World music

Last updated

World music (also called global music or international music) [1] is a musical category encompassing many different styles of music from around the globe. It includes many forms of ethnic music, indigenous music, folk music, neotraditional music, and music where more than one cultural tradition, such as non-Western music and Western popular music, intermingle.

Indigenous music is a term for the traditional music of the indigenous peoples of the world, that is, the music of an "original" ethnic group that inhabits any geographic region alongside more recent immigrants who may be greater in number. The term therefore depends upon the political role an ethnic group plays rather than upon its strictly musical characteristics, for all further criteria defining indigenous peoples can also be applied to majority cultures.

Folk music Music of the people

Folk music includes traditional folk music and the genre that evolved from it during the 20th-century folk revival. Some types of folk music may be called world music. Traditional folk music has been defined in several ways: as music transmitted orally, music with unknown composers, or music performed by custom over a long period of time. It has been contrasted with commercial and classical styles. The term originated in the 19th century, but folk music extends beyond that.

Popular music is music with wide appeal that is typically distributed to large audiences through the music industry. These forms and styles can be enjoyed and performed by people with little or no musical training. It stands in contrast to both art music and traditional or "folk" music. Art music was historically disseminated through the performances of written music, although since the beginning of the recording industry, it is also disseminated through recordings. Traditional music forms such as early blues songs or hymns were passed along orally, or to smaller, local audiences.

Contents

World music's inclusive nature and elasticity as a musical category may pose for some obstacles to a universal definition, but its ethic of interest in the culturally exotic is encapsulated in fRoots magazine's description of the genre as "local music from out there". [2]

<i>fRoots</i>

fRoots is a specialist music magazine published quarterly in the UK. It specialises in folk and world music, and features a compilation downloadable album with every issue, with occasional specials. In 2006, the circulation of the magazine was 12,000 worldwide.

The term was popularized in the 1980s as a marketing category for non-Western traditional music. [3] [4] It has grown to include subgenres such as ethnic fusion (Clannad, Ry Cooder, Enya, etc.) [5] and worldbeat. [6] [7]

Clannad Irish band

Clannad is an Irish family band formed in 1970 in Gweedore, County Donegal. Their music has been described as folk, folk rock, traditional Irish, Celtic and new-age, often incorporating elements of smooth jazz and Gregorian chant.

Ry Cooder American musician

Ryland Peter "Ry" Cooder is an American musician, songwriter, film score composer, and record producer. He is a multi-instrumentalist but is best known for his slide guitar work, his interest in roots music from the United States, and his collaborations with traditional musicians from many countries.

Eithne Pádraigín Ní Bhraonáin ; born 17 May 1961), known professionally as Enya, is an Irish singer, songwriter, record producer and musician. Born into a musical family and raised in the Irish-speaking area of Gweedore in County Donegal in the north of Ireland, Enya began her music career when she joined her family's Celtic band Clannad in 1980 on keyboards and backing vocals. She left in 1982 with their manager and producer Nicky Ryan to pursue a solo career, with Ryan's wife Roma Ryan as her lyricist. Enya developed her sound over the following four years with multitracked vocals and keyboards with elements of new age, Celtic, classical, church, and folk music. She has sung in ten languages.

Terminology

Delhi 2 Dublin in 2012 Delhi 2 Dublin in 2012.jpg
Delhi 2 Dublin in 2012

The term has been credited to ethnomusicologist Robert E. Brown, who coined it in the early 1960s at Wesleyan University in Connecticut, where he developed undergraduate through doctoral programs in the discipline. To enhance the learning process (John Hill), he invited more than a dozen visiting performers from Africa and Asia and began a world music concert series. [8] [9] The term became current in the 1980s as a marketing/classificatory device in the media and the music industry. [10] There are several conflicting definitions for world music. One is that it consists of "all the music in the world", though such a broad definition renders the term virtually meaningless. [11] [12]

Robert E. Brown American ethnomusicologist

Robert Edward "Bob" Brown was an American ethnomusicologist who is credited with coining the term "world music". He was also well known for his recordings of music from Indonesia. Many of these recordings, among the first widely distributed and commercially available in the United States, inspired a generation of musicians to study and perform Indonesian gamelan music.

Wesleyan University private liberal arts college in Middletown, Connecticut

Wesleyan University is a private liberal arts college in Middletown, Connecticut. Wesleyan is a baccalaureate college that emphasizes undergraduate instruction in the arts and sciences but also grants research master's and PhD degrees in many academic disciplines.

Music industry companies and individuals that create and sell music

The music industry consists of the companies and individuals that earn money by creating new songs and pieces and selling live concerts and shows, audio and video recordings, compositions and sheet music, and the organizations and associations that aid and represent music creators. Among the many individuals and organizations that operate in the industry are: the songwriters and composers who create new songs and musical pieces; the singers, musicians, conductors and bandleaders who perform the music; the companies and professionals who create and sell recorded music and/or sheet music ; and those that help organize and present live music performances.

The term also is taken as a classification of music that combines Western popular music styles with one of many genres of non-Western music that are also described as folk music or ethnic music. However, world music is not exclusively traditional folk music. It may include cutting edge pop music styles as well. Succinctly, it can be described as "local music from out there", [13] or "someone else's local music". [14] It is a very nebulous term with an increasing number of genres that fall under the umbrella of world music to capture musical trends of combined ethnic style and texture, including Western elements (examples noted in this section).

Western world Countries that identify themselves with an originally European shared culture

The Western world, also known as the West, refers to various nations depending on the context, most often including at least parts of Europe, Australasia, and the Americas, with the status of Latin America disputed by some. There are many accepted definitions, all closely interrelated. The Western world is also known as the Occident, in contrast to the Orient, or Eastern world.

A music genre is a conventional category that identifies some pieces of music as belonging to a shared tradition or set of conventions. It is to be distinguished from musical form and musical style, although in practice these terms are sometimes used interchangeably. Recently, academics have argued that categorizing music by genre is inaccurate and outdated.

Pop music is a genre of popular music that originated in its modern form in the United States and United Kingdom during the mid-1950s. The terms "popular music" and "pop music" are often used interchangeably, although the former describes all music that is popular and includes many diverse styles. "Pop" and "rock" were roughly synonymous terms until the late 1960s, when they became increasingly differentiated from each other.

World music may incorporate distinctive non-Western scales, modes and/or musical inflections, and often features distinctive traditional ethnic instruments, such as the kora (West African harp), the steel drum, the sitar or the didgeridoo. [15]

Kora (instrument) instrument

The kora is a 21-string lute-bridge-harp used extensively in West Africa.

Harp class of musical instruments

The harp is a stringed musical instrument that has a number of individual strings running at an angle to its soundboard; the strings are plucked with the fingers. Harps have been known since antiquity in Asia, Africa and Europe, dating back at least as early as 3500 BC. The instrument had great popularity in Europe during the Middle Ages and Renaissance, where it evolved into a wide range of variants with new technologies, and was disseminated to Europe's colonies, finding particular popularity in Latin America. Although some ancient members of the harp family died out in the Near East and South Asia, descendants of early harps are still played in Myanmar and parts of Africa, and other defunct variants in Europe and Asia have been utilized by musicians in the modern era.

The sitar is a plucked stringed instrument, originating from the Indian subcontinent, used in Hindustani classical music. The instrument flourished under the Mughals, and it is named after a Persian instrument called the setar. The sitar flourished in the 16th and 17th centuries and arrived at its present form in 18th-century India. It derives its distinctive timbre and resonance from sympathetic strings, bridge design, a long hollow neck and a gourd-shaped resonance chamber. In appearance, the sitar is similar to the tanpura, except that it has frets.

Music from around the world exerts wide cross-cultural influence as styles naturally influence one another, and in recent years world music has also been marketed as a successful genre in itself. Academic study of world music, as well as the musical genres and individual artists associated with it appear in such disciplines as anthropology, folkloristics, performance studies and ethnomusicology.

Evolving terminology

Anda Union at a music festival Anda Union-1.JPG
Anda Union at a music festival

In the age of digital music production the increased availability of high-quality, ethnic music samples, sound bites and loops from every known region are commonly used in commercial music production, which has exposed a vast spectrum of indigenous music texture to developing, independent artists.

An amalgamation of roots music in the global, contemporary listening palette has become apparent, which weakens the role major entertainment labels such as Columbia, Warner, MCA and EMI can play in the cultural perception of genre boundaries.

Similar terminology between distinctly different sub-categories under primary music genres, such as world, rock and pop, can be as ambiguous and confusing to industry moguls as it is to consumers. As Damian Burns writes, this is especially true in the context of world music, where branches of ethnically influenced pop trends are as genre-defined by consumer perception as they are by the music industry forums that govern the basis for categorical distinction. Academic scholars tend to agree that, in today's world of consumer music reviews and blogging, global music culture's public perception is what ultimately distils a prevailing basis for definition from genre ambiguity, regardless of how clearly a category has been outlined by corporate marketing forums and music journalism. The world music genre's gradual migration from a clear spectrum of roots music traditions to an extended list of hybrid subgenres is a good example of the motion genre boundaries can exhibit in a globalizing pop culture.

The classic, original definition of world music was in part created to instill a perceived authenticity and distinction between indigenous music traditions and those that eventually become diluted by pop culture, and the modern debate over how possible it is to maintain that perception in the richly diverse genre of world music is ongoing. [16] [17]

In a report on the 2014 globalFEST, National Public Radio's Anastasia Tsioulcas said, "Even within the 'world music' community, nobody likes the term 'world music'. It smacks of all kinds of loaded issues, from cultural colonialism to questions about what's "authentic" and what isn't (and who might get to police such inquiries), and forces an incredible array of styles that don't have anything in common under the label of "exotic Other." What's more: I believe that in many people's imaginations, "world music" means a kind of fairly awful, gloppy, hippy-ish, worldbeat fusion. It's a problematic, horrible term that satisfies absolutely no one." [18]

Early influences

Millie Small released "My Boy Lollipop" in 1964. Small's version was a hit, reaching number 2 both in the UK Singles Chart [19] and in the US Billboard Hot 100. In the 1960s, Miriam Makeba and Hugh Masekela had popular hits in the USA. In 1969 Indian musician Ravi Shankar played sitar at the Woodstock festival. [20]

In the 1970s, Manu Dibango's funky track "Soul Makossa" [21] (1972) became a hit, and Osibisa released "Sunshine Day" (1976). Fela Kuti created Afrobeat [22] and Femi Kuti, Seun Kuti and Tony Allen followed Fela Kuti's funky music. Salsa musicans such as Jose Alberto, Ray Sepúlveda, Johnny Pacheco, Fania All-Stars, Ray Barretto, Rubén Blades, Gilberto Santa Rosa, Roberto Roena, Bobby Valentín, Eddie Palmieri, Héctor Lavoe and Willie Colón developed Latin music. [23]

The Breton musician Alan Stivell pioneered the connection between traditional folk music, modern rock music and world music with his 1972 album Renaissance of the Celtic Harp . [24] Around the same time, Stivell's contemporary, Welsh singer-songwriter Meic Stevens popularised Welsh folk music. [25] Neo-traditional Welsh language music featuring a fusion of modern instruments and traditional instruments such as the pibgorn and the Welsh harp has been further developed by Bob Delyn a'r Ebillion. Lebanese musical pioneer Lydia Canaan fused Middle-Eastern quarter notes and microtones with anglophone folk, and is listed in the catalog of the Rock and Roll Hall of Fame and Museum's Library and Archives [26] [27] as the first rock star of the Middle East. [27] [28] [29] [30] [31]

Forms

Alan Stivell in concert at Brest (Brittany), 2013 Alan Stivell - Jeudis du port 2013.jpg
Alan Stivell in concert at Brest (Brittany), 2013

Examples of popular forms of world music include the various forms of non-European classical music (e.g. Chinese guzheng music, Indian raga music, Tibetan chants), Eastern European folk music (e.g. the village music of the Balkans, The Mystery of the Bulgarian Voices), Nordic folk music, Latin music, Indonesian music, and the many forms of folk and tribal music of the Middle East, Africa, Asia, Oceania, Central and South America.

The broad category of world music includes isolated forms of ethnic music from diverse geographical regions. These dissimilar strains of ethnic music are commonly categorized together by virtue of their indigenous roots. Over the 20th century, the invention of sound recording, low-cost international air travel, and common access to global communication among artists and the general public have given rise to a related phenomenon called "crossover" music. Musicians from diverse cultures and locations could readily access recorded music from around the world, see and hear visiting musicians from other cultures and visit other countries to play their own music, creating a melting pot of stylistic influences. While communication technology allows greater access to obscure forms of music, the pressures of commercialization also present the risk of increasing musical homogeneity, the blurring of regional identities, and the gradual extinction of traditional local music-making practices. [32]

Hybrid examples

Vampire Weekend performing at Red Rocks Amphitheatre in 2013 Vampire Weekend Red Rocks 05.20.13.jpg
Vampire Weekend performing at Red Rocks Amphitheatre in 2013

Since the music industry established this term, the fuller scope of what an average music consumer defines as "world" music in today's market has grown to include various blends of ethnic music tradition, style and interpretation, [7] and derivative world music genres have been coined to represent these hybrids, such as ethnic fusion and worldbeat. Good examples of hybrid, world fusion are the Irish-West African meld of Afro Celt Sound System, [33] the pan-cultural sound of AO Music [34] and the jazz / Finnish folk music of Värttinä, [35] each of which bear tinges of contemporary, Western influence—an increasingly noticeable element in the expansion genres of world music. Worldbeat and ethnic fusion can also blend specific indigenous sounds with more blatant elements of Western pop. Good examples are Paul Simon's album Graceland , on which South African mbaqanga music is heard; Peter Gabriel's work with Pakistani Sufi singer Nusrat Fateh Ali Khan; the Deep Forest project, in which vocal loops from West Africa are blended with Western, contemporary rhythmic textures and harmony structure; and the work of Mango, who combined pop and rock music with world elements.

Depending on style and context, world music can sometimes share the new-age music genre, a category that often includes ambient music and textural expressions from indigenous roots sources. Good examples are Tibetan bowls, Tuvan throat singing, Gregorian chant or Native American flute music. World music blended with new-age music is a sound loosely classified as the hybrid genre 'ethnic fusion'. Examples of ethnic fusion are Nicholas Gunn's "Face-to-Face" from Beyond Grand Canyon, featuring authentic Native American flute combined with synthesizers, and "Four Worlds" from The Music of the Grand Canyon, featuring spoken word from Razor Saltboy of the Navajo Indian Nation.

World fusion

The subgenre world fusion is often mistakenly assumed to refer exclusively to a blending of Western jazz fusion elements with world music. Although such a hybrid expression falls easily into the world fusion category, the suffix "fusion" in the term world fusion should not be assumed to mean jazz fusion. Western jazz combined with strong elements of world music is more accurately termed world fusion jazz, [36] ethnic jazz or non-Western jazz. World fusion and global fusion are nearly synonymous with the genre term worldbeat , and though these are considered subgenres of popular music, they may also imply universal expressions of the more general term world music. [7] In the 1970s and 80s, fusion in the jazz music genre implied a blending of jazz and rock music, which is where the misleading assumption is rooted. [37]

Although it primarily describes traditional music, the world music category also includes popular music from non-Western urban communities (e.g. South African "township" music) and non-European music forms that have been influenced by other so-called third-world musics (e.g. Afro-Cuban music). [38]

For many years, Paris has attracted numerous musicians from former colonies in West and North Africa. This scene is aided by the fact that there are many concerts and institutions that help to promote the music.

Algerian and Moroccan music have an important presence in the French capital. Hundreds of thousands of Algerian and Moroccan immigrants have settled in Paris, bringing the sounds of Amazigh (Berber), raï, and Gnawa music.

The West African community is also very large, integrated by people from Senegal, Mali, Ivory Coast, and Guinea.

1987 meeting

On 29 June 1987, a meeting of interested parties gathered to capitalize on the marketing of this genre. Paul Simon had released the world music-influenced album Graceland in 1986. [39] The concept behind the album had been to express his own sensibilities using the sounds he had fallen in love with while listening to artists from Southern Africa, including Ladysmith Black Mambazo and Savuka. This project and the work of Peter Gabriel and Johnny Clegg among others had, to some degree, introduced non-Western music to a wider audience. They saw this as an opportunity.

Although specialist music stores had been important in developing the genre over many years, the record companies, broadcasters and journalists had been finding it difficult to build a following because the music, itself, seemed too scarce.

At the outset of the 1987 meeting, the musician Roger Armstrong advised the reason why something had to be done:

[He] felt that the main problem in selling our kind of material lay with the UK retail outlets and, specifically, the fact that they did not know how to rack it coherently. This discouraged [the retail stores] from stocking the material in any depth and made it more difficult for the record buyers to become acquainted with our catalogs. [40]

The first concern of the meetings was to select the umbrella name that this music would be listed under. Suggestions included "world beat" and prefixing words such as "hot" or "tropical" to existing genre titles. "World music" won after a show of hands, but initially it was not meant to be the title for a whole new genre—but just something the record labels could place on record sleeves to distinguish them during the forthcoming campaign. Afterward, they agreed that despite the publicity campaign, this wasn't an exclusive club—and that for the good of all, any label that sold this type of music could use the name.

Another issue was the distribution methods at the time. Most main labels were unhappy with the lack of specialist knowledge in their sales force, which led to poor service. Many larger outlets were reluctant to carry the music, because they favored larger releases they could promote within the store. It was difficult to justify a large presentation expense with limited stock going into stores.

World music market

One of the marketing strategies used in the vinyl market at the time was the use of browser cards, which would appear in the record racks. As part of the "world music" campaign, it was decided that these would be a two color affair designed to carry a special offer package; to aid the retailer a selection of labels would also be included, presumably for shelf or rack edging.

In an unprecedented move, all of the world music labels coordinated together and developed a compilation cassette for the cover of the music magazine NME . The overall running time was 90 minutes, each package containing a mini-catalog showing the other releases on offer.

By the time of a second meeting it became clear that a successful campaign required its own dedicated press officer. The press officer would be able to juggle various deadlines and sell the music as a concept—not just to national stations, but also regional DJs keen to expand their musical variety. DJs were a key resource as it was important to make "world music" important to people outside London—most regions after all had a similarly heritage to tap into. A cost-effective way of achieving all this would be a leafleting campaign.

The next step was to develop a world music chart, gathering together selling information from around fifty shops, so that it would finally be possible to see which were big sellers in the genre—so new listeners could see what was particularly popular. It was agreed that the NME could again be involved in printing the chart and also Music Week and the London listings magazine City Limits . It was also suggested that Andy Kershaw might be persuaded to do a run down of this chart on his show regularly.

Relationship to immigration and multiculturalism

In most wealthy industrialized countries, large amounts of immigration from other regions has been ongoing for many decades. This has introduced non-Western music to Western audiences not only as "exotic" imports, but also as local music played by fellow citizens. But the process is ongoing and continues to produce new forms. In the 2010s several musicians from immigrant communities in the West rose to global popularity, such as Haitian-American Wyclef Jean, Somali-Canadian K'naan, Tamil-Briton M.I.A., or Lebanese-Colombian Shakira, often blending the music of their heritage with hip-hop or pop. Cuban-born singer-songwriter Addys Mercedes started her international career from Germany mixing traditional elements of Son with pop. [41]

Once, an established Western artist might collaborate with an established African artist to produce an album or two. Now, new bands and new genres are built from the ground up by young performers. For example, the Punjabi-Irish fusion band Delhi 2 Dublin is from neither India nor Ireland, but Vancouver, British Columbia, Canada. Country for Syria, an Istanbul based music collective, blends American Country music with the music of Syrian refugees and local Turkish music. [42] Musicians and composers also work collectively to create original compositions for various combinations of ethnic and western instruments.

World Music Month

The World Music Month started in October 1987. It is a music festival held at the Town & Country Club in London, and it was the start of the winter season for both WOMAD and Arts Worldwide.

More and more international artists, many of whom are big stars in their own countries, are coming to England and North America on tour. They started off, like the Bhundu Boys, playing small clubs and pubs, but now many acts are so popular that they are filling larger venues.

Examples of radio shows that feature world music include World of Music on Voice of America, Transpacific Sound Paradise on WFMU, The Planet on Australia's ABC Radio National, DJ Edu presenting D.N.A: DestiNation Africa on BBC Radio 1Xtra, Adil Ray on the BBC Asian Network, Andy Kershaw's show on BBC Radio 3 and Charlie Gillett's show [43] on the BBC World Service.

2010s radio programs

World music radio programs today often play African hip hop or reggae artists, crossover Bhangra and Latin American jazz groups, etc. Common media for world music include public radio, webcasting, the BBC, NPR, and the (Australian Broadcasting Corporation). By default, non-region-specific or multi-cultural world music projects are often listed under the generic category of world music.

Criticisms

World music is defined in opposition, and relative, to Western popular music and Western art music, and its constituent musics are positioned as equivalent to one another, despite the fact that they may have vastly different musical qualities. Therefore the treatment of so-called world music is unequal to that of the normative music of the global West. This is primarily due to the fact that dominant corporate structures for music distribution and promotion originate in Europe and North America , as do the forums for establishing industry genre categories.

Therefore, in market context, "ethnic" music is synthetically defined by a radius that extends from a Western center.

Some musicians and curators of music have come to dislike the term "world music". To these critics, "world music" is a parochial, catch-all marketing term for non-Western music of all genres. In October 1999, Luaka Bop label founder and ex-Talking Heads frontman David Byrne wrote an "I Hate World Music" editorial in The New York Times explaining his objections to the term. Byrne argued that the labelling and categorization of other cultures as "exotic" serves to attract an insincere consumption and deter other potential consumers. [44]

Awards

WOMEX 15 - Budapest WOMEX 15 - Budapest, 2015.10.22 (1).JPG
WOMEX 15 - Budapest

The BBC Radio 3 Awards for World Music was an award given to world music artists between 2002 and 2008, sponsored by BBC Radio 3. The award was thought up by fRoots magazine's editor Ian Anderson, inspired by the BBC Radio 2 Folk Awards. Award categories included: Africa, Asia/Pacific, Americas, Europe, Mid East and North Africa, Newcomer, Culture Crossing, Club Global, Album of the Year, and Audience Award. Initial lists of nominees in each category were selected annually by a panel of several thousand industry experts. Shortlisted nominees were voted on by a twelve-member jury, which selected the winners in every category except for the Audience Award category. These jury members were appointed and presided over by the BBC. [45] The annual awards ceremony was held at the BBC Proms and winners were given an award called a "Planet". In March 2009, the BBC made a decision to axe the BBC Radio 3 Awards for World Music. [46] [47]

In response to the BBC's decision to end its awards program, the British world music magazine Songlines launched the Songlines Music Awards in 2009 "to recognise outstanding talent in world music". [48]

The WOMEX Awards were introduced in 1999 to honor the high points of world music on an international level and to acknowledge musical excellence, social importance, commercial success, political impact and lifetime achievement. [49] Every October at the WOMEX event, the award figurine—an ancient mother goddess statue dating back about 6000 years to the Neolithic age—is presented in an award ceremony to a worthy member of the world music community.

Festivals

Many festivals are identified as being "world music"; here is a small representative selection:

Australia

Bangladesh

Belgium

Canada

Croatia

France

Germany

Hungary

Budapest Ritmo Tent and MUPA Center Budapest Ritmo 2016.jpg
Budapest Ritmo Tent and MÜPA Center

Iceland

India

Indonesia

Iran

Italy

Macedonia

Malaysia

Mali

Morocco

New Zealand

Poland

Portugal

Romania

Serbia

Spain Spain's most important world music festivals are:

Sweden , [61] Green World Yoga & Sacred Music Festival, June this year at Skåne.

Turkey

Uganda

Ukraine

United Kingdom

United States

See also

Related Research Articles

Worldbeat is a music genre that blends pop music or rock music with world music or traditional music. Worldbeat is similar to other cross pollination labels of contemporary and roots genres, and which suggest a rhythmic, harmonic or textural contrast between its modern and ethnic elements.

Music listened by Tanzanians stretches from (Bolingo) traditional African music to the string-based taarab to a distinctive hip hop known as bongo flava.

The music of Argentina includes a variety of traditional, classical and popular genres. One of the country's most significant cultural contributions is the tango, which originated in Buenos Aires and its surroundings during the end of the 19th century and underwent profound changes throughout the 20th century. Folk music was particularly popular during the 20th century, experiencing a "boom" in popularity during the 1950s and 1960s thanks to artists such as Atahualpa Yupanqui and Mercedes Sosa, prominent figures of the Nuevo cancionero movement. In the mid-to-late 1960s, the countercultural scene of Buenos Aires originated Argentine rock, considered the earliest incarnation of Spanish-language rock for having an autochthonous identity that differed from that of England or the United States. It was widely embraced by the youth and since then has become part of the country's musical identity as much as traditional music. According to the Harvard Dictionary of Music, Argentina also "has one of the richest art music traditions and perhaps the most active contemporary musical life.

The music of Barbados includes distinctive national styles of folk and popular music, including elements of Western classical and religious music. The culture of Barbados is a syncretic mix of African and British elements, and the island's music reflects this mix through song types and styles, instrumentation, dances, and aesthetic principles.

Balkan music is a type of music found in the Balkan region of southeastern Europe. The music is characterised by complex rhythm. Famous bands in Balkan music were Taraf de Haïdouks, Fanfare Ciocarlia, and No Smoking Orchestra.

Rokia Traoré Malian musician

Rokia Traoré is a Malian singer, songwriter and guitarist.

Mercan Dede, also known as DJ Arkin Allen, is a Turkish composer, ney and bendir player, DJ and producer. He divides his time between Turkey, Europe and North America. He is a world music artist, playing a fusion of traditional acoustic Turkish and other oriental musics with electronic sounds.

Various awards have been presented in recent years to musical artists for their contributions to the genre of world music. This article provides a partial list of these awards and their recipients.

<i>Songlines</i> (magazine)

Songlines is a British based magazine launched in 1999 that covers music from traditional and popular to contemporary and fusion, featuring artists from around the globe.

Rainforest World Music Festival

The Rainforest World Music Festival is an annual three-day music festival celebrating the diversity of world music, held in Kuching, Sarawak, Malaysia, with daytime music workshops, cultural displays, craft displays, food stalls, and main-stage evening concerts. The festival has been awarded 25 of the best International Festivals by Songlines for six consecutive years; from 2010 to 2015.

WOMEX international networking platform for the world music industry

WOMEX is an international world music support and development project based in Berlin, whose main event is an exposition held annually in different locations throughout Europe. It integrates a trade fair, showcases, conferences, film screenings, networking sessions, and awards. Musicians and their labels have the possibility to make contacts for international touring and album distribution.

Invisible System is the pseudonym for the UK & Africa producer Dan Harper whose music involves a fusion of Ethiopian, dub, reggae, techno, trance, drum and bass, jungle, acid, psychedelic, folk, post-punk, goth and rock. More recent productions have been based around Malian griot and traditional music fusions.

Outline of jazz Overview of and topical guide to jazz


The following outline is provided as an overview of and topical guide to jazz:

World Music Network is a UK-based record label specializing in world music.

World music is a musical category encompassing many different styles of music from around the world.

Sam Lee (folk musician)

Sam Lee is a British folk singer and traditional music specialist. His debut album, Ground of its Own was shortlisted for the 2012 Mercury Music Award. Lee performs as part of an ensemble, Sam Lee and Friends.

Keith Waithe is a Guyana-born musician, composer and teacher who has been based in the United Kingdom since 1977. He is best known as a flautist and founder of the Macusi Players – a world music jazz band whose name derives from the indigenous Guyanese Macushi people – and has been "acknowledged as the best flute player that Guyana has ever produced". His musical style explores a fusion of jazz, classical, African, Caribbean, Asian and Western influences, and he has also developed a technique he calls "vocal gymnastics", in which he uses the voice to reproduce percussive sounds. Music critic Kevin Le Gendre notes that Waithe "has single-mindedly pursued his own artistic agenda, developing a songbook that draws heavily on African-Caribbean and Asian folk traditions as well as jazz ingenuity in a manner not dissimilar to a large number of his forebears, of which Yusef Lateef is perhaps the most direct reference."

Azadoota Assyrian Australian worldbeat band

Azadoota is an Assyrian Australian worldbeat band formed in 1996 in Sydney, Australia that fuses traditional Assyrian pop and folk with Latin music. Its founder, Robin Zirwanda, the band's percussionist and lead singer, writes and sings the songs in Assyrian Neo-Aramaic. The name of the band Azadoota means 'freedom' in the Assyrian language.

References

Citations

  1. Tsioulcas, Anastasia (December 13, 2014). "Best Global Music Of 2014". NPR . Retrieved July 21, 2017.
  2. Chris Nickson. The NPR Curious Listener's Guide to World Music. Grand Central Press, 2004. pp 1-2.
  3. Erlmann, Veit (1996). "Aesthetics of the Global Imagination: Reflections on World Music in the 1990s". Public Culture. 8 (3). pp. 467–488.
  4. Frith, Simon (2000). Born and Hesmondhalgh (ed.). "The Discourse of World Music". University of California Press.
  5. "Ethnic fusion Music". Allmusic.
  6. "Worldbeat". Allmusic.
  7. 1 2 3 "World Fusion Music". worldmusic.nationalgeographic.com. Archived from the original on 2012-03-14.
  8. Williams, Jack. "Robert E. Brown brought world music to San Diego schools | The San Diego Union-Tribune". Signonsandiego.com. Retrieved 2010-04-24.
  9. "World Music and Ethnomusicology". Ethnomusic.ucla.edu. 1991-09-23. Retrieved 2013-04-22.
  10. "What Is World Music?". people.iup.edu. December 1994. Retrieved 2014-10-27.
  11. Bohlman, Philip (2002). World Music: A Very Short Introduction, "Preface". ISBN   0-19-285429-1.
  12. Nidel 2004, p.3
  13. fRoots magazine, quoted in N'Dour 2004, p. 1
  14. Songlines magazine
  15. Skyphos Songs by Elena Frolova on poetry by Marina Tsvetaeva using reconstructed ancient angular harp found in Altai mountains in Siberia
  16. "New Perspectives in Ethnomusicology: A Critical Survey". Society of Ethnomusicology.
  17. "Origins of World Music". BBC.
  18. Tsioulcas, Anastasia (January 16, 2014). "What Makes globalFEST So Interesting?". NPR . Retrieved January 16, 2014.
  19. Roberts, David (2006). British Hit Singles & Albums (19th ed.). London: Guinness World Records Limited. p. 367. ISBN   1-904994-10-5.
  20. http://www.woodstockstory.com/ravishankar.html
  21. http://www.allmusic.com/album/soul-makossa-mw0000234058
  22. http://fela.net/
  23. http://www.allmusic.com/genre/latin-ma0000002692
  24. Bruce Elder. All Music Guide, Renaissance of the Celtic harp. Retrieved 15 July 2009.
  25. "3am Interview: FOLK MINORITY - AN INTERVIEW WITH MEIC STEVENS". www.3ammagazine.com.
  26. "Library and Archives Subject File (Rock and Roll Hall of Fame and Museum Records--Curatorial Affairs Division Records) - Rock and Roll Hall of Fame and Museum - Library and Archives - Catalog". catalog.rockhall.com.
  27. 1 2 O'Connor, Tom. "Lydia Canaan One Step Closer to Rock n' Roll Hall of Fame", The Daily Star , Beirut, April 27, 2016.
  28. Salhani, Justin. "Lydia Canaan: The Mideast’s First Rock Star", The Daily Star , Beirut, November 17, 2014.
  29. Livingstone, David. "A Beautiful Life; Or, How a Local Girl Ended Up With a Recording Contract in the UK and Who Has Ambitions in the U.S.", Campus, No. 8, p. 2, Beirut, February 1997.
  30. Ajouz, Wafik. "From Broumana to the Top Ten: Lydia Canaan, Lebanon's 'Angel' on the Road to Stardom", Cedar Wings, No. 28, p. 2, Beirut, July–August 1995.
  31. Aschkar, Youmna. "New Hit For Lydia Canaan", Eco News, No. 77, p. 2, Beirut, January 20, 1997.
  32. Seeger, Anthony (December 1996). "Traditional Music in Community Life: Aspects of Performance, Recordings, and Preservation". Cultural Survival Quarterly Magazine. Retrieved 14 June 2019.
  33. "Afro Celt Sound System". Allmusic.
  34. "Aomusic". Allmusic.
  35. "Värttinä". Allmusic.
  36. "World Fusion". allmusic.com.
  37. "Fusion". allmusic.com.
  38. http://www.african-diaspora-press.com/acm.html
  39. http://www.paulsimon.com/music/graceland/
  40. "Minutes of Meeting Between the Various 'World Music' Record Companies and Interested Parties, Monday 29 June 1987". fRoots magazine. Retrieved 2010-09-15.
  41. "Addys Mercedes - Addys Mercedes". www.addysmercedes.com.
  42. "American country music with an Arabic twist". DailySabah. Retrieved 2017-02-09.
  43. "bbc.co.uk/worldservice/programmes/wmusic". Bbc.co.uk. Retrieved 2010-04-24.
  44. Byrne, David (3 October 1999). "Crossing Music's Borders In Search Of Identity; 'I Hate World Music'". The New York Times. The New York Times Company. Archived from the original on 15 April 2011. Retrieved 15 December 2016.
  45. "Radio 3—Awards for World Music 2008". BBC. Retrieved 2013-04-22.
  46. Donovan, Paul (2009-03-22). "Mystery of missing BBC music awards". The Sunday Times. London. Retrieved 2009-03-21.
  47. Dowell, Ben (2009-03-20). "BBC axes Radio 3 Awards for World Music". The Guardian. Retrieved 2009-03-21.
  48. Magazine, Songlines. "Songlines - Music Awards - 2017 - winners". www.songlines.co.uk.
  49. "WOMEX Awards".
  50. "Radio 3—WOMAD 2005". BBC. Retrieved 2010-04-24.
  51. "Kingston City Council, Melbourne, Australia—Globe to Globe World Music Festival". Kingston.vic.gov.au. 2013-01-31. Retrieved 2013-04-22.
  52. "Initiative Folk e.V". Folk-music.de. Retrieved 2010-04-24.
  53. "LGMF". L Subramaniam Foundation. Retrieved 2014-03-28.
  54. "Fajr International Music Festival" . Retrieved 2015-09-09.
  55. Festival in the Desert—Artist Detail Information; BBC Four, "Festival in the Desert 2004", 5 November 2004.
  56. "Festival Mawazine". Festival Mawazine.
  57. Archived September 22, 2010, at the Wayback Machine
  58. "Stołeczna Estrada—O projekcie". Estrada.com.pl. Retrieved 2013-04-22.
  59. "Strona główna". Innebrzmienia.pl. Retrieved 2013-04-22.
  60. "Nowa Tradycja 2013—XVI Festiwal Folkowy Polskiego Radia". .polskieradio.pl. Retrieved 2013-04-22.
  61. "Green World Yoga & Sacred Music Festival". www.yogamela.se.
  62. "Konya International Mystic Music Festival". www.mysticmusicfest.com.
  63. "FETHIYE WORLD MUSIC FESTIVAL TURKEY WEB".
  64. Krassner, Paul (2005). Life Among the Neopagans in The Nation , August 24, 2005. Retrieved November 28, 2012.
  65. https://www.eventbrite.com/e/calarts-world-music-and-dance-festival-tickets-59410463295

Sources