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Post-metal is a style of music that is rooted in heavy metal but explores approaches beyond the genre's conventions. It emerged in the 1990s through the work of bands such as Neurosis and Godflesh who transformed metal texture through experimental composition. Associated with and inspired by post-rock and post-hardcore, the genre employs the darkness and intensity of extreme metal but emphasizes atmosphere, emotion, and even "revelation", drawing on a wide range of sources including ambient, noise, psychedelic, progressive, and classical music to develop an expansive but introspective sound. Post-metal songs are typically long, with loose and layered structures that discard the verse–chorus form in favor of crescendos and repeating themes. The sound centres on guitars and drums; any vocals are usually screamed or growled and resemble an additional instrument.

Heavy metal is a genre of rock music that developed in the late 1960s and early 1970s, largely in the United Kingdom. With roots in blues rock, psychedelic rock, and acid rock, the bands that created heavy metal developed a thick, massive sound, characterized by highly amplified distortion, extended guitar solos, emphatic beats, and overall loudness. The genre's lyrics and performance styles are sometimes associated with aggression and machismo.

Neurosis (band) American band

Neurosis is an American avant-garde metal band from Oakland, California. It was formed in 1985 by guitarist Scott Kelly, bassist Dave Edwardson, and drummer Jason Roeder, initially as a hardcore punk band. Chad Salter joined as a second guitarist and appeared on the band's 1987 debut Pain of Mind before being replaced by Steve Von Till in 1989. The following year, the lineup further expanded to include a keyboardist and a visual artist. Beginning with their third album Souls at Zero (1992), Neurosis developed a unique musical style crucial to the emergence of the post-metal and sludge metal genres.

Godflesh English industrial metal band

Godflesh are an English industrial metal band from Birmingham, England. The group formed in 1982 under the title Fall of Because but did not release any complete music until 1988 when Justin Broadrick and G. C. Green (bass) renamed the band and decided to use a drum machine for percussion. Melding heavy metal with industrial music and later with electronic music and dub, Godflesh's innovative sound is widely regarded as a foundational influence on other industrial metal and post-metal acts and as significant to both experimental metal and extreme metal.


Post-metal is closely related to avant-garde metal and has also been associated with sludge metal, drone metal, progressive metal, and industrial metal. Alternative names that have been used to describe the genre include art metal [1] and metalgaze, [2] highlighting its connection to art music and shoegazing, respectively. Contemporary post-metal, pioneered by disparate groups such as Isis, Agalloch, Boris, Pelican, Jesu, and Wolves in the Throne Room, often employs the extreme heaviness of doom metal but has also become associated with shoegazing and black metal. In particular, the recent critical acclaim of Deafheaven, whose fusion of these two genres has been nicknamed blackgaze, demonstrates the growing success of the global post-metal underground.

Avant-garde metal subgenre of metal music

Avant-garde metal is a subgenre of heavy metal music loosely defined by use of experimentation and innovative, avant-garde elements, including non-standard and unconventional sounds, instruments, song structures, playing styles, and vocal techniques. Avant-garde metal is influenced by progressive rock and extreme metal, particularly death metal, and is closely related to progressive metal. Some local scenes include Los Angeles, the San Francisco Bay Area, Boston, and Seattle in the United States, Oslo in Norway, and Tokyo in Japan.

Sludge metal is a genre of heavy metal music that originated through combining elements of doom metal and hardcore punk. It is typically harsh and abrasive, often featuring shouted vocals, heavily distorted instruments and sharply contrasting tempos. While the Melvins from the US state of Washington laid the groundwork for both sludge metal and grunge in the 1980s, sludge as a distinct genre emerged after 1990 through the work of Louisiana bands such as Eyehategod and Crowbar. Later bands often border on stoner rock or post-metal.

Drone metal or drone doom is a style of heavy metal that melds the slow tempos and heaviness of doom metal with the long-duration tones of drone music. Drone metal is sometimes associated with post-metal or experimental metal.


The Melvins' combination of doom metal, hardcore punk, and avant-garde approaches has been a key influence on post-metal bands. Buzz Osborne of The Melvins Live @ Slim's 01.jpg
The Melvins' combination of doom metal, hardcore punk, and avant-garde approaches has been a key influence on post-metal bands.


The groundwork for post-metal was laid in the 1980s and early 1990s by various artists combining heavy metal and punk rock sounds with an "avant-garde sensibility", such as the Melvins (particularly on 1991's Bullhead), [3] the Flying Luttenbachers, Justin Broadrick of Napalm Death and Godflesh, [1] Swans, Gore, Last Exit, Glenn Branca, Rollins Band, and Fugazi. [4] Helmet's albums Meantime (1992) and Betty (1994) were also significant, [2] while Tool's music was described as post-metal as early as 1993. [5] Many of these artists emerged from hardcore punk and post-punk circles but their combination of sonic violence with experimentation and eclecticism made them difficult to categorize under any one genre. [1]

Punk rock is a rock music genre that emerged in the mid-1970s in the United States, United Kingdom, and Australia. Rooted in 1960s garage rock and other forms of what is now known as "proto-punk" music, punk rock bands rejected perceived excesses of mainstream 1970s rock. They typically produced short, fast-paced songs with hard-edged melodies and singing styles, stripped-down instrumentation, and often political, anti-establishment lyrics. Punk embraces a DIY ethic; many bands self-produce recordings and distribute them through independent record labels.

Avant-garde music is music that is considered to be at the forefront of experimentation or innovation in its field, with the term "avant-garde" implying a critique of existing aesthetic conventions, rejection of the status quo in favor of unique or original elements, and the idea of deliberately challenging or alienating audiences.

Melvins band from the United States

The Melvins are an American rock band formed in 1983, in Montesano, Washington. Their early work was key to the development of both grunge and sludge metal. They have mostly performed as a trio, as well as a quartet with either two drummers/bassists in recent years. Since 1984, vocalist and guitarist Buzz Osborne and drummer Dale Crover have been constant members. The band was named after a supervisor at a Thriftway in Montesano, Washington, where Osborne also worked as a clerk; "Melvin" was disliked by other employees, and the band's members felt it to be an appropriately ridiculous name.

Emergence in the 1990s

The term post-rock was coined in 1994 and soon used to describe a diverse group of bands that shared "a penchant for drifting melodies and the desire to expand beyond established rock boundaries". [3] As this movement swelled, bands from post-hardcore and experimental backgrounds began to incorporate its tendencies of "ambience, offbeat experimentation, downcast melodies and psychedelia" into metal. [3] The two genres further converged through the influence of post-rock bands such as Mogwai, Godspeed You! Black Emperor, and Lift to Experience who shared metal's emphasis on loudness. [4]

Post-rock is a form of experimental rock characterized by a focus on exploring textures and timbre over traditional rock song structures, chords, or riffs. Post-rock artists are often instrumental, typically combining rock instrumentation with electronics. The genre emerged within the indie and underground music scene of the 1980s and early 1990s. However, due to its abandonment of rock conventions, it often bears little resemblance musically to contemporary indie rock, borrowing instead from diverse sources including ambient music, electronica, jazz, krautrock, dub, and minimalist classical.

Rock music is a broad genre of popular music that originated as "rock and roll" in the United States in the early 1950s, and developed into a range of different styles in the 1960s and later, particularly in the United States and the United Kingdom. It has its roots in 1940s and 1950s rock and roll, a style which drew heavily from the genres of blues, rhythm and blues, and from country music. Rock music also drew strongly from a number of other genres such as electric blues and folk, and incorporated influences from jazz, classical and other musical styles. Musically, rock has centered on the electric guitar, usually as part of a rock group with electric bass, drums, and one or more singers. Usually, rock is song-based music with a 4/4 time signature using a verse–chorus form, but the genre has become extremely diverse. Like pop music, lyrics often stress romantic love but also address a wide variety of other themes that are frequently social or political.

Post-hardcore is a punk rock music genre that maintains the aggression and intensity of hardcore punk but emphasizes a greater degree of creative expression initially inspired by post-punk and noise rock. Like post-punk, the term has been applied to a broad constellation of groups. Post-hardcore began in the 1980s with bands like Hüsker Dü, and Minutemen. The genre expanded in the 1980s and 1990s with releases by bands from cities that had established hardcore scenes, such as Fugazi from Washington, D.C. as well as groups such as Big Black and Jawbox that stuck closer to post-hardcore's noise rock roots. In the 2000s, post-hardcore achieved mainstream success with the popularity of bands like My Chemical Romance, AFI, Underoath, Hawthorne Heights, The Used, At the Drive-In and Senses Fail. In the 2010s, post-hardcore bands like Sleeping with Sirens and Pierce the Veil achieved success and bands like Title Fight and La Dispute experienced underground popularity.

Neurosis have been credited with inventing the genre through their experimental, spiritually intense work. Neurosis 038.jpg
Neurosis have been credited with inventing the genre through their experimental, spiritually intense work.

Neurosis' third album Souls at Zero and Godflesh's sophomore album Pure, both released in 1992, are often retrospectively considered the first post-metal records. [3] Godflesh had already pioneered "sluggish and tortured" industrial metal of their 1989 debut Streetcleaner, but Pure showcased "more expansive structures and long stretches of billowing noise", inspiring a number of subsequent bands to combine metal with "layered washes of sound". [3] Neurosis on the other hand were a hardcore band who embraced doom metal, post-punk and industrial influences, experimenting with texture and dynamics. [3] They have since become "worshipped for their pioneering post-metal efforts and unwavering dedication to expanding their artistic boundaries." [6] In 2010, guitarist Steve Von Till stated: [7]

<i>Souls at Zero</i> 1992 studio album by Neurosis

Souls at Zero is the third studio album by Californian avant-garde metal band Neurosis. The name was taken from a chapter in the book The Great and Secret Show by horror writer Clive Barker. The album was released in 1992 under the Alternative Tentacles record label. It was later reissued in 1999 with bonus tracks on the band's own Neurot Recordings label. On February 15, 2010, the album was reissued on CD and digitally with new artwork under Neurot. On February 14, 2012, a fully remastered version was released on vinyl via Relapse Records.

<i>Pure</i> (Godflesh album) 1992 studio album by Godflesh

Pure is the second studio album by English industrial metal band Godflesh. It was released on 13 April 1992 through Earache Records. Though originally labeled only as industrial metal, the album has since been recognised as one of the earliest post-metal releases. Musically, Pure is rhythmically mechanical and features harsh guitars, with protracted songs and an abundance of deliberate repetition. Like much of Godflesh's music, it is regarded as particularly heavy and aggressive, and these elements helped it gain critical acclaim.

Industrial metal is the fusion of heavy metal music and industrial music, typically employing repeating metal guitar riffs, sampling, synthesizer or sequencer lines, and distorted vocals. Prominent industrial metal acts include Ministry, Godflesh, KMFDM and Nine Inch Nails.

We always knew there was something deep to Neurosis's music, but ... I think Souls at Zero was when the music became something else. It was taking that material out on the road and losing ourself in the trance states induced by playing hypnotic, super-heavy loud music that we really figured out how to surrender to it. Then we said, OK – this is going to take us to where we wanna go: somewhere deeper, somewhere more emotional, somewhere elemental.

Trance abnormal state of wakefulness or altered state of consciousness

Trance is an abnormal state of wakefulness in which a person is not self-aware and is either altogether unresponsive to external stimuli or is selectively responsive in following the directions of the person who has induced the trance. Trance states may occur involuntarily and unbidden.

Hypnotic class of medications

Hypnotic, or soporific drugs, commonly known as sleeping pills, are a class of psychoactive drugs whose primary function is to induce sleep and to be used in the treatment of insomnia (sleeplessness), or for surgical anesthesia.

Elemental magical entity who embodies/personifies a force of nature or, in a more narrow sense, to one of the four Classical elements

An elemental is a mythic being that is described in occult and alchemical works from around the time of the European Renaissance, and particularly elaborated in the 16th century works of Paracelsus. According to Paracelsus and his subsequent followers, there are four categories of elementals, which are gnomes, undines, sylphs, and salamanders. These correspond to the four Empedoclean elements of antiquity: earth, water, air, and fire, respectively. Terms employed for beings associated with alchemical elements vary by source and gloss.

The band's 1996 fifth album Through Silver in Blood was credited by Terrorizer with "effectively invent[ing] the post-metal genre" [8] and named the best post-metal album of all time by Fact. [4] The fluctuating 12-minute song "Purify" has been described as the album's "signature track". [3] Neurosis' work has also contributed the development of doom metal, sludge metal, and drone metal, and these genres have been associated with post-metal since. [9] Similarly, drone metal pioneers Earth have been significant to post-metal ever since their 1991 debut release Extra-Capsular Extraction . [3]

Aaron Turner of Isis and Hydra Head Records has been a major figure. Aaron T (4775767148).jpg
Aaron Turner of Isis and Hydra Head Records has been a major figure.

Furthermore, Fact writer Robin Jahdi highlights the late 1990s noisecore of bands such as Botch, Kiss It Goodbye, the Dillinger Escape Plan and Coalesce, who merged brutal metallic hardcore with jazz into fast-and-complex compositions, as a fundamental influence on post-metal. [4] Writing for Bandcamp Daily , Jon Wiederhorn also noted the significance of Botch and Cave In, [3] while Converge have been connected to post-metal through their longer songs since the closing track of their seminal 2001 album Jane Doe . [10] According to Jahdi, the genre emerged as "those young intellectuals decided to slow it down" and labels such as Relapse Records and Hydra Head Records began releasing "slower, more bass-heavy and abstract" music more akin to post-rock. [4]

Development in the 2000s

Hydra Head Records had been established in 1993 by Aaron Turner. In 1997, Turner co-founded Isis, a band which became central to an increasingly recognizable post-metal movement. In particular, their 2002 sophomore album Oceanic – which showcased "buzzing washes of multilayered sound that ebbed and flowed in intensity", combining the "barbed guitars" and "shouted vocals" of post-hardcore with "meandering, psychedelic progressions" [3] – has become regarded as a classic of the genre. [4] At the same time, Hydra Head signed further prominent bands, releasing the early records of Pelican and Jesu. [1] While Pelican are an instrumental quartet inspired as much by Neurosis and Godflesh as by Mogwai, Jesu was formed by Justin Broadrick after the breakup of Godflesh to explore "ambient guitar compositions", embracing shoegazing and slowcore influences. [3]

Alongside shoegazing, black metal began to transform post-metal as it "spread beyond Scandinavia to infect the global underground". [3] Many bands employ the "speed and ferocity" of black metal in "contrast to slower, more ethereal compositions". This approach was pioneered by Agalloch, who formed in 1995 and also employed elements of doom metal, progressive rock, folk music, and post-hardcore. [3] Wolves in the Throne Room, who became a significant act for American black metal by the release of their 2007 sophomore album Two Hunters , were also inspired by Neurosis in combining "ambience and violence" to craft deeply melancholic music. [3]

While all post-metal pioneers except Broadrick are American, the genre soon spread internationally. In particular, the Japanese band Boris, formed in 1992, "have always embraced the spirit and vitality of the vibrant movement" and some of their works, such as the 2005 albums Dronevil and Pink , have become influential to it. [3] Boris often employ elements of drone music and have collaborated with prominent drone metal band Sunn O))), [3] who have also been associated with post-metal. [1] Several European bands also gained prominence within the genre, including Cult of Luna from Sweden, whose sound is indebted to Isis' Oceanic, [9] Amenra from Belgium, who signed to Neurosis' label Neurot Recordings and rival their predecessors in sheer spiritual intensity, [11] and Year of No Light from France, who have transitioned from a sludge-oriented sound to monumental instrumental compositions, "beautifully layered, but still dark and heavy". [3]

Another prominent instrumental band, Russian Circles, was also strongly influenced by Oceanic. [9] By contrast, True Widow, whose sound is rooted as much in 1990s indie rock and psychedelic rock as in doom metal, offer a distinctive take on post-metal, most impactfully on the 2013's Circumambulation , by employing "male/female vocal interplay" and showcasing "vulnerability and restraint". [3] Meanwhile, the Melvins had made a direct mark on the sound they themselves inspired with the 2004 album Pigs of the Roman Empire , a collaboration with dark ambient composer Lustmord. [3]

Gradually, post-metal as a genre has achieved major critical acclaim. [9] This was reinforced by the "widely publicized" success of Deafheaven, [3] whose sophomore album Sunbather became one of the most celebrated releases of 2013. The band's successful fusion of caustic black metal with blissfull shoegazing in the vein of My Bloody Valentine and Slowdive, [3] though preceded by the French musician Neige of Alcest, was nicknamed blackgaze and met with disdain from fans of conventional extreme metal. It has also inspired a wave of bands such as Ghost Bath, who often use undistorted guitar melodies to develop unsettling atmospheres, and Austria's Harakiri for the Sky, whose despairing sound melds black metal and post-hardcore. [3]

Deafheaven have brought the genre widespread critical acclaim in their fusion of black metal and shoegazing. Deafheaven @ A Colossal Weekend 2017 46.jpg
Deafheaven have brought the genre widespread critical acclaim in their fusion of black metal and shoegazing.


Post-metal is generally heavy, aggressive, and dark, but explores a variety of musical approaches alien to conventional heavy metal and extreme metal. [3] It mirrors post-rock and post-hardcore in its emphasis on atmosphere and deep emotion and may be considered abstract, [4] introspective, [9] expansive, [12] hypnotic, [7] progressive, [12] layered, [3] or even apocalyptic. [12] Jon Wiederhorn writes that though some post-metal bands "sought to break away from their raging roots by exploring less bombastic and more dynamic musical techniques" and others "sought to remain raw and corrosive", their music shares a "heavy-lidded yet eye-opening" effect. [3] The New York Times associated the term with a "wave of bands using metal as a jumping-off point for a range of experimental styles, dabbling in free jazz, minimalist post-rock, noise and even modern classical music." [1] Contemporary post-metal bands incorporate influences ranging through doom metal, black metal, shoegazing, progressive rock, folk music, and classical music. [3]

Writing for Slate in 2009, Simon Reynolds reflected:

[P]ost-rock doesn't have the same temporal aspect that post-disco or post-punk have; it's not about the ripples set in motion by a galvanizing "event." Rather, it evokes a sense of "going beyond" the structures of a genre of music without completely abandoning its legacy of attitudes and assumptions. For similar reasons, the term post-metal seems increasingly useful to describe the vast and variegated swath of genres (the thousand flavors of doom/black/death/grind/drone/sludge/etc., ad infinitum) that emerged from the early '90s onward. Sometimes beat-free and ambient, increasingly the work of home-studio loners rather than performing bands, post-metal of the kind released by labels like Hydra Head often seems to have barely any connection to metal as understood by, say, VH1 Classic doc-makers. The continuity is less sonic but attitudinal: the penchant for morbidity and darkness taken to a sometimes hokey degree; the somber clothing and the long hair; the harrowed, indecipherably growled vocals; the bombastically verbose lyrics/song titles/band names. It's that aesthetic rather than a way of riffing or a palette of guitar sounds that ties post-metal back to Judas Priest and Black Sabbath. [13]

Many groups, including Russian Circles, are instrumental. Russian Circles - Madrid - 15 abril 2015 2.JPG
Many groups, including Russian Circles, are instrumental.

Post-metal is therefore notoriously difficult to define.[ original research? ] Fact writer Robin Jahdi notes that "the best Neurosis albums don't sound anything like the best offerings from Isis" and that the genre cannot be readily distinguished from doom metal, modern black metal, and progressive metal, "[taking] in all of these elements without being entirely any one of them". [4] Contemporary post-metal is often seen as combining "elements of doom metal, sludge, and/or black metal with elements of post-rock and shoegaze", being more "peaceful" than metal but retaining its dark theming and harsh vocal style. [9] As with post-rock, however, many bands are instrumental and when vocals are used, they often "resemble [another] accompanying instrument" rather than actual words. [9] Songs are typically long and employ crescendos, gradually building upon repeated themes; Aaron Turner of Isis stated that "the standard song format of verse-chorus-verse-chorus is something that has been done and redone, and it seems pointless to adhere to that structure when there are so many other avenues to explore". [14]

Aesthetic and culture

While Simon Reynolds locates the connection between post-metal and conventional metal in attitude and aesthetic over musical approach, others have emphasized differences in these very areas.[ failed verification ] Noting the divergence from typical metal fashion, The New York Times described a 2005 Pelican show at the Knitting Factory in New York City: "Instead of long hair and all-black outfits, the crowd was displaying the trappings of brainy, slightly nerdy indie rock. Young men wore artistically cropped hair and tight-legged jeans, and there was even a smattering of young women in librarian glasses and worn-out Chuck Taylor sneakers." [1] Jon Wiederhorn describes the post-metal scene as a "global community of artists" positioned on the "fringes of the underground." [3] Pelican's Trevor de Brauw stated in 2007: [15]

Pelican, also instrumental, diverge from heavy metal conventions in all aspects of their style and approach. Pelican performing at Sant Feliu Fest 2004.jpg
Pelican, also instrumental, diverge from heavy metal conventions in all aspects of their style and approach.

I have an affinity [f]or metal, but I don't think of Pelican as a metal band. So when people call us 'instrumetal', or post-metal, or metalcore or whatever, I can see why they say that, but it's not something that I feel a close connection with. I feel we're part of a community with some bands – Mono are good friends of ours, but I don't feel that we're that similar musically. Their music is more similar to classical music, whereas I feel ours has more in common with punk and hardcore.

List of bands



















See also

Related Research Articles

Doom metal is an extreme subgenre of heavy metal music that typically uses slower tempos, low-tuned guitars and a much "thicker" or "heavier" sound than other heavy metal genres. Both the music and the lyrics intend to evoke a sense of despair, dread, and impending doom. The genre is strongly influenced by the early work of Black Sabbath, who formed a prototype for doom metal. During the first half of the 1980s, a number of bands from England, the United States and Sweden defined doom metal as a distinct genre.

A number of heavy metal genres have developed since the emergence of heavy metal during the late 1960s and early 1970s. At times heavy metal genres may overlap or are difficult to distinguish, but they can be identified by a number of traits. They may differ in terms of: instrumentation, tempo, song structure, vocal style, lyrics, guitar playing style, drumming style, and so on.

Extreme metal is a loosely defined umbrella term for a number of related heavy metal music subgenres that have developed since the early 1980s. It has been defined as a "cluster of metal subgenres characterized by sonic, verbal, and visual transgression".

Southern Lord is an American heavy metal record label that was founded in 1998 by Greg Anderson. Initially, Southern Lord specialized in what could broadly be classified as experimental metal, particularly the slow-moving doom metal, stoner rock, and drone metal subgenres. Some of the more notable artists on the label include Baptists, Earth, Om, Goatsnake, Khanate, Obliterations, Pelican, Sleep and Sunn O))), among others. More recently, the label expanded its line-up to include artists from the black metal subgenre, including releases by Twilight, Wolves in the Throne Room, Xasthur, and Striborg. They have also released albums by hardcore punk and crust punk bands like Burning Love, Agrimonia, and Wolfbrigade.

Jesu (band) British post-metal band

Jesu are a British experimental band formed in 2003 by Justin Broadrick following the 2002 breakup of his band Godflesh. It is named after the last song on Hymns, the final album of Godflesh's initial run. Jesu's sound is heavily layered and textured, incorporating a diverse mix of influences. Broadrick himself has stated that "'s very loosely speaking pop/rock/metal/electronica ... I'm intentionally writing what I consider to be coherent "pop" songs".

Isis (band) Los Angeles, California-based post-metal band

Isis was an American heavy metal band founded in Boston, Massachusetts in 1997 and later based in Los Angeles. The band borrowed from and helped to evolve the post-metal sound pioneered by bands such as Neurosis and Godflesh, characterized by lengthy songs focusing on repetition and evolution of structure. Isis's last studio album, Wavering Radiant, was released on May 5, 2009. Isis disbanded in June 2010, just before the release of a split EP with the Melvins. In 2018, the group reformed as 'Celestial' for a one-off show to pay tribute to Caleb Scofield.

Relapse Records record label in Upper Darby, Pennsylvania, United States

Relapse Records is an American independent record label based in Upper Darby, Pennsylvania. It was founded by Matthew F. Jacobson in 1990. The label features many grindcore, death metal, and sludge metal artists.

Boris (band) Japanese band

Boris is a Japanese experimental music band formed in 1992 in Tokyo and composed of drummer Atsuo Mizuno, guitarist/bassist Takeshi Ohtani, and guitarist/keyboardist Wata. All three members participate in vocal performance. Boris has released more than twenty studio albums on various labels around the world, as well as a wide variety of live albums, compilations, EPs, singles, and collaborative albums.

<i>Oceanic</i> (Isis album) 2002 studio album by ISIS

Oceanic is the second full-length album by American post-metal band ISIS, released on September 16, 2002, by Ipecac Recordings. On November 4, 2014, a remastered edition was released via Hydrahead/Ipecac Recordings.

<i>Streetcleaner</i> 1989 studio album by Godflesh

Streetcleaner is the debut studio album by English industrial metal band Godflesh. It was released on 13 November 1989 through Earache Records and was reissued with a second disc of previously unreleased material on 21 June 2010. The album is widely acclaimed by critics and is often cited as a landmark release in industrial metal; though not the genre's first release, Streetcleaner helped define what industrial metal would become.

Stoner rock, also known as stoner metal or stoner doom, is a rock music fusion genre that combines elements of heavy metal and/or doom metal with psychedelic rock and acid rock. The name references cannabis consumption. The term desert rock is often used interchangeably with the term "stoner rock" to describe this genre; however, not all stoner rock bands would fall under the descriptor of "desert rock". Stoner rock is typically slow-to-mid tempo and features a heavily distorted, groove-laden bass-heavy sound, melodic vocals, and "retro" production. The genre emerged during the early 1990s and was pioneered foremost by Monster Magnet and the California bands Fu Manchu, Kyuss and Sleep.

Amenra post-metal band

Amenra is a Belgian band from Kortrijk. It was formed in 1999 by vocalist Colin H. van Eeckhout and guitarist Mathieu Vandekerckhove, who now perform alongside drummer Bjorn Lebon, guitarist Lennart Bossu and bassist Levy Seynaeve. Among a number of other works, they have released six studio albums in the Mass series, the latest of them through Neurot Recordings. The band's unique musical style, characterised by brooding atmospheres and spiritual intensity, is rooted in doom metal, hardcore punk and post-rock. Their live performances, accompanied by visual art, have been described as "entrancing communions". In 2005, Amenra formed Church of Ra, a collective of collaborating artists which now includes Oathbreaker and the Black Heart Rebellion.

Oathbreaker is a Belgian band from Flanders, formed in 2008 and currently signed to Deathwish Inc. The band consists of guitarists Lennart Bossu and Gilles Demolder, drummer Wim Coppers, and vocalist Caro Tanghe, who performs both screamed and sung vocals. They are a part of Amenra's Church of Ra collective. Following a self-titled EP, Oathbreaker have released three studio albums: Mælstrøm (2011), Eros|Anteros (2013) and Rheia (2016). The latter two albums received generally positive reviews, noted for integrating a variety of different genres.

Downfall of Gaia

Downfall of Gaia are a German extreme metal band formed in 2008 by Dominik Goncalves dos Reis and Anton Lisovoj. Their current lineup is completed by drummer Michael Kadnar and guitarist Marco Mazzola. Transforming their initial crust punk sound with prominent black metal, doom metal, and post-rock influences, they have released five studio albums, the last four of them on Metal Blade Records.

The Black Heart Rebellion are a Belgian experimental band from Ghent, formed in 2004 by vocalist Pieter Uyttenhove, guitarists Alex Maekelberg and Valentijn Goethals, bassist Emeriek Verhoye, and drummer Tim Bryon. Their initial style was rooted in hardcore punk, as manifest on their debut album Monologue (2008). After collaborating on a stage play, the band began a process of artistic reinvention which culminated in the release of Har Nevo in 2012. They experimented with atmosphere, introducing unconventional percussion patterns and new instruments such as the Indian harmonium and the bouzouki. On their third album People, When You See the Smoke, Do Not Think It Is Fields They're Burning (2015), the Black Heart Rebellion affirmed their new direction. Their latest project is a 2018 alternative soundtrack to the film A Girl Walks Home Alone at Night.


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