Avant-garde jazz

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Avant-garde jazz (also known as avant-jazz and experimental jazz) [1] is a style of music and improvisation that combines avant-garde art music and composition with jazz. [2] It originated in the 1950s and developed through the 1960s. [3] Originally synonymous with free jazz, much avant-garde jazz was distinct from that style. [4]

Contents

History

1950s

Avant-garde jazz originated in the mid- to late 1950s among a group of improvisors who rejected the conventions of bebop and post bop in an effort to blur the division between the written and the spontaneous. Ornette Coleman and Cecil Taylor led the way, soon to be joined by John Coltrane. Some would come to apply it differently from free jazz, emphasizing structure and organization by the use of composed melodies, shifting but nevertheless predetermined meters and tonalities, and distinctions between soloists and accompaniment. [5]

1960s

In Chicago, the Association for the Advancement of Creative Musicians began pursuing their own variety of avant-garde jazz. The AACM musicians (Muhal Richard Abrams, Anthony Braxton, Roscoe Mitchell, Hamid Drake, and the Art Ensemble of Chicago) tended towards eclecticism. Poet Amiri Baraka, an important figure in the Black Arts Movement (BAM), [6] recorded spoken word tracks with the New York Art Quartet (“Black Dada Nihilismus,” 1964, ESP) and Sonny Murray (“Black Art,” 1965, Jihad). [7]

See also

Related Research Articles

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The New Wave in Jazz is a live album recorded on March 28, 1965 at the Village Gate in New York City. It features groups led by major avant-garde jazz artists performing at a concert for the benefit of The Black Arts Repertory Theater/School founded by Amiri Baraka, then known as LeRoi Jones. The album was released on LP in 1965 on the Impulse! label, and was reissued on CD in 1994 with a different track listing.

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New York Art Quartet is the debut album by the group of the same name. It was recorded on November 26, 1964, at Bell Sound Studios in New York City, and was released in 1965 by ESP-Disk as the fourth item in their catalog, following Albert Ayler's Spiritual Unity and Pharoah Sanders's Pharoah's First. It features John Tchicai on alto saxophone, Roswell Rudd on trombone, Lewis Worrell on bass, and Milford Graves on percussion. In addition, LeRoi Jones recites his controversial poem "Black Dada Nihilismus" on one track.

References

  1. Experimentalisms in Practice: Music Perspectives from Latin America. Oxford University Press. 2018. p. 8. ISBN   978-0190842765.
  2. Choice, Harriet (Sep 17, 1971). "'Black Music' or 'Jazz'". Chicago Tribune.
  3. Cook, Richard (2005). Richard Cook's Jazz Encyclopedia. London: Penguin Books. p. 25. ISBN   0-141-00646-3.
  4. Gridley, Mark C.; Long, Barry (n.d.). Grove Dictionary of American Music (second ed.). Oxford University Press. Retrieved 6 March 2016.
  5. Mark C. Gridley and Barry Long, "Avant-garde Jazz", The Grove Dictionary of American Music, second edition, supplement on Grove Music Online 4 October 2012.
  6. "A Brief Guide to the Black Arts Movement". Poets.org. Retrieved 8 March 2016.
  7. Amiri Baraka, "Where's the Music Going and Why?", The Music: Reflections on Jazz and Blues. New York: William Morrow, 1987. p. 177-180.

Bibliography