List of heavy metal festivals

Last updated

List of heavy metal festivals
Brutal Assault 2012 main stages.jpg
General Information
Related genres Heavy metal, punk rock, rock music
LocationEurope and United States (origin)
Worldwide (current)
Related events punk rock festival, rock festival

This is an incomplete list of heavy metal festivals. Heavy metal (or simply metal) is a genre of rock music [1] that developed in the late 1960s and early 1970s, largely in the United States and the United Kingdom. [2] With roots in blues rock and psychedelic rock, the first heavy metal bands such as Black Sabbath and Deep Purple attracted large audiences, and during the late 1960s and mid-1970s these bands and others in their genre were featured at a number of historic rock festivals. [3] Judas Priest helped spur the genre's evolution by discarding much of its blues influence. [4] [5]

Contents

After the genre fused with other related genres such as punk rock in the late 1970s, bands in the new wave of British heavy metal such as Iron Maiden and Saxon followed in a similar vein. Before the end of the decade, heavy metal fans became known as "metalheads" or "headbangers", and there were festivals worldwide, both touring and stationary, dedicated to heavy metal subgenres and heavy metal itself. During the 1980s, glam metal became a commercial force, while Underground scenes and extreme subgenres of metal such as death metal and black metal remained subcultural phenomena, though they have their own dedicated festivals as well. Since the mid-1990s, popular styles have further expanded the definition of the genre.

Historical heavy metal festivals

Selected historically notable heavy metal festivals held since the 1960s
Festival nameLocationYearsDetails
Myponga Pop Festival Australia 1971 pop festival headlined by Black Sabbath
Monsters of Rock England 1980-1996music festival held in Castle Donington (later it branched into other locations)
Rock in Rio Brazil 1985–present1.5 million people attended the first event.
Dynamo Open Air Netherlands 1986–2005biggest annual metal festival during the 1990s, with 118,000 visitors in 1995
Moscow Music Peace Festival Russia 1989part of an era of momentous change in the Soviet Union
Wacken Open Air Germany 1990–presentlarger heavy metal festival
Sweden Rock Festival Sweden 1992–presentclassic rock, hard rock and metal.
Graspop Metal Meeting Belgium 1996–presentlarger heavy metal festival
Exit Festival Serbia 2000–presentExit 2006 had 22 stages.
Download Festival England 2003–presentheavy metal and alt-rock focus
Bloodstock Open Air England 2001–presentHeavy Metal festival
Hellfest Summer Open Air France 2006–presentlarger heavy metal festival

Current heavy metal festivals

Africa

Botswana

Festival nameLocationActiveApprox. time of yearNotes
Overthrust Winter Metal Mania Festival [6] Ghantsi2010–presentMayfeaturing local and African metal bands

Namibia

Festival nameLocationActiveApprox. time of yearNotes
Swakop RocksSwakopmund2019-presentSeptember1 day festival - Rock / Hard Rock / Punk
MothFestSwakopmund2021-presentFebruary1 day Rock / Hardrock / Metal

Asia

India

Festival nameLocationActiveApprox. time of yearNotes
Bangalore Open Air Karnataka2012–presentJuly
NH7 Weekender 2010–present
Thunderstrock Festival Ranchi, Jharkhand 2008–presentSeptember

Indonesia

Festival nameLocationActiveApprox. time of yearNotes
Bandung Berisik Bandung1995–presentJune–September
BrothergroundSurabayaNovember–Decemberdeathmetal, metalcore, deathcore, hardcore, etc
Doomsday Open AirBandungOctoberall heavy music
Hammersonic Festival Jakarta2012–presentMarch–Aprilall heavy music
Hellprint Bandung2011–presentNovember–Marchall heavy music
Rock In CelebesMakassar2010–presentNovemberrock genres
Rock in Solo Surakarta2004–presentOctober–Novemberheritage metal

Japan

Festival nameLocationActiveApprox. time of yearNotes
Download Festival Chiba City2019–presentMarch

Mongolia

Festival nameLocationActiveApprox. time of yearNotes
Noise Metal FestUlaanbaatar2014–presentApril-Mayfeaturing local and international metal bands

Nepal

Festival nameLocationActiveApprox. time of yearNotes
Silence FestKathmandu2011–presentSeptember & Novemberfeaturing local and international metal bands

Philippines

Festival nameLocationActiveApprox. time of yearNotes
Pulp Summer Slam Quezon City2001–presentAprillarge festival featuring metalcore, hardcore, thrash, death metal

Europe

Austria

Festival nameLocationActiveApprox. time of yearNotes
Nova Rock Nickelsdorf 2005–presentJune
Kaltenbach Open Air2003–presentAugust
Rise up Festival Judenburg

Belgium

Festival nameLocationActiveApprox. time of yearNotes
Graspop Metal Meeting Dessel 1996–presentEnd of JuneOne of the biggest metal festivals in Europe
Alcatraz Metal Festival Deinze, Kortrijk since 20132008–presentBeginning of AugustStarted indoor but changed to an outdoor festival in 2013
Headbanger's Balls Fest Izegem 2012–presentBeginning of May
Blast from the Past Festival Kuurne 2013–presentDecemberOld school heavy metal festival
MetalworksfestKuurne2017–presentBeginning or mid March

Bulgaria

Festival nameLocationActiveApprox. time of yearNotes
Hills of Rock

Czech Republic

Festival nameLocationActiveApprox. time of yearNotes
Brutal Assault Jaroměř1996–presentAugustextreme metal, heavy metal, hardcore punk, experimental music
Fluff Fest Rokycany2000–presentJulyhardcore punk, grindcore, crust punk, sludge metal, metalcore, post-metal
Masters of Rock (festival) Vizovice2003–presentJulyheavy metal, power metal
Metalfest Pilsen2007–presentJuneheavy metal, power metal
Obscene Extreme Trutnov1999–presentJulygrindcore, death metal, hardcore punk

Denmark

Festival nameLocationActiveApprox. time of yearNotes
Copenhell Copenhagen2010–presentJunefeaturing death, thrash, black, doom, heavy, power metal and hard rock
Aalborg Metal FestivalAalborg2002–presentNovemberfeaturing death, thrash, black, doom, heavy, power metal and hard rock
Royal Metal FestAarhus2008–presentAprilfeaturing death, thrash, black, doom, heavy, power metal and hard rock
Viborg Metal FestivalViborg2014–presentMarchfeaturing death, thrash, black, doom, heavy, power metal and hard rock
Metal Magic Festival Fredericia2008–presentJulyfeaturing death, thrash, black, doom, heavy, power metal and hard rock

Estonia

Festival nameLocationActiveApprox. time of yearNotes
Hard Rock LaagerVana-Vigala2002–presentJuneall subgenres of metal and rock
Howls of WinterTallinn2014–presentFebruaryblack metal

Finland

Festival nameLocationActiveApprox. time of yearNotes
Dark River FestivalKotkaAugustall subgenres of metal
John Smith Rock FestivalLaukaa2016–presentJulyheavy metal, rock
NummirockNummijärvi1987–presentJuneall subgenres of metal
SaarihelvettiTampereAugustall subgenres of metal
Steelfest Open AirHyvinkää2008–presentMayblack and death metal
Turku SaatanalleTurku2011–presentMarchblack metal
Tuska Open Air Helsinki1998–presentJulyall subgenres of metal

France

Festival nameLocationActiveApprox. time of yearNotes
Hellfest Summer Open Air Clisson2006–presentJunelarge festival, metal of all types
Motocultor Festival Brittany2007–presentAugustdeath, black, thrash metal
Plane'R FestColombier-Saugnieu, Montcul2012–presentJulymetal of all types
Sylak Open AirSaint-Maurice-de-GourdansAugustmetal of all types, hardcore

Germany

Festival nameLocationActiveApprox. time of yearNotes
Bang Your Head!!! Balingen1996–presentJulyheavy, thrash, death metal
Chronical Moshers Open AirMühlteich Hauptmannsgrün1982–presentJunedeath/black/thrash
Dong Open Air Neukirchen-Vluyn2001–presentJulyall styles of metal
Elbriot Hamburg2013–presentAugustone-day festival featuring rock, heavy metal, hardcore punk
Euroblast Festival Cologne2008–presentOctoberprogressive rock/metal
Full Force Löbnitz1994–presentJulyhardcore, metalcore, punk, and metal
In Flammen Open AirTorgauJulydeath/black/thrash metal
Metal Frenzy Open Air FestivalGardelegen, Saxony-Anhalt2014–presentJune
Party.San Metal Open AirSchlotheim, Thuringia2005–presentAugustdeath, black, thrash metal
Ragnarök Festival Lichtenfels, Bavaria 2004–presentAprilpagan, viking, black, death metal
Rhön Rock Open Air Hünfeld-Oberfeld, Hesse2017–presentAugust
Rock Hard Festival Gelsenkirchen2003–presentJuneheavy metal
Rock um zu helfenFreiberg, SaxonyOctoberrock genres
Summer Breeze Open Air Dinkelsbühl1997–presentAugustdeath, black, thrash metal
Wacken Open Air Wacken1990–presentAugustlargest metal festival in Germany

Greece

Festival nameLocationActiveApprox. time of yearNotes
Rockwave Festival Lamia, Athens1996–presentAugust

Hungary

Festival nameLocationActiveApprox. time of yearNotes
RockmaratonDunaújváros1991–presentJuly

Mostly Hungarian bands(Black, Thrash, Metalcore, Deathcore, Punk rock)

Iceland

Festival nameLocationActiveApprox. time of yearNotes
Eistnaflug Neskaupstaður2005–presentJulyfeaturing death, black, thrash metal and other rock music

Italy

Festival nameLocationActiveApprox. time of yearNotes
Agglutination Metal Festival Chiaromonte1995–presentAugust
Gods of Metal Monza1997–presentJunehard rock, heavy metal, metalcore

Latvia

Festival nameLocationActiveApprox. time of yearNotes
Metal ShowJekabpils2005–presentAugustall metal subgenres; 2-3 day festival
Zobens un LemessBauska2014–presentJunefolk, pagan, metal subgenres; 3 day festival

Lithuania

Festival nameLocationActiveApprox. time of yearNotes
Devilstone Anykščiai2009–presentJuly (mid)rock, metal
Kilkim Žaibu Varniai1999–presentJune (end)black, viking metal and folk music

Netherlands

Festival nameLocationActiveApprox. time of yearNotes
Amsterdam Metalfest Amsterdam2015–presentApril & Octoberone-day festival
Dynamo Metalfest Eindhoven2015–presentJuly
FortarockNijmegen2009–presentJune/Julylarge festival featuring all kinds of metal
Into the GraveLeeuwarden2010–presentAugust
MidsummerProgValkenburg2017–presentJune
Netherlands DeathfestEindhoven (Effenaar)2016–presentMay
ProgPower Europe Baarlo1999–presentOctoberfeaturing power, progressive metal
Roadburn Festival Tilburg1999–presentAprillarge festival featuring doom, stoner, death, black metal

Norway

Festival nameLocationActiveApprox. time of yearNotes
Inferno Metal Festival Oslo 2001–presentAprilfeaturing black, death, thrash, doom metal
Karmøygeddon Metal Festival Kopervik 2004–presentMaywide range of metal subgenres

Poland

Festival nameLocationActiveApprox. time of yearNotes
Metalmania Katowice2017–presentMarch
Siekiera festWrocław2019–presentSeptember3 days, various rock & metal subgenres

Portugal

Festival nameLocationActiveApprox. time of yearNotes
HARDMETALFESTMangualde1997–presentJanuaryfeaturing power, death, black, thrash, doom metal
Laurus Nobilis MusicFamalicão2015–presentAugustfeaturing power, death, black, thrash, doom metal
Paredes de Coura Festival Paredes de Coura1993–presentAugustlarge rock festival
Rock in Rio Lisboa Lisboa2004–presentMayfeaturing rock, pop, metal
SWR Barroselas MetalfestBarroselas1998–presentAprilfeaturing power, death, black, thrash, doom metal
Vagos Metal Fest Calvão 2016–presentAugustfeaturing power, death, black, thrash, doom metal
Vagos Open Air Lisboa2009–presentJunefeaturing power, death, black, thrash, doom metal

Romania

Festival nameLocationActiveApprox. time of yearNotes
Artmania Festival Sibiu2006–presentAugustart festival featuring gothic, doom, folk, heavy metal, progressive
Metalhead MeetingBucharest2013–presentJune/Julydeath metal, black metal, heavy metal
Rockstadt Extreme FestivalRasnov2013–presentAugustdeath metal, black metal, heavy metal
Metal Gates FestivalBucharest2017–presentNovemberdeath metal, black metal, doom metal
Posada Rock FestCampulung Muscel1986–presentLate Augustgothic metal, heavy metal, death metal

Russia

Festival nameLocationActiveApprox. time of yearNotes
Big Gun Moscow2019–presentJuly4/5-day heavy, power, mdm, thrash
Metal Over RussiaMoscowJuly3-day doom, death, black, dark, pagan, folk metal

Serbia

Festival nameLocationActiveApprox. time of yearNotes
Exit Festival Novi Sad2000–presentJulynot strictly a metal festival; features pop, rock, electronic, hip hop, but has some death, black, thrash, doom metal

Slovenia

Festival nameLocationActiveApprox. time of yearNotes
Metaldays Tolmin2004–presentJulypreviously known as Metalcamp, featuring death, black, folk, thrash metal

Spain

Festival nameLocationActiveApprox. time of yearNotes
Resurrection Fest Viveiro2006–presentJulyfeaturing hardcore, metalcore, thrash, death, black metal, punk,
Rock Fest BarcelonaBarcelona2014–presentJulyfeaturing hardcore, metalcore, thrash, death, black metal, punk
Leyendas del RockVillena2006–presentAugustmostly power and gothic metal

Sweden

Festival nameLocationActiveApprox. time of yearNotes
Gefle Metal Festival Gävle2016–presentJulyall subgenres of metal
House of Metal Umeå2007–presentFebruary or Marchall subgenres of metal and rock
Sabaton Open AirFalun2008–presentAugustorganized by Swedish heavy metal band Sabaton, featuring bands from all subgenres
Sweden Rock Festival Sölvesborg1992–presentJunefeaturing popular metal and rock bands worldwide
Jönköping Metal FestJönköpingSpring and fallblack, death, thrash metal

United Kingdom

Festival nameLocationActiveApprox. time of yearNotes
Bloodstock Open Air Catton Hall, Walton-on-Trent2005–presentAugustoutdoor festival featuring death, black, thrash, folk metal, with attendance of 13,000 (2013)
Damnation Festival Leeds, England2005–presentNovemberone-day festival featuring death, black, thrash, doom metal
Darkness Guides UsGlasgow, ScotlandNovembertwo-day indoor festival featuring black, pagan, extreme metal
Download Festival Donington Park, Leicestershire2003–presentJunelarge rock festival featuring hard rock, nu-metal, metalcore, death metal, black metal and pro wrestling from NXT UK l
Hammerfest Prestatyn, Wales2009–presentMarch
Hard Rock Hell Gwynedd, North Wales2007–presentNovemberfeaturing heavy metal, hard/heavy rock, rock
Incineration FestivalLondon, England2014–presentMayextreme metal festival for fans of death metal, black metal, doom metal, thrash metal, and slam.

North America

Canada

Festival nameLocationActiveApprox. time of yearNotes
Covenant FestivalVancouver, BC2012–presentJune-Julyunderground black and death metal.
Heavy Montréal Montreal, QC2008–presentJuly-Augustfeaturing popular metal, thrash metal, metalcore, nu-metal, hard rock

Mexico

Festival nameLocationActiveApprox. time of yearNotes
Candelabrum Metal FestLeónSeptember
Domination MxMexico CityMay2 Days
Force FestMexico City2012–presentNovember
Fronterizo FestTijuana2017–presentOctober
Hell & Heaven Metal Fest Mexico City2010–presentMarch2 Day Open-Air Metal Festival
Knotfest MéxicoMexico City2015–presentNovember
México Metal FestMonterrey2016–presentNovember1 Day
Total Death Over MéxicoMexico City2018–presentMay3 Day Underground Death, Black Metal Festival

United States

Festival nameLocationActiveApprox. time of yearNotes
Aftershock Sacramento, CA 2012–presentOctoberfeaturing grunge, hard rock, heavy metal, nu metal, thrash metal, death metal, metalcore, punk rock
Epicenter Concord, NC 2019–presentearly Mayfeaturing hard rock, classic rock, post-hardcore, alternative rock, heavy metal, progressive metal
Louder Than Life Louisville, KY 2014–presentSeptember/Octoberfeaturing hard rock, heavy metal, grunge, melodic death metal, post-hardcore, metalcore, power metal, gothic metal
Maryland Deathfest Baltimore, MD 2003–presentlate Mayfeaturing death, black, doom, grind, with attendance of 2,000-3,000
Mass Destruction Metal Fest Atlanta, GA 2017–presentNovemberfeaturing black and death metal
ProgPower USA Atlanta, GA 2001–presentearly Septemberfeaturing power and progressive metal
Rebel Rock Orlando, FL 2020–presentSeptemberfeaturing heavy metal, nu metal, metalcore, power metal, hard rock, post-hardcore
Rock Fest Cadott, WI 1994–presentJulyfeaturing classic rock, hard rock, heavy metal, nu metal, post-grunge, metalcore, thrash metal, post-hardcore
Rocklahoma Pryor, OK 2006–presentlate Mayfeaturing heavy metal, hard rock, post-hardcore, thrash metal, death metal, nu metal, alternative rock, classic rock
Sonic Temple Art & Music Festival Columbus, OH 2019–presentMayfeaturing hard rock, alternative rock, heavy metal, nu metal, post-hardcore, metalcore, death metal, progressive metal
Welcome to Rockville Daytona Beach, FL 2011–presentApril/Mayfeaturing hard rock, heavy metal, metalcore, gothic metal, post-hardcore, industrial metal, death metal, alternative rock
70000 Tons of Metal Fort Lauderdale, FL 2011–presentJanuaryfeaturing thrash, power, symphonic, folk, death, black metal, with about 2,000 attendees on a cruise ship

Oceania

Australia

Festival nameLocationActiveApprox. time of yearNotes
Download Festival [7] Melbourne and Sydney2018–presentMarchMelbourne and Sydney in 2019

South America

Brazil

Festival nameLocationActiveApprox. time of yearNotes
Rock in Rio Rio de Janeiro 1985–presentSeptember
Maniacs Metal MeetingRio Negrinho2016–presentDecember
Armageddon Metal FestivalJoinvilleMay/June

Colombia

Festival nameLocationActiveApprox. time of yearNotes
Rock al Parque Bogotá1994–presentAugustrock festival with death, thrash metal

Ecuador

Festival nameLocationActiveApprox. time of yearNotes
Quito Fest Quito 2003–presentSeptember

Tours

The following is an incomplete list of traveling metal festivals, both active and defunct:

See also

Related Research Articles

Heavy metal is a genre of rock music that developed in the late 1960s and early 1970s, largely in the United Kingdom and the United States. With roots in blues rock, psychedelic rock, and acid rock, heavy metal bands developed a thick, massive sound, characterized by distortion, extended guitar solos, emphatic beats, and loudness. The lyrics and performances are sometimes associated with aggression and machismo.

Speed metal is an extreme subgenre of heavy metal music that originated in the late 1970s from new wave of British heavy metal (NWOBHM) roots. It is described by AllMusic as "extremely fast, abrasive, and technically demanding" music.

Hard rock or heavy rock is a loosely defined subgenre of rock music typified by a heavy use of aggressive vocals, distorted electric guitars, bass guitar, and drums, sometimes accompanied with keyboards. It began in the mid-1960s with the garage, psychedelic and blues rock movements. Some of the earliest hard rock music was produced by the Kinks, the Who, the Rolling Stones, the Yardbirds, Cream and the Jimi Hendrix Experience. In the late 1960s, bands such as the Jeff Beck Group, Iron Butterfly, the Beatles, Led Zeppelin, Golden Earring, Steppenwolf and Deep Purple also produced hard rock.

Judas Priest British heavy metal band

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The new wave of British heavy metal was a nationwide musical movement that started in the United Kingdom in the late 1970s and achieved international attention by the early 1980s. Journalist Geoff Barton coined the term in a May 1979 issue of the British music newspaper Sounds to describe the emergence of new heavy metal bands in the mid to late 1970s, during the period of punk rock's decline and the dominance of new wave music.

Popular music of the United Kingdom in the 1970s built upon the new forms of music developed from blues rock towards the end of the 1960s, including folk rock and psychedelic rock. Several important and influential subgenres were created in Britain in this period, by pursuing the limitations of rock music, including British folk rock and glam rock, a process that reached its apogee in the development of progressive rock and one of the most enduring subgenres in heavy metal music. Britain also began to be increasingly influenced by third world music, including Jamaican and Indian music, resulting in new music scenes and subgenres. In the middle years of the decade the influence of the pub rock and American punk rock movements led to the British intensification of punk, which swept away much of the existing landscape of popular music, replacing it with much more diverse new wave and post punk bands who mixed different forms of music and influences to dominate rock and pop music into the 1980s.

Acid rock is a loosely defined type of rock music that evolved out of the mid-1960s garage punk movement and helped launch the psychedelic subculture. The style is generally defined by heavy, distorted guitars, lyrics with drug references, and long improvised jams. Its distinctions from other genres can be tenuous, as much of the style overlaps with '60s punk, proto-metal, and early heavy, blues-based hard rock. The term “acid rock” is sometimes colloquially used interchangeably with “psychedelic rock", but the two terms are also generally differentiated as referring to distinct yet related genres, with acid rock often cited as a heavier, louder, rawer, or harder subgenre or sibling of psychedelic rock.

Blues rock is a fusion music genre that combines elements of blues and rock music. It is mostly an electric ensemble-style music with instrumentation similar to electric blues and rock. From its beginnings in the early to mid-1960s, blues rock has gone through several stylistic shifts and along the way it inspired and influenced hard rock, Southern rock, and early heavy metal.

British rock music

British rock describes a wide variety of forms of music made in the United Kingdom. Since around 1964, with the "British Invasion" of the United States spearheaded by the Beatles, British rock music has had a considerable impact on the development of American music and rock music across the world.

<i>Metal: A Headbangers Journey</i> 2005 film by Sam Dunn

Metal: A Headbanger's Journey is a 2005 documentary film directed by Sam Dunn with Scot McFadyen and Jessica Wise. The film follows 31-year-old Dunn, a Canadian anthropologist, who has been a heavy metal fan since the age of 12. Dunn sets out across the world to uncover the various opinions on heavy metal music, including its origins, culture, controversy, and the reasons it is loved by so many people. The film made its debut at the 2005 Toronto International Film Festival, and was released as a two-disc special edition DVD in the US on 19 September 2006.

Psychedelic music is a wide range of popular music styles and genres influenced by 1960s psychedelia, a subculture of people who used psychedelic drugs such as LSD, psilocybin mushrooms, mescaline and DMT to experience visual and auditory hallucinations, synesthesia and altered states of consciousness. Psychedelic music may also aim to enhance the experience of using these drugs.

This is a timeline documenting the formative events in heavy metal music before 1970.

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<i>Sound of the Beast</i>

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Heavy metal lyrics

Heavy metal lyrics are the words used in songs by heavy metal artists. Given that there are many genres of heavy metal, it is difficult to make generalizations about the lyrics and lyrical themes. In 1989, two metal scholars wrote that heavy metal lyrics concentrate "on dark and depressing subject matter to an extent hitherto unprecedented" in any form of popular music. Jeffrey Arnett states that metal songs are "overwhelmingly dominated" by "ugly and unhappy" themes which express "no hope" for the future.

Heavy metal drumming

Heavy metal drumming is a style of rock music drum kit playing that developed in the late 1960s and early 1970s, largely in the United Kingdom and the United States. With roots in blues rock and psychedelic/acid rock drum playing, heavy metal drummers play with emphatic beats, and overall loudness using an aggressive performing style. Heavy metal drumming is traditionally characterized by emphatic rhythms and dense bass guitar-and-drum sound. The essence of metal drumming is creating a loud, constant beat for the band using the "trifecta of speed, power, and precision".

Occult rock is a subgenre of rock music that originated in the late 1960s to early 1970s, pioneered by bands such as Coven and Black Widow.

Biker metal fusion genre

Biker metal is a fusion genre that combines elements of punk rock, heavy metal, rock and roll and blues, that was pioneered in the late-1970s to early-1980s in England and the United States, by Motörhead, Plasmatics, Anti-Nowhere League and Girlschool.

References

  1. Du Noyer (2003), p. 96; Weinstein (2000), pp. 11–13.
  2. Weinstein (2000), pp. 14, 118.
  3. Fast (2005), pp. 89–91; Weinstein (2000), pp. 7, 8, 23, 36, 103, 104.
  4. Walser (1993), p. 6.
  5. "As much as Sabbath started it, Priest were the ones who took it out of the blues and straight into metal." Bowe, Brian J. Judas Priest: Metal Gods. ISBN   0-7660-3621-9.
  6. "African Heavy Metal Bands Give Back to their Communities". BORGEN. 10 September 2015. Retrieved 21 May 2016.
  7. http://downloadfestival.com.au/