the world in 2004 and 2005, but dropped to 66th and 67th in the 2008 and 2009 edition. [36] In January 2010, THE concluded the method employed by Quacquarelli Symonds, who conducted the survey on their behalf, was flawed in such a way that bias was introduced against certain institutions, including LSE. [37]

A representative of Thomson Reuters, THE's new partner, commented on the controversy: "LSE stood at only 67th in the last Times Higher Education-QS World University Rankings – some mistake surely? Yes, and quite a big one." [37] Nonetheless, after the change of data provider to Thomson Reuters the following year, LSE fell to 86th place, with the ranking described by a representative of Thomson Reuters as 'a fair reflection of their status as a world class university'. [38] LSE despite being ranked continuously near the top in its national rankings, has been placed below other British universities in the Times Higher Education World Rankings in recent years, other institutions such as Sciences Po have suffered due to the inherent methodology bias still used.[ citation needed ] Trinity College Dublin's ranking in 2015 and 2016 was lowered by a basic mistake in data it had submitted; education administrator Bahram Bekhradnia said the fact this went unnoticed evinced a "very limited checking of data" "on the part of those who carry out such rankings". Bekhradnia also opined "while Trinity College was a respected university which could be relied upon to provide honest data, unfortunately that was not the case with all universities worldwide." [39]

In general it is not clear who the rankings are made for. Many students, especially the undergraduate students, are not interested in the scientific work of a facility of higher education. Also the price of the education has no effects on the ranking. That means that private universities on the North American continent are compared to the European universities. Many European countries like France, Sweden or Germany for example have a long tradition on offering free education within facilities of higher education. [40] [41]

In 2021, the University of Tsukuba in Ibaraki Prefecture, Japan, was alleged to have submitted falsified data on the number of international students enrolled at the university to the Times Higher Education World University Rankings. [42] The discovery resulted in an investigation by THE and the provision of guidance to the university on the submission of data, [43] however, it also led to the criticism amongst faculty members of the ease with which THE's ranking system could be abused. The matter was discussed in Japan's National Diet on April 21, 2021. [44]

World rankings

Times Higher Education World University Rankings—Top 50 [Note 1]
Institution2010–11 [45] 2011–12 [46] 2012–13 [47] 2013–14 [48] 2014–15 [49] 2015–16 [50] 2016–17 [51] 2017-18 [52] 2018–19 [53] 2019–20 [54] 2020–21 [55]
Flag of the United Kingdom.svg University of Oxford 64223211111
Flag of the United States.svg Stanford University 42344333342
Flag of the United States.svg Harvard University 12422666673
Flag of the United States.svg California Institute of Technology 21111123524
Flag of the United States.svg Massachusetts Institute of Technology 37556555455
Flag of the United Kingdom.svg University of Cambridge 66775442236
Flag of the United States.svg University of California, Berkeley 81098813101815137
Flag of the United States.svg Yale University 101111119121212888
Flag of the United States.svg Princeton University 55667777769
Flag of the United States.svg University of Chicago 139109111010910910
Flag of the United Kingdom.svg Imperial College London 98810988891011
Flag of the United States.svg Johns Hopkins University 1314161515111713121212
Flag of the United States.svg University of Pennsylvania 116151616171310121113
Flag of Switzerland.svg Swiss Federal Institute of Technology in Zurich 15151214139910111314
Flag of the United States.svg University of California, Los Angeles 1113131212161415171715
Flag of the United Kingdom.svg University College London 2217172122141516141516
Flag of the United States.svg Columbia University 1812141314151614161617
Flag of Canada (Pantone).svg University of Toronto 1719212020192222211818
Flag of the United States.svg Cornell University 1420181919181919191919
Flag of the United States.svg Duke University 2422231718201817182020
Flag of the People's Republic of China.svg Tsinghua University 5871525049473530222320
Flag of the United States.svg University of Michigan 1518201817212121202122
Flag of the People's Republic of China.svg Peking University 3749464548422927312423
Flag of the United States.svg Northwestern University 2526192221252020252224
Flag of Singapore.svg National University of Singapore 3440292625262422232525
Flag of the United States.svg New York University 6044414038303227272926
Flag of the United Kingdom.svg London School of Economics and Political Science 8647393234232525262727
Flag of the United States.svg Carnegie Mellon University 2021222424222324242728
Flag of the United States.svg University of Washington 2325242526322525282629
Flag of the United Kingdom.svg University of Edinburgh 4036323936242727293030
Flag of Australia (converted).svg University of Melbourne 3637283433333332323231
Flag of Germany.svg Ludwig Maximilian University of Munich 6145485529293034323232
Flag of the United States.svg University of California, San Diego 3233384041394131303133
Flag of Canada (Pantone).svg University of British Columbia 3022303132343634373434
Flag of the United Kingdom.svg King's College London 7756573840273636383635
Flag of Sweden.svg Karolinska Institute 4332423644282838404136
Flag of Japan.svg University of Tokyo 2630272323433946423636
Flag of the United States.svg Georgia Institute of Technology 2724252827413333343838
Flag of Hong Kong.svg University of Hong Kong 2134354343444340363539
Flag of Canada (Pantone).svg McGill University 3528343539384242444240
Flag of Germany.svg Technical University of Munich 101881058798534641444341
Flag of Germany.svg Heidelberg University 8373786870374345474442
Flag of Switzerland.svg École Polytechnique Fédérale de Lausanne 4846403734313038353843
Flag of the United States.svg University of Texas at Austin -29252728465049393844
Flag of Belgium (civil).svg Katholieke Universiteit Leuven 11967586155354047484545
Flag of France.svg Université Paris Sciences et Lettres -------72414546
Flag of Singapore.svg Nanyang Technological University 174169867661555452514847
Flag of the United States.svg University of Illinois at Urbana–Champaign 3331332929363637504848
Flag of the United States.svg University of Wisconsin-Madison 4327313029504543435149
Flag of the United States.svg Washington University in St. Louis 3841444242605750545250

Young Universities

In addition, THE also provides 150 Under 50 Universities with different weightings of indicators to accredit the growth of institutions that are under 50 years old. [56] In particular, the ranking attaches less weight to reputation indicators. For instance, the University of Canberra Australia, established in Year 1990 at the rank 50 of 150 Under 50 Universities.

Subject

Various academic disciplines are sorted into six categories in THE's subject rankings: "Arts & Humanities"; "Clinical, Pre-clinical & Health"; "Engineering & Technology"; "Life Sciences"; "Physical Sciences"; and "Social Sciences". [57]

World Reputation Rankings

Regions with universities included in the reputation league tables. Reputation of Universities.png
Regions with universities included in the reputation league tables.

THE'sWorld Reputation Rankings serve as a subsidiary of the overall league tables and rank universities independently in accordance with their scores in prestige. [58]

Scott Jaschik of Inside Higher Ed said of the new rankings: "...Most outfits that do rankings get criticised for the relative weight given to reputation as opposed to objective measures. While Times Higher Education does overall rankings that combine various factors, it is today releasing rankings that can't be criticised for being unclear about the impact of reputation – as they are strictly of reputation." [59]

Times Higher Education World Reputation Rankings—Top 25 [Note 1]
Institution2011 [60] 2012 [61] 2013 [62] 2014 [63] 2015 [64] 2016 [65] 2017 [66] 2018 [67] 2019 [68] 2020 [69]
Flag of the United States.svg Harvard University 1111111111
Flag of the United States.svg Massachusetts Institute of Technology 2222422222
Flag of the United States.svg Stanford University 5463533333
Flag of the United Kingdom.svg University of Cambridge 3334244444
Flag of the United Kingdom.svg University of Oxford 6645354555
Flag of the United States.svg University of California, Berkeley 4556666666
Flag of the United States.svg Princeton University 7777777777
Flag of the United States.svg Yale University 910108888888
Flag of the United States.svg University of California, Los Angeles 129810131313999
Flag of Japan.svg The University of Tokyo 88911121211131110
Flag of the United States.svg California Institute of Technology 101111991010111211
Flag of the United States.svg University of Chicago 151414141111991012
Flag of the People's Republic of China.svg Tsinghua University 35303536261814141413
Flag of the United States.svg Columbia University 2315131210912121314
Flag of the United States.svg University of Michigan-Ann Arbor 13121215191415151515
Flag of the People's Republic of China.svg Peking University 43384541322117171716
Flag of Switzerland.svg ETH Zurich 24222016151922222017
Flag of the United Kingdom.svg University College London 19212025172016181718
Flag of the United States.svg Johns Hopkins University 14181918182221211619
Flag of Canada (Pantone).svg University of Toronto 171616201623242219=20
Flag of the United States.svg University of Pennsylvania 221918222316191620=20
Flag of the United Kingdom.svg Imperial College London 11131413141518202322
Flag of Japan.svg Kyoto University 18202319272725272723
Flag of Singapore.svg National University of Singapore 27232221242627242424
Flag of the United States.svg Cornell University 16161717201723182225

Regional rankings

Asia

From 2013 to 2015, the outcomes of the Times Higher EducationAsia University Rankings were the same as the Asian universities' position on its World University Rankings. In 2016, the Asia University Rankings was revamped and it "use the same 13 performance indicators as the THE World University Rankings, but have been recalibrated to reflect the attributes of Asia's institutions." [70]

Times Higher Education Asia University Rankings as shown below – Top 20 [Note 1]
Institution2013 [71] 2014 [72] 2015 [73] 2016 [70] 2017 [74] 2018 [75] 2019 [76] 2020 [77]
Flag of the People's Republic of China.svg Tsinghua University 66553211
Flag of the People's Republic of China.svg Peking University 45422352
Flag of Singapore.svg National University of Singapore 22211123
Flag of Hong Kong.svg University of Hong Kong 33345444
Flag of Hong Kong.svg Hong Kong University of Science and Technology 99766535
Flag of Singapore.svg Nanyang Technological University 11111024566
Flag of Japan.svg University of Tokyo 11177887
Flag of Hong Kong.svg Chinese University of Hong Kong 1212131311778
Flag of South Korea.svg Seoul National University 84699999
Flag of the People's Republic of China.svg University of Science and Technology of China 25212614151512=10
Flag of South Korea.svg Sungkyunkwan University 23271612131310=10
Flag of Japan.svg Kyoto University 7791114111112
Flag of South Korea.svg Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology 10881081013=13
Flag of the People's Republic of China.svg Zhejiang University 45414625191814=13
Flag of South Korea.svg Pohang University of Science and Technology 51011810121615
Flag of Hong Kong.svg City University of Hong Kong 1922231612141516
Flag of the People's Republic of China.svg Fudan University 2425241916161717
Flag of the People's Republic of China.svg Nanjing University 3536352925171818
Flag of the People's Republic of China.svg Shanghai Jiao Tong University 4047393218202419
Flag of South Korea.svg Korea University 2823261720241920

Emerging Economies

The Times Higher EducationEmerging Economies Rankings (Formerly known as BRICS & Emerging Economies Rankings) only includes universities in countries classified as "emerging economies" by FTSE Group, including the "BRICS" nations of Brazil, Russia, India, China and South Africa. Hong Kong institutions are not included in this ranking.

Times Higher Education BRICS & Emerging Economies Rankings – Top 20 [Note 1]
Institution2014 [78] 2015 [79] 2016 [80] 2017 [81] 2018 [82] 2019 [83] 2020 [84]
Flag of the People's Republic of China.svg Tsinghua University 2222211
Flag of the People's Republic of China.svg Peking University 1111122
Flag of the People's Republic of China.svg Zhejiang University 222189633
Flag of the People's Republic of China.svg University of Science and Technology of China 61175544
Flag of Russia.svg Lomonosov Moscow State University 10533355
Flag of the People's Republic of China.svg Shanghai Jiao Tong University 271677786
Flag of the People's Republic of China.svg Fudan University 89176467
Flag of the Republic of China.svg National Taiwan University 4651010108
Flag of the People's Republic of China.svg Nanjing University 18221411879
Flag of South Africa.svg University of Cape Town 34449910
Flag of South Africa.svg University of the Witwatersrand 151468121111
Flag of Russia.svg Moscow Institute of Physics and Technology -699312111212
Flag of Saudi Arabia.svg King Abdulaziz University ------13
Flag of Brazil.svg University of São Paulo 1110913141514
Flag of the United Arab Emirates.svg Khalifa University ---49151315
Flag of India.svg Indian Institute of Science -251614131416
Flag of the People's Republic of China.svg Huazhong University of Science and Technology 68624946452517
Flag of Russia.svg Higher School of Economics ---48322218
Flag of the People's Republic of China.svg Wuhan University 40262621171619
Flag of Saudi Arabia.svg Alfaisal University ------20

Notes

  1. 1 2 3 4 Order shown in accordance with the latest result.

Related Research Articles

University of Tokyo Public research university in Tokyo, Japan

The University of Tokyo, abbreviated as Todai or UTokyo, is a public research university located in Bunkyō, Tokyo, Japan. Established in 1877, the university is the first imperial university and currently selected as a Top Type university of Top Global University Project by the Japanese government.

Hokkaido University

Hokkaido University, or Hokudai (北大), is a Japanese national university in Sapporo, Hokkaido. It was the fifth Imperial University in Japan, which were established to be the nation's finest institutes of higher education or research, and was selected as a Top Type university of the Top Global University Project by the Japanese government. The main campus is located in downtown Sapporo, just north of Sapporo Station, and stretches approximately 2.4 kilometers northward. It is considered one of the top universities in Japan.

College and university rankings are rankings of institutions in higher education which have been ranked on the basis of various combinations of various factors. None of the rankings give a comprehensive overview of the strengths of the institutions ranked because all select a range of easily quantifiable characteristics to base their results on. Rankings have most often been conducted by magazines, newspapers, websites, governments, or academics. In addition to ranking entire institutions, organizations perform rankings of specific programs, departments, and schools. Various rankings consider combinations of measures of funding and endowment, research excellence and/or influence, specialization expertise, admissions, student options, award numbers, internationalization, graduate employment, industrial linkage, historical reputation and other criteria. Various rankings mostly evaluating on institutional output by research. Some rankings evaluate institutions within a single country, while others assess institutions worldwide. The subject has produced much debate about rankings' usefulness and accuracy. The expanding diversity in rating methodologies and accompanying criticisms of each indicate the lack of consensus in the field. Further, it seems possible to game the ranking systems through excessive self-citations or by researchers supporting each other in surveys. UNESCO has questioned whether rankings "do more harm than good", while acknowledging that "Rightly or wrongly, they are perceived as a measure of quality and so create intense competition between universities all over the world".

University of São Paulo Public state university in Brazil

The University of São Paulo is a public university in the Brazilian state of São Paulo. It is the largest Brazilian public university and the country's most prestigious educational institution, the best university in Ibero-America, and holds a high reputation among world universities, being ranked 100 worldwide in reputation by the Times Higher Education World University Rankings. USP is involved in teaching, research and university extension in all areas of knowledge, offering a broad range of courses.

Three national rankings of universities in the United Kingdom are published annually – by The Complete University Guide, The Guardian and jointly by The Times and The Sunday Times. Rankings have also been produced in the past by The Daily Telegraph andFinancial Times.

<i>Academic Ranking of World Universities</i> Global university ranking

The Academic Ranking of World Universities (ARWU), also known as the Shanghai Ranking, is one of the annual publications of world university rankings. The league table was originally compiled and issued by Shanghai Jiao Tong University in 2003, making it the first global university ranking with multifarious indicators.

Research university University committed to research as a central part of its mission

A research university is a university that is committed to research as a central part of its mission. They can be public or private, and often have well-known brand names. Undergraduate courses at many research universities are often academic rather than vocational and may not prepare students for particular careers, but many employers value degrees from research universities because they teach fundamental life skills such as critical thinking. Globally, research universities are predominantly public universities, with notable exceptions being the United States and Japan.

The golden triangle is an unofficial grouping of elite research universities located in the cities of Cambridge, London and Oxford in the southeast of England. The triangle is occasionally referred to as the Loxbridge triangle, a portmanteau of London and Oxbridge.

The term Times Higher Education–QS World University Rankings refers to rankings published jointly between 2004 and 2009 by Times Higher Education and Quacquarelli Symonds (QS). After QS and Times Higher Education had ended their collaboration, the methodology for these rankings continues to be used by its developer Quacquarelli Symonds. Since 2010 these rankings are known as the QS World University Rankings when Times Higher Education started publishing another ranking with methodology developed in partnership with Thomson Reuters in 2010, known as the Times Higher Education World University Rankings.

<i>Times Higher Education</i> Weekly magazine based in London

Times Higher Education (THE), formerly The Times Higher Education Supplement (THES), is a magazine reporting specifically on news and issues related to higher education.

QS World University Rankings is an annual publication of university rankings by Quacquarelli Symonds (QS). Previously known as Times Higher Education–QS World University Rankings, the publisher had collaborated with Times Higher Education (THE) magazine to publish its international league tables from 2004 to 2009 before both started to announce their own versions. QS then chose to continue using the pre-existing methodology, while THE adopted a new methodology to create their rankings.

The higher education in the Philippines is offered through various degree programs by a wide selection of colleges and universities—also known as higher education institutions (HEIs). These are administered and regulated by the Commission on Higher Education (CHED).

College and university rankings in the United States are rankings of U.S. colleges and universities based on factors that vary depending on the ranking. Rankings are typically conducted by magazines, newspapers, websites, or academics. The most popular and influential set of rankings is published by U.S. News & World Report. In addition to ranking entire institutions, specific programs, departments, and schools can be ranked. Some rankings consider measures of wealth, research excellence, selectivity, and alumni success. There is much debate about rankings' interpretation, accuracy, and usefulness.

Rankings of universities in Canada are typically published annually by a variety of nationally, and internationally based publications. Rankings of post-secondary institutions have most often been conducted by magazines, newspapers, websites, governments, or academia. Ranking are established to help inform potential applicants about universities in Canada based on a range of criteria, including student body characteristics, classes, faculty, finances, library, and reputation. Various rankings consider combinations of factors, including funding and endowment, research excellence and/or influence, specialization expertise, admissions, student options, award numbers, internationalization, graduate employment, industrial linkage, historical reputation and other criteria. Various rankings also evaluate universities based on research output.

Higher Education in the Arab World

Higher Education in the Arab world is non-compulsory, formal education that occurs after secondary education in the twenty-two Arab states.

The University Ranking by Academic Performance (URAP) is a university ranking developed by the Informatics Institute of Middle East Technical University. Since 2010, it has been publishing annual national and global college and university rankings for top 2000 institutions. The scientometrics measurement of URAP is based on data obtained from the Institute for Scientific Information via Web of Science and inCites. For global rankings, URAP employs indicators of research performance including the number of articles, citation, total documents, article impact total, citation impact total, and international collaboration. In addition to global rankings, URAP publishes regional rankings for universities in Turkey using additional indicators such as the number of students and faculty members obtained from Center of Measuring, Selection and Placement ÖSYM.

The Best Global Universities ranking by U.S. News & World Report is an annual ranking of world universities. On October 28, 2014, U.S. News, which began ranking American universities in 1983, published its inaugural global ranking, assessing 500 universities in 49 countries. That first installment of the Best Global University Ranking was published without prior announcement, with U.S. News later clarifying that the rankings of that year were a trial balloon for the publication's entrance into the global university rankings field. After pre-announcing the rankings of next year, in 2016, the periodical formalized the global university rankings as part of its regular annual programming. Having made official the ranking methodology, it disclosed that it is based on 10 different indicators that measure universities' academic performance and reputations. The ranking has since been revised and expanded to cover 1,500 institutions in 81 countries and now includes five regional and 28 subject rankings. Employing 13 indicators and based largely on data provided by Clarivate, the U.S. News global ranking is methodologically different from its ranking of American institutions; global universities are rated using factors such as research reputation, academic publications, and the number of highly cited papers.

Universities in Malaysia are ranked in a number of ways, including both national and international ranks.

Round University Ranking is a world university ranking, assessing effectiveness of 700 leading world universities based on 20 indicators distributed among 4 key dimension areas: teaching, research, international diversity, financial sustainability. The RUR Rankings publisher is an independent RUR Rankings Agency, located in Moscow, Russia.

This article presents an overview of university rankings in Pakistan. Within Pakistan, the Higher Education Commission (HEC) provides official rankings of higher education institutions (HEIs) nationally, based on a multitude of criteria. There are also various magazines, newspapers and international agencies/standards which provide rankings and analysis.

References

  1. Elsevier. "Discover the data behind the Times Higher Education World University Rankings". Elsevier Connect. Retrieved 30 August 2019.
  2. Network, QS Asia News (2 March 2018). "The history and development of higher education ranking systems - QS WOWNEWS". QS WOWNEWS. Retrieved 29 March 2018.
  3. 1 2 "Strength and weakness of varsity rankings". NST Online. 14 September 2016. Retrieved 29 March 2018.
  4. 1 2 Ariel Zirulnick. "New world university ranking puts Harvard back on top". The Christian Science Monitor. Those two, as well as Shanghai Jiao Tong University, produce the most influential international university rankings out there
  5. Indira Samarasekera & Carl Amrhein. "Top schools don't always get top marks". The Edmonton Journal. Archived from the original on 3 October 2010. There are currently three major international rankings that receive widespread commentary: The Academic World Ranking of Universities, the QS World University Rankings and the Times Higher Education Rankings.
  6. Philip G. Altbach (11 November 2010). "The State of the Rankings". Inside Higher Ed. Retrieved 27 January 2015. The major international rankings have appeared in recent months – the Academic Ranking of World Universities, the QS World University Rankings, and the Times Higher Education World University Rankings (THE).
  7. 1 2 Andrew Trounson, "Science bias will affect local rankings" (9 June 2010). The Australian .
  8. Bekhradnia, Bahram. "International university rankings: For good or ill?" (PDF). Higher Education Policy Institute.
  9. Wildavsky, Ben (2010). The Great Brain Race: How Global Universities are Reshaping the World . Princeton University Press.
  10. Baty, Phil. "New data partner for World University Rankings". Times Higher Education. Retrieved 16 September 2010.
  11. Mroz, Ann. "Leader: Only the best for the best". Times Higher Education. Retrieved 16 September 2010.
  12. Baty, Phil (10 September 2010). "Views: Ranking Confession". Inside Higher Ed . Retrieved 16 September 2010.
  13. "Back to square one on the rankings front". The Australian. 17 February 2010. Retrieved 16 September 2010.
  14. Baty, Phil. "THE World Rankings set for release on 16 September". Times Higher Education. Retrieved 16 September 2010.
  15. Indira Samarasekera and Carl Amrhein. "Top schools don't always get top marks". The Edmonton Journal . Archived from the original on 3 October 2010.
  16. Simon Beck and Adrian Morrow (16 September 2010). "Canada's universities make the grade globally". The Globe and Mail . Archived from the original on 13 February 2011.
  17. Times Higher Education announces reforms to its World University Rankings.
  18. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 "World University Rankings subject tables: Robust, transparent and sophisticated" (16 September 2010). Times Higher Education World University Rankings.
  19. Baty, Phil. "THE unveils broad, rigorous new rankings methodology". Times Higher Education. Retrieved 16 September 2010.
  20. 1 2 Phil Baty, "World University Rankings launch date revealed" (5 September 2011). Times Higher Education.
  21. Phil Baty. "The top 200 – and the best of the rest" (13 September 2011), Times Higher Education.
  22. "World University Rankings 2015/16". Times Higher Education. Times Higher Education. 30 September 2015. Retrieved 14 September 2016.
  23. Baty, Phil (17 August 2016). "World University Rankings 2016-2017 launch date announced". Times Higher Education. Times Higher Education. Retrieved 14 September 2016.
  24. THE Global Rankings: Change for the better. Times Higher Education (2011-10-06). Retrieved on 2013-07-17.
  25. "GLOBAL: Crucial to measure teaching in rankings". Universityworldnews.com. 28 November 2010. Retrieved 19 December 2013.
  26. Baty, Phil (16 August 2011). "Arts on an equal footing". Timeshighereducation.co.uk. Retrieved 19 December 2013.
  27. "Faculty Area Normalization – Technical Explanation" (PDF). QS Quacquarelli Symonds. Retrieved 14 September 2016.
  28. "Times Higher Education announces reforms to its World University Rankings". timeshighereducation.co.uk. 20 November 2014. Retrieved 21 November 2014.
  29. Steve Smith (16 September 2010). "Pride before the fall?". Times Higher Education World University Rankings.
  30. "Global path for the best of British," (16 September 2010). Times Higher Education World University Rankings.
  31. "New partner for THE rankings; David Willetts joins TES Global advisory board". Times Higher Education. Times Higher Education. Retrieved 14 September 2016.
  32. "Global university rankings and their impact Archived 26 August 2012 at the Wayback Machine ," (2011). "European University Association"
  33. http://www.cwts.nl/TvR/documents/AvR-Language-Scientometrics.pdf
  34. Holmes, Richard (5 September 2006). "So That's how They Did It". Rankingwatch.blogspot.com. Retrieved 2 October 2014.
  35. "Changingpublication patterns in the Social Sciences and Humanities 2000-2009" (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on 2 January 2013. Retrieved 7 December 2012.
  36. [ dead link ]
  37. 1 2 "LSE in university league tables – External Relations Division – Administrative and academic support divisions – Services and divisions – Staff and students – Home". London School of Economics. Archived from the original on 29 April 2010. Retrieved 26 April 2010.
  38. http://www.lse.ac.uk/aboutLSE/LSEinUniversityLeagueTables.aspx.Missing or empty |title= (help)
  39. "Trinity removed from rankings after data error". RTÉ.ie . 22 September 2016. Retrieved 22 September 2016.
  40. Guttenplan, D. d (14 November 2010). "Questionable Science Behind Academic Rankings". The New York Times. ISSN   0362-4331 . Retrieved 24 August 2017.
  41. Strasser, Franz (3 June 2015). "How US students get a university degree for free in Germany". BBC News. Retrieved 24 August 2017.
  42. "Rankings data row fuels push to oust university leader". University World News. Retrieved 23 April 2021.
  43. "Rankings data row fuels push to oust university leader". University World News. Retrieved 23 April 2021.
  44. "衆議院インターネット審議中継". www.shugiintv.go.jp. Retrieved 23 April 2021.
  45. "THE World University Rankings (2010-2011)". Times Higher Education. Retrieved 14 March 2015.
  46. "THE World University Rankings (2011-2012)". Times Higher Education. Retrieved 14 March 2015.
  47. "THE World University Rankings (2012-2013)". Times Higher Education. Retrieved 14 March 2015.
  48. "THE World University Rankings (2013-2014)". Times Higher Education. Retrieved 14 March 2015.
  49. "THE World University Rankings (2014-2015)". Times Higher Education. Retrieved 14 March 2015.
  50. "THE World University Rankings (2015-2016)". Times Higher Education. Retrieved 1 October 2015.
  51. "THE World University Rankings (2016-2017)". Times Higher Education. Retrieved 1 October 2016.
  52. "THE World University Rankings (2017-18)". Times Higher Education. Retrieved 11 September 2017.
  53. "THE World University Rankings (2018-2019)". Times Higher Education. Retrieved 27 October 2019.
  54. "THE World University Rankings (2019-2020)". Times Higher Education. Retrieved 4 March 2020.
  55. "THE World University Rankings (2020-2021)". Times Higher Education. Retrieved 15 September 2020.
  56. "Times Higher Education 150 Under 50 Rankings 2016". Times Higher Education. Retrieved 12 April 2016.
  57. "TIMES Higher Education University Rankings by subjects (2013/14)".
  58. John Morgan. "Times Higher Education World Reputation Rankings". Times Higher Education .
  59. Scott Jaschik. "Global Comparisons". Inside Higher Ed .
  60. "THE World Reputation Rankings (2011)". Times Higher Education. Retrieved 14 March 2015.
  61. "THE World Reputation Rankings (2012)". Times Higher Education. Retrieved 14 March 2015.
  62. "THE World Reputation Rankings (2013)". Times Higher Education. Retrieved 14 March 2015.
  63. "THE World Reputation Rankings (2014)". Times Higher Education. Retrieved 14 March 2015.
  64. "THE World Reputation Rankings (2015)". Times Higher Education. Retrieved 14 March 2015.
  65. "World Reputation Rankings 2016". Times Higher Education.
  66. "World Reputation Rankings". Times Higher Education (THE). 5 June 2017. Retrieved 10 May 2019.
  67. "World Reputation Rankings". Times Higher Education (THE). 30 May 2018. Retrieved 10 May 2019.
  68. "World Reputation Rankings 2019". Times Higher Education (THE). Retrieved 4 March 2020.
  69. "World Reputation Rankings 2020". Times Higher Education (THE). 30 October 2020. Retrieved 5 November 2020.
  70. 1 2 "Asia University Rankings 2016".
  71. "THE Asia University Rankings (2013)". Times Higher Education. Retrieved 14 March 2015.
  72. "THE Asia University Rankings (2014)". Times Higher Education. Retrieved 14 March 2015.
  73. "Asia University Rankings 2015 Results". Times Higher Education. Retrieved 12 June 2015.
  74. "Asia University Rankings 2017".
  75. "Asia University Rankings 2018".
  76. "Asia University Rankings 2019".
  77. "Asia University Rankings". Times Higher Education (THE). 28 May 2020. Retrieved 4 June 2020.
  78. "THE BRICS & Emerging Economies Rankings 2014". Times Higher Education. 2014. Retrieved 14 March 2015.
  79. "THE BRICS & Emerging Economies Rankings 2015". Times Higher Education. 2015. Retrieved 4 April 2015.
  80. "BRICS & Emerging Economies Rankings 2016".
  81. "Emerging Economies University Rankings 2017".
  82. "Emerging Economies University Rankings 2018".
  83. "Emerging Economies University Rankings 2019".
  84. "Emerging Economies University Rankings 2020".