Transylvania

Last updated
Transylvania

Transilvania / Ardeal  (Romanian)
Erdély  (Hungarian)
Siebenbürgen  (German)
Arieseni 27.jpg
Coat of arms of Transylvania.svg
Coat of arms
Nickname(s): 
"The Land Beyond the Forest"
Transylvania, Banat, Crisana and Maramures.svg
  Transylvania proper
  parts of Banat, Crișana and Maramureș
Coordinates: 46°46′0″N23°35′0″E / 46.76667°N 23.58333°E / 46.76667; 23.58333 Coordinates: 46°46′0″N23°35′0″E / 46.76667°N 23.58333°E / 46.76667; 23.58333
CountryFlag of Romania.svg  Romania
Largest city Cluj-Napoca
Area
  Total102,834 km2 (39,704 sq mi)
Population
(2011)
  Total6,789,250
  Density66/km2 (170/sq mi)
Demonym(s) Transylvanian
Time zone UTC+2 (EET)
  Summer (DST) UTC+3 (EEST)

Transylvania is a historical region which is located in central Romania. Bound on the east and south by its natural borders, the Carpathian mountain range, historical Transylvania extended westward to the Apuseni Mountains. The term sometimes encompasses not only Transylvania proper, but also parts of the historical regions of Crișana and Maramureș, and occasionally the Romanian part of Banat.

Romania Sovereign state in Europe

Romania is a country located at the crossroads of Central, Eastern, and Southeastern Europe. It borders the Black Sea to the southeast, Bulgaria to the south, Ukraine to the north, Hungary to the west, Serbia to the southwest, and Moldova to the east. It has a predominantly temperate-continental climate. With a total area of 238,397 square kilometres (92,046 sq mi), Romania is the 12th largest country and also the 7th most populous member state of the European Union, having almost 20 million inhabitants. Its capital and largest city is Bucharest, and other major urban areas include Cluj-Napoca, Timișoara, Iași, Constanța, Craiova, and Brașov.

A natural border is a border between states or their subdivisions which is concomitant with natural formations such as rivers, mountain ranges, or deserts. The "doctrine of natural boundaries" developed in Western culture in the 18th century being based upon the "natural" ideas of Jean-Jacques Rousseau and developing concepts of nationalism. The similar concept in China developed earlier from natural zones of control.

Carpathian Mountains mountain range in Central and Eastern Europe

The Carpathian Mountains or Carpathians are a mountain range system forming an arc roughly 1,500 km (932 mi) long across Central and Eastern Europe, making them the third-longest mountain range in Europe after the Ural Mountains with 2,500 km (1,553 mi) and Scandinavian Mountains with 1,700 km (1,056 mi).

Contents

The region of Transylvania is known for the scenery of its Carpathian landscape and its rich history. It also contains major cities such as Cluj-Napoca, Brașov, Sibiu, Târgu Mureș, and Bistrița.

Cluj-Napoca City in Cluj County, Romania

Cluj-Napoca, commonly known as Cluj, is the fourth most populous city in Romania, and the seat of Cluj County in the northwestern part of the country. Geographically, it is roughly equidistant from Bucharest, Budapest and Belgrade. Located in the Someșul Mic River valley, the city is considered the unofficial capital to the historical province of Transylvania. From 1790 to 1848 and from 1861 to 1867, it was the official capital of the Grand Principality of Transylvania.

Brașov City in Romania

Brașov is a city in Romania and the administrative centre of Brașov County.

Sibiu City in Romania

Sibiu is a city in Transylvania, Romania, with a population of 147,245. Located some 275 km (171 mi) north-west of Bucharest, the city straddles the Cibin River, a tributary of the river Olt. Now the capital of Sibiu County, between 1692 and 1791 and 1849–65 Sibiu was also the capital of the Principality of Transylvania.

The Western world commonly associates Transylvania with vampires, because of the influence of Bram Stoker's novel Dracula and its many film adaptations. [1] [2] [3]

Western world Countries that identify themselves with an originally European—since the Cold War, US American—shared culture

The Western world, also known as the West, refers to various nations depending on the context, most often including at least part of Europe, Australasia, and the Americas, with the status of Latin America in dispute. There are many accepted definitions, all closely interrelated. The Western world is also known as the Occident, in contrast to the Orient, or Eastern world.

Vampire mythological or folkloric creature (for vampires from a work of fiction see Q30061417)

A vampire is a being from folklore that subsists by feeding on the vital force of the living. In European folklore, vampires were undead beings that often visited loved ones and caused mischief or deaths in the neighborhoods they inhabited while they were alive. They wore shrouds and were often described as bloated and of ruddy or dark countenance, markedly different from today's gaunt, pale vampire which dates from the early 19th century.

Bram Stoker Irish novelist and short story writer

Abraham "Bram" Stoker was an Irish author, best known today for his 1897 Gothic novel Dracula. During his lifetime, he was better known as the personal assistant of actor Sir Henry Irving and business manager of the Lyceum Theatre in London, which Irving owned.

Etymology

Historical names of Transylvania are:

Romanian language Romance language

Romanian is an Eastern Romance language spoken by approximately 24–26 million people as a native language, primarily in Romania and Moldova, and by another 4 million people as a second language. It is an official and national language of Romania and Moldova. In addition, it is also one of the official languages of the European Union.

Russian language East Slavic language

Russian is an East Slavic language, which is official in the Russian Federation, Belarus, Kazakhstan and Kyrgyzstan, as well as being widely used throughout Eastern Europe, the Baltic states, the Caucasus and Central Asia. It was the de facto language of the Soviet Union until its dissolution on 25 December 1991. Although, nowadays, nearly three decades after the breakup of the Soviet Union, Russian is used in official capacity or in public life in all the post-Soviet nation-states, as well as in Israel and Mongolia, the rise of state-specific varieties of this language tends to be strongly denied in Russia, in line with the Russian World ideology.

Romanization of Russian Romanization of the Russian alphabet

Romanization of Russian is the process of transliterating the Russian language from the Cyrillic script into the Latin script.

In Romanian, the region is known as Ardeal (pronounced  [arˈde̯al] ) or Transilvania [transilˈvani.a] ; in Hungarian as Erdély [ˈɛrdeːj] ; in German as Siebenbürgen [ˈziːbn̩ˌbʏɐ̯ɡn̩] ( Loudspeaker.svg listen ); and in Turkish as Transilvanya [tɾansilˈvanja] but historically as Erdel or Erdelistan; see also other denominations.

Hungarian language language spoken in and around Hungary

Hungarian is a Finno-Ugric language spoken in Hungary and several neighbouring countries. It is the official language of Hungary and one of the 24 official languages of the European Union. Outside Hungary it is also spoken by communities of Hungarians in the countries that today make up Slovakia, western Ukraine (Subcarpathia), central and western Romania (Transylvania), northern Serbia (Vojvodina), northern Croatia, and northern Slovenia. It is also spoken by Hungarian diaspora communities worldwide, especially in North America and in Israel. Like Finnish and Estonian, Hungarian belongs to the Uralic language family. With 13 million speakers, it is its largest member in terms of speakers.

Turkish language Turkic language (possibly Altaic)

Turkish, also referred to as Istanbul Turkish, is the most widely spoken of the Turkic languages, with around ten to fifteen million native speakers in Southeast Europe and sixty to sixty-five million native speakers in Western Asia. Outside Turkey, significant smaller groups of speakers exist in Germany, Bulgaria, North Macedonia, Northern Cyprus, Greece, the Caucasus, and other parts of Europe and Central Asia. Cyprus has requested that the European Union add Turkish as an official language, even though Turkey is not a member state.

Medieval Latin form of Latin used in the Middle Ages

Medieval Latin was the form of Latin used in Roman Catholic Western Europe during the Middle Ages. In this region it served as the primary written language, though local languages were also written to varying degrees. Latin functioned as the main medium of scholarly exchange, as the liturgical language of the Church, and as the working language of science, literature, law, and administration.

The accusative case of a noun is the grammatical case used to mark the direct object of a transitive verb. The same case is used in many languages for the objects of prepositions. It is a noun that is having something done to it, usually used together with the nominative case. For example, "they" in English is nominative; "them" is accusative. The sentence "They like them" shows the nominative case and accusative case working in conjunction using the same base word. The syntactic functions of the accusative consist of designating the immediate object of an action, the intended result, the goal of a motion, and the extent of an action.

Middle High German is the term for the form of German spoken in the High Middle Ages. It is conventionally dated between 1050 and 1350, developing from Old High German and into Early New High German. High German is defined as those varieties of German which were affected by the Second Sound Shift; the Middle Low German and Middle Dutch languages spoken to the North and North West, which did not participate in this sound change, are not part of MHG.

History

Ruins of Sarmizegetusa Regia Sarmisegetusa Regia - Templele patrulatere mici - Zona sacra - Gradistea Muntelui, Muntii Sureanu, Hunedoara, Romania 19.JPG
Ruins of Sarmizegetusa Regia
Roman city of Apulum Castrum Apulum 2011 - Porta Principalis Dextra-1.jpg
Roman city of Apulum

Transylvania has been dominated by several different peoples and countries throughout its history. It was once the nucleus of the Kingdom of Dacia (82 BC–106 AD). In 106 AD the Roman Empire conquered the territory, systematically exploiting its resources. After the Roman legions withdrew in 271 AD, it was overrun by a succession of various tribes, bringing it under the control of the Carpi, Visigoths, Huns, Gepids, Avars and Slavs. From 9th to 11th century Bulgarians ruled Transylvania.[ citation needed ] It is a subject of dispute whether elements of the mixed Daco–Roman population survived in Transylvania through the Post-classical Era (becoming the ancestors of modern Romanians) or the first Vlachs/Romanians appeared in the area in the 13th century after a northward migration from the Balkan Peninsula. [6] [7] There is an ongoing scholarly debate over the ethnicity of Transylvania's population before the Hungarian conquest (see Origin of the Romanians).

Greater Romania, in the interwar period Romania MASSR 1920.png
Greater Romania, in the interwar period
Romania's territorial losses in the summer of 1940, showing Northern Transylvania being ceded to the Kingdom of Hungary. The region was returned to Romania after World War II. PerdidasTerritorialesRumanas1940-ro.svg
Romania's territorial losses in the summer of 1940, showing Northern Transylvania being ceded to the Kingdom of Hungary. The region was returned to Romania after World War II.
Historical Romanian borders Romania territory during 20th century.gif
Historical Romanian borders

The Magyars conquered much of Central Europe at the end of the 9th century. According to Gesta Hungarorum, the Vlach voivode Gelou ruled Transylvania before the Hungarians arrived. The Kingdom of Hungary established partial control over Transylvania in 1003, when king Stephen I, according to legend, defeated the prince named Gyula . [8] [9] [10] [11] Some historians assert Transylvania was settled by Hungarians in several stages between the 10th and 13th centuries, [12] [13] while others claim that it was already settled, [14] since the earliest Hungarian artifacts found in the region are dated to the first half of the 10th century. [15]

Between 1003[ dubious ] and 1526, Transylvania was a voivodeship in the Kingdom of Hungary, led by a voivode appointed by the King of Hungary. [16] [17] After the Battle of Mohács in 1526, Transylvania became part of the Kingdom of János Szapolyai. Later, in 1570, the kingdom transformed into the Principality of Transylvania, which was ruled primarily by Calvinist Hungarian princes. During that time, the ethnic composition of Transylvania transformed from an estimated near equal number [18] of the ethnic groups to a Romanian majority. Vasile Lupu estimates their number already more than one-third of the population of Transylvania in a letter to the sultan around 1650. [19] For most of this period, Transylvania, maintaining its internal autonomy, was under the suzerainty of the Ottoman Empire.

A market scene in Transylvania, 1818 Lanzedelli - Targ in Transilvania 3.jpg
A market scene in Transylvania, 1818

The Habsburgs acquired the territory shortly after the Battle of Vienna in 1683. In 1687, the rulers of Transylvania recognized the suzerainty of the Habsburg emperor Leopold I, and the region was officially attached to the Habsburg Empire. The Habsburgs acknowledged Principality of Transylvania as one of the Lands of the Crown of Saint Stephen, [20] but the territory of principality was administratively separated [21] [22] from Habsburg Hungary [23] [24] [25] and subjected to the direct rule of the emperor's governors. [26] In 1699 the Turks legally acknowledged their loss of Transylvania in the Treaty of Karlowitz; however, some anti-Habsburg elements within the principality submitted to the emperor only in the 1711 Peace of Szatmár, and Habsburg control over Principality of Transylvania was consolidated. The Grand Principality of Transylvania was reintroduced 54 years later in 1765.

The Hungarian revolution against the Habsburgs started in 1848. The revolution in the Kingdom of Hungary grew into a war for the total independence from the Habsburg dynasty. Julius Jacob von Haynau, the leader of the Austrian army was appointed plenipotentiary to restore order in Hungary after the conflict. He ordered the execution of The 13 Hungarian Martyrs of Arad and Prime Minister Batthyány was executed the same day in Pest. After a series of serious Austrian defeats in 1849, the empire came close to the brink of collapse. Thus, the new young emperor Franz Joseph I had to call for Russian help in the name of the Holy Alliance. Czar Nicholas I answered, and sent a 200,000 men strong army with 80,000 auxiliary forces. Finally, the joint army of Russian and Austrian forces defeated the Hungarian forces. After the restoration of Habsburg power, Hungary was placed under martial law. Following the Hungarian Army's surrender at Világos (now Șiria, Romania) in 1849, their revolutionary banners were taken to Russia by the Tsarist troops, and were kept there both under the Tsarist and Communist systems (in 1940 the Soviet Union offered the banners to the Horthy government).

After the Ausgleich of 1867, the Principality of Transylvania was once again abolished. The territory was then turned into Transleithania, [9] [11] an addition to the newly established Austro-Hungarian Empire. Romanian intellectuals issued the Blaj Pronouncement in protest. [27]

The National Assembly in Alba Iulia (December 1, 1918), declaring the Union of Transylvania with Romania Original Photo National Museum of Union-Alba Iulia.jpg
The National Assembly in Alba Iulia (December 1, 1918), declaring the Union of Transylvania with Romania

Following defeat in World War I, Austria-Hungary disintegrated. Elected representatives of the ethnic Romanians from Transylvania, Banat, Crişana and Maramureş backed by the mobilization of Romanian troops, proclaimed Union with Romania on 1 December 1918. The Proclamation of Union of Alba Iulia was adopted by the Deputies of the Romanians from Transylvania, and supported one month later by the vote of the Deputies of the Saxons from Transylvania.

The national holiday of Romania, the Great Union Day (also called Unification Day [28] ) occurring on December 1, celebrates this event. The holiday was established after the Romanian Revolution, and marks the unification not only of Transylvania, but also of the provinces of Banat, Bessarabia and Bukovina with the Romanian Kingdom. These other provinces had all joined with the Kingdom of Romania a few months earlier. In 1920, the Treaty of Trianon established new borders, much of the proclaimed territories became part of Romania. Hungary protested against the new borders, as over 1,600,000 Hungarian people and representing 31.6% of the Transylvanian population [29] were living on the Romanian side of the border, mainly in Székely Land of Eastern Transylvania, and along the newly created border.

After World War I, the multi-ethnic Kingdom of Hungary was split apart by the Treaty of Trianon to form several new nation-states, but Hungary claimed that the new state borders did not follow the real ethnic boundaries. The new Magyar nation-state of Hungary was about a third the size of former Hungary, and millions of ethnic Magyars were to be left outside the Hungarian borders. In August 1940, Hungary gained about 40% of Transylvania - including parts of Maramureș and Crișana - by the Second Vienna Award, with the arbitration of Germany and Italy. This award allowed Romania to keep Southern Transylvania, which was larger and had a potent military industry.

The Second Vienna Award was voided on 12 September 1944 by the Allied Commission through the Armistice Agreement with Romania (Article 19); and the 1947 Treaty of Paris reaffirmed the borders between Romania and Hungary, as originally defined in Treaty of Trianon, 27 years earlier, thus confirming the return of Northern Transylvania to Romania. [9] From 1947 to 1989, Transylvania, along with the rest of Romania, was under a communist regime. The ethnic clashes of Târgu Mureș occurred between ethnic Romanians and Hungarians in March 1990 after the fall of the communist regime and became most notable inter-ethnic incident in the post-communist era.

Geography and ethnography

Turda Gorges seen from the west end, in Cluj county Cheile Turzii-(42).JPG
Turda Gorges seen from the west end, in Cluj county
Geogel, Romanian Orthodox wooden church RO AB Geogel wooden church 1 55.jpg
Geogel, Romanian Orthodox wooden church
Geographical map of Romania Romania general map-en.png
Geographical map of Romania

The Transylvanian Plateau, 300 to 500 metres (980–1,640 feet) high, is drained by the Mureș, Someș, Criș, and Olt rivers, as well as other tributaries of the Danube. This core of historical Transylvania roughly corresponds with nine counties of modern Romania. The plateau is almost entirely surrounded by the Eastern, Southern and Romanian Western branches of the Carpathian Mountains. The area includes the Transylvanian Plain. Other areas to the west and north are widely considered part of Transylvania. In common reference, the Western border of Transylvania has come to be identified with the present Romanian-Hungarian border, settled in the 1920 Treaty of Trianon, though geographically the two are not identical.

Ethnographic areas:

Administrative divisions

The area of the historical Voivodeship is 55,146 km2 (21,292 sq mi). [30] [31]

The regions granted to Romania in 1920 covered 23 counties including nearly 102,200 km2 (39,460 sq mi) (102,787–103,093 km2 in Hungarian sources and 102,200 km2 in contemporary Romanian documents). Nowadays, due to the several administrative reorganisations, the territory covers 16 counties (Romanian: judeţ ), with an area of 99,837 km2 (38,547 sq mi), in central and northwest Romania.

The 16 counties are: Alba, Arad, Bihor, Bistriţa-Năsăud, Brașov, Caraș-Severin, Cluj, Covasna, Harghita, Hunedoara, Maramureș, Mureș, Sălaj, Satu Mare, Sibiu, and Timiș.

Transylvania contains both largely urban counties, such as Brașov and Hunedoara counties, as well as largely rural ones, such as Bistriţa-Năsăud and Sălaj counties. [32]

Since 1998, Romania has been divided into eight development regions, acting as divisions that coordinate and implement socio-economic development at regional level. Six counties (Alba, Brașov, Covasna, Harghita, Mureș and Sibiu) form the Centru development region, other six counties (Bihor, Bistrița-Năsăud, Cluj, Maramureș, Satu Mare, Sălaj) form the Nord-Vest development region, while four (Arad, Caraș-Severin, Hunedoara, Timiș) form the Vest development region.

Cities

Cluj-Napoca (Hungarian: Kolozsvar
, German: Klausenburg
) Biserica Mihail.JPG
Cluj-Napoca (Hungarian : Kolozsvár, German : Klausenburg)
Brasov (Hungarian: Brasso
, German: Kronstadt
) Brasov, Romania (26523347959).jpg
Brașov (Hungarian : Brassó, German : Kronstadt)
Sibiu (Hungarian: Nagyszeben
, German: Hermannstadt
) Sibiu 200811 800px.jpg
Sibiu (Hungarian : Nagyszeben, German : Hermannstadt)
Timisoara (Hungarian: Temesvar
, German: Temeschburg
) Universitatea Politehnica Timisoara - Rectorat.jpg
Timișoara (Hungarian : Temesvár, German : Temeschburg)
Oradea (Hungarian: Nagyvarad
, German: Grosswardein
) Primaria si Centrul Municipiului Oradea.JPG
Oradea (Hungarian : Nagyvárad, German : Großwardein)

The most populous cities as of 2011 census [33] (metropolitan areas, as of 2014 [34] ):

Cluj-Napoca, commonly known as Cluj, is the second most populous city in Romania, after the national capital Bucharest, and the seat of Cluj County. From 1790 to 1848 and from 1861 to 1867, it was the official capital of the Grand Principality of Transylvania. Brașov is an important tourist destination, being the largest city in a mountain resorts area, and a central location, suitable for exploring Romania, with the distances to several tourist destinations (including the Black Sea resorts, the monasteries in northern Moldavia, and the wooden churches of Maramureș) being similar.

Sibiu is one of the most important cultural centres of Romania and was designated the European Capital of Culture for the year 2007, along with the city of Luxembourg, [35] and it was formerly the centre of the Transylvanian Saxon culture and between 1692 and 1791 and 1849–65 was the capital of the Principality of Transylvania.

Alba Iulia is a city located on the Mureş River in Alba County, and since the High Middle Ages, the city has been the seat of Transylvania's Roman Catholic diocese. Between 1541 and 1690 it was the capital of the Eastern Hungarian Kingdom and the latter Principality of Transylvania. Alba Iulia also has historical importance because at the end of World War I, representatives of the Romanian population of Transylvania gathered in Alba Iulia on 1 December 1918 to proclaim the union of Transylvania with the Kingdom of Romania. In Transylvania, there are many medieval smaller towns such as Sighișoara, Mediaș, Sebeș, and Bistrița.

Population

Historical population

Ethno-linguistic map of Austria-Hungary, 1910. Austria Hungary ethnic.svg
Ethno-linguistic map of Austria–Hungary, 1910.

Official censuses with information on Transylvania's population have been conducted since the 18th century. On May 1, 1784 the Emperor Joseph II called for the first official census of the Habsburg Empire, including Transylvania. The data was published in 1787, and this census showed only the overall population (1,440,986 inhabitants). [36] Fényes Elek, a 19th-century Hungarian statistician, estimated in 1842 that in the population of Transylvania for the years 1830-1840 the majority were 62.3% Romanians and 23.3% Hungarians. [37]

In the last quarter of the 19th century, the Hungarian population of Transylvania increased from 24.9% in 1869 to 31.6%, as indicated in the 1910 Hungarian census (the majority of the Jewish population reported Hungarian as their primary language, so they were also counted as ethnically Hungarian in the 1910 census). At the same time, the percentage of Romanian population decreased from 59.0% to 53.8% and the percentage of German population decreased from 11.9% to 10.7%, for a total population of 5,262,495. Magyarization policies greatly contributed to this shift. [38]

The percentage of Romanian majority has significantly increased since the declaration of the union of Transylvania with Romania after World War I in 1918. The proportion of Hungarians in Transylvania was in steep decline as more of the region's inhabitants moved into urban areas, where the pressure to assimilate and Romanianize was greater. [39] The expropriation of the estates of Magyar magnates, the distribution of the lands to the Romanian peasants, and the policy of cultural Romanianization that followed the Treaty of Trianon were major causes of friction between Hungary and Romania. [40] Other factors include the emigration of non-Romanian peoples, assimilation and internal migration within Romania (estimates show that between 1945 and 1977, some 630,000 people moved from the Old Kingdom to Transylvania, and 280,000 from Transylvania to the Old Kingdom, most notably to Bucharest). [41]

Current population

According to the results of the 2011 Population Census, the total population of Transylvania was 6,789,250 inhabitants and the ethnic groups were: Romanians - 70.62%, Hungarians - 17.92%, Roma - 3.99%, Ukrainians - 0.63%, Germans - 0.49%, other - 0.77%. Some 378,298 inhabitants (5.58%) have not declared their ethnicity. The presented data are from http://www.recensamantromania.ro/rezultate-2, the Table no. 7. The ethnic Hungarian population of Transylvania form a majority in the counties of Covasna (73.6%) and Harghita (84.8%). The Hungarians are also numerous in the following counties: Mureș (37.8%), Satu Mare (34.5%), Bihor (25.2%) and Sălaj (23.2%).

Economy

Romanian farmers working their land in Maramures Poienile de Sub Munte Obcina 13 2009.JPG
Romanian farmers working their land in Maramureș

Transylvania is rich in mineral resources, notably lignite, iron, lead, manganese, gold, copper, natural gas, salt, and sulfur.

There are large iron and steel, chemical, and textile industries. Stock raising, agriculture, wine production and fruit growing are important occupations. Agriculture is widespread in the Transylvanian Plateau, including growing cereals, vegetables, viticulture and breeding cattle, sheep, swine, and poultry. Timber is another valuable resource.

IT, electronics and automotive industries are important in urban and university centers like Cluj-Napoca (Robert Bosch GmbH, Emerson Electric), Timișoara (Alcatel-Lucent, Flextronics and Continental AG), Brașov, Sibiu, Oradea and Arad. The cities of Cluj Napoca and Târgu Mureș are connected with a strong medical tradition, and according to the same classifications top performance hospitals exist there. [42]

Native brands include: Roman of Brașov (trucks and buses), Azomureș of Târgu Mureș (fertilizers), Terapia of Cluj-Napoca (pharmaceuticals), Banca Transilvania of Cluj-Napoca (finance), Romgaz and Transgaz of Mediaș (natural gas), Jidvei of Alba county (alcoholic beverages), Timișoreana of Timișoara (alcoholic beverages) and others.

The Jiu Valley, located in the south of Hunedoara County, has been a major mining area throughout the second half of the 19th century and the 20th century, but many mines were closed down in the years following the collapse of the communist regime, forcing the region to diversify its economy.

Culture

George Cosbuc, Romanian poet, translator, teacher, and journalist, best known for his verses describing, praising and eulogizing rural life George Cosbuc - Foto02.jpg
George Coșbuc, Romanian poet, translator, teacher, and journalist, best known for his verses describing, praising and eulogizing rural life

The culture of Transylvania is complex, due to its varied history. Its culture has been historically linked to both Central Europe and Southeastern Europe; and it has significant Hungarian (see Hungarians in Romania) and German (see Germans of Romania) influences. [43]

With regard to architecture, the Transylvanian Gothic style is preserved to this day in monuments such as the Black Church in Braşov (14th and 15th centuries) and a number of other cathedrals, as well as the Bran Castle in Braşov County (14th century), the Hunyad Castle in Hunedoara (15th century).

Notable writers such as Emil Cioran, Lucian Blaga, George Coșbuc, Octavian Goga and Liviu Rebreanu were born in Transylvania. The latter wrote the novel Ion, which introduces the reader to a depiction of the life of the peasants and intellectuals of Transylvania at the turn of the 20th century.

Religion

Transylvania has a very rich and unique religious history from the other regions of Europe. Since the Protestant Reformation, different Christian denominations coexist in this religious melting pot, including Romanian Orthodox, Romanian Greek Catholic, other Eastern Orthodox, Roman Catholic, Lutheran, Reformed, and Unitarian branches. Other faiths also are present, including Jews and Muslims. Under the Habsburgs, Transylvania served as a place for "religious undesirables". People who arrived in Transylvania included those that did not conform to the Catholic Church and were sent here forcibly, as well as many religious refugees. Transylvania has a long history of religious tolerance. This has been ensured by its religious pluralism. Christianity is the largest religion in Transylvania. Transylvania has also been (and still is) a center for Christian denominations other than Eastern Orthodoxy, the form of Christianity that most Romanians follow. As such, there are significant numbers of inhabitants of Transylvania that follow Roman Catholicism, Greek Catholicism and Protestantism. [44]

19302011
DenominationNumberPercentNumberPercent
Eastern Orthodoxy 1,933,58934.854,478,53265.96
Greek Catholicism 1,385,01724.96142,8622.10
Roman Catholicism 946,10017.05632,9489.32
Mainline Protestantism 1,038,46418.72675,1079.34
Evangelical Protestantism 37,0610.66339,4724.70

There are also small denominations like adventism, Jehovah's Witnesses and more.

Others

Data refers to extended Transylvania (with Banat, Crișana and Maramureș). [46] [47]

Tourist attractions

Corvin Castle, Hunedoara (Hungarian: Vajdahunyad
, German: Eisenmarkt
) Castelul Corvinilor din Hunedoara in 10 Decembrie 2012. Fotografie realizata de catre Marian Lucian.jpg
Corvin Castle, Hunedoara (Hungarian : Vajdahunyad, German : Eisenmarkt)
Rasnov Citadel, Rasnov (Hungarian: Barcarozsnyo
, German: Rosenau
) Cetatea Rasnov, vazuta din soseaua Cristian-Rasnov..jpg
Râșnov Citadel, Râșnov (Hungarian : Barcarozsnyó, German : Rosenau)
Biertan fortified church, Biertan (Hungarian: Berethalom
, German: Birthalm
) Kirchenburg Birthalm.jpg
Biertan fortified church, Biertan (Hungarian : Berethalom, German : Birthälm)
Bran Castle, Bran (Hungarian: Torcsvar
, German: Torzburg
) Bran Castle TB1.jpg
Bran Castle, Bran (Hungarian : Törcsvár, German : Törzburg)
Turda salt mine Salina Turda (panorama), Cluj, RO.jpg
Turda salt mine

Festivals and events

Film festivals

Music festivals

Others

Historical coat of arms of Transylvania

The first heraldic representations of Transylvania date from the 16th century. One of the predominant early symbols of Transylvania was the coat of arms of Sibiu city. In 1596 Levinus Hulsius created a coat of arms for the imperial province of Transylvania, consisting of a shield party per fess, with a rising eagle in the upper field and seven hills with towers on top in the lower field. He published it in his work "Chronologia", issued in Nuremberg the same year. The seal from 1597 of Sigismund Báthory, prince of Transylvania, reproduced the new coat of arms with some slight changes: in the upper field the eagle was flanked by a sun and a moon and in the lower field the hills were replaced by simple towers. [53]

The seal of Michael the Brave from 1600 depicts the territory of the former Dacian kingdom: Wallachia, Moldavia and Transylvania: [54]

The Diet of 1659 codified the representation of the privileged nations in Transylvania's coat of arms. It depicted a black turul on a blue background, representing the Hungarian nobility, [55] a Sun and the Moon representing the Székelys, and seven red towers on a yellow background representing the seven fortified cities of the Transylvanian Saxons. The red dividing band was originally not part of the coat of arms.

Lugosi as Count Dracula Bela Lugosi as Dracula, anonymous photograph from 1931, Universal Studios.jpg
Lugosi as Count Dracula

Following the publication of Emily Gerard's The Land Beyond the Forest (1888), Bram Stoker wrote his gothic horror novel Dracula in 1897, using Transylvania as a setting. With its success, Transylvania became associated in the English-speaking world with vampires. Since then it has been represented in fiction and literature as a land of mystery and magic. For example, in Paulo Coelho's novel The Witch of Portobello , the main character, Sherine Khalil, is described as a Transylvanian orphan with a Romani mother, in an effort to add to the character's exotic mystique.[ citation needed ] The so-called Transylvanian trilogy of historical novels by Miklos Banffy, The Writing on the Wall, is an extended treatment of the 19th- and early 20th-century social and political history of the country. Among the first actors to portray Dracula in film was Bela Lugosi, who was born in Banat, in present-day Romania.

See also

Related Research Articles

Mureș County County in Centru, Romania

Mureș County is a county (județ) of Romania, in the historical region of Transylvania, with the administrative centre in Târgu Mureș. The county was established in 1968, after the administrative reorganization that re-introduced the historical judeţ (county) system, still used today. This reform eliminated the previous Mureș-Magyar Autonomous Region, which had been created in 1952 within the People's Republic of Romania. Mureș county has a vibrant multicultural fabric that includes Hungarian-speaking Székelys and Transylvanian Saxons, with a rich heritage of fortified churches and towns.

Crișana geographical and historical region in central Europe

Crișana is a geographical and historical region in north-western Romania, named after the Criș (Körös) River and its three tributaries: the Crișul Alb, Crișul Negru, and Crișul Repede. In Romania, the term is sometimes extended to included areas beyond the border, in Hungary; in this interpretation, the region is bounded to the east by the Apuseni Mountains, to the south by the Mureș River, to the north by the Someș River, and to the west by the Tisza River, the Romanian-Hungarian border cutting it in two. However, in Hungary, the area between the Tisza River and the Romanian border is usually known as Tiszántúl.

Târgu Mureș City in Mureș, Romania

Târgu Mureș is the seat of Mureș County in the north-central part of Romania. It is the 16th largest Romanian city, with 134,290 inhabitants as of the 2011 census. It lies on the Mureș river, the second longest river in Romania.

Tourism in Romania

According to National Tourism Statistics 15.7 million domestic and foreign tourists stayed in overnight accommodations in 2018. Of these 2.2 million are recorded as foreign tourists.

Transylvanian Saxons

The Transylvanian Saxons are a people of German ethnicity who were settled in Transylvania in waves starting from the mid-12th century until the late Modern Age.

Sebeș Municipality in Alba County, Romania

Sebeș is a city in Alba County, central Romania, southern Transylvania.

Northern Transylvania

Northern Transylvania was the region of the Kingdom of Romania that during World War II, as a consequence of the territorial agreement known as the Second Vienna Award, became part of the Kingdom of Hungary. With an area of 43,104 km2 (16,643 sq mi), the population was largely composed of both ethnic Romanians and Hungarians. After World War II, the Paris Peace Treaties returned Northern Transylvania to Romania.

Minorities of Romania

About 10.5% of Romania's population is represented by minorities. The principal minorities in Romania are Hungarians and Romani people, with a declining German population and smaller numbers of Poles in Bukovina, Serbs, Croats, Slovaks and Banat Bulgarians, Ukrainians, Greeks, Jews, Turks and Tatars, Armenians, Russians, and others.

George Bariț Romanian academic and politician

George Bariț, often rendered as George Barițiu, was a Romanian historian, philologist, playwright, politician, businessman and journalist, the founder of the Romanian language press in Transylvania.

Transylvania is a historical region in central and northwestern Romania. It was part of the Dacian Kingdom, Roman Dacia, the Hunnic Empire, the Kingdom of the Gepids, the Avar Khaganate and the 9th century First Bulgarian Empire. During the late 9th century, western Transylvania was reached by the Hungarian conquerors and later it became part of the Kingdom of Hungary, formed in 1000. After the Battle of Mohács in 1526 it belonged to the Eastern Hungarian Kingdom, from which the Principality of Transylvania emerged. During most of the 16th and 17th centuries, the principality was a vassal state of the Ottoman Empire; however, the principality had dual suzerainty. In 1690, the Habsburgs gained possession of Transylvania through the Hungarian crown. After 1711 Habsburg control of Transylvania was consolidated, and Transylvanian princes were replaced with Habsburg imperial governors. After the Austro-Hungarian Compromise of 1867, the separate status of Transylvania ceased; it was incorporated into the Kingdom of Hungary (Transleithania) as part of the Austrian-Hungarian Empire. After World War I, Transylvania became part of Romania. In 1940 Northern Transylvania reverted to Hungary as a result of the Second Vienna Award, but it was reclaimed by Romania after the end of World War II.

Alexandru Papiu Ilarian Romanian lawyer

Alexandru Papiu-Ilarian was a Romanian revolutionary, lawyer and historian.

Armorial of Romania

The Romanian government is the armiger in Romania. It exercises this right under the mandatory advice of the National Committee of Heraldry, Genealogy and Sigillography. The committee is subordinate to the Romanian Academy. All the coats of arms of Romanian institutions must be approved by this committee with two exceptions. The Romanian military is subject to the Ministry of National Defense Heraldric Committee, and Romanian law enforcement institutions are subject to the Ministry of Administration and Interior Heraldric Committee. Both of these committees may share members with the National Committee of Heraldry, Genealogy and Sigillography.

Union of Transylvania with Romania

The Union of Transylvania with Romania was declared on December 1 [O.S. November 18] 1918 by the assembly of the delegates of ethnic Romanians held in Alba Iulia.

Reformed Church in Romania organization of the Calvinist church in Romania

The Reformed Church in Romania is the organization of the Calvinist church in Romania. The majority of its followers are of Hungarian ethnicity and Hungarian is the main church language. The large majority of the Church's parishes are in Transylvania; according to the 2002 census, 701,077 people or 3.15% of the total population belong to the Reformed Church. About 95% of the members were of Hungarian ethnicity.

Roman Catholic Archdiocese of Alba Iulia archdiocese

The Roman Catholic Archdiocese of Alba Iulia is a Latin Church Catholic archdiocese in Transylvania, Romania.

Hungary–Romania relations Diplomatic relations between Hungary and Romania

Hungarian-Romanian relations are foreign relations between Hungary and Romania. Relations between the two nations date back from the Middle Ages, including Wallachia and Moldavia. Modern diplomatic relations between the two states are dating since the creation of Romania.

Hungarians in Romania ethnic minority

The Hungarian minority of Romania is the largest ethnic minority in Romania, consisting of 1,227,623 people and making up 6.1% of the total population, according to the 2011 census.

Transylvanian Reformed Church District

The Transylvanian Reformed Church District is a moderately conservative Reformed, Calvinist church in Romania; its seat is in Cluj-Napoca. Alongside the Királyhágómellék Reformed Church District, it forms the Reformed Church in Romania.

Ioan Bran de Lemény

Ioan Bran de Lemény et Kozla, also known as Ioan Bran, was a lawyer, a revolutionary, and Transylvania's first Romanian civil servant. He was one of the organizers of the Romanian Legions and the captain of Fogaras County during the "liberal regime" (1861–1865).

The 1940–41 Divizia B was the seventh season of the second tier of the Romanian football league system.

References

  1. "Transylvania Society of Dracula Information". Afn.org. 1995-05-29. Retrieved 2012-07-30.
  2. "Travel Advisory; Lure of Dracula In Transylvania". The New York Times. 1993-08-22.
  3. "Romania Transylvania". Icromania.com. 2007-04-15. Retrieved 2012-07-30.
  4. Engel, Pál (2001). Realm of St. Stephen: History of Medieval Hungary, 895–1526 (International Library of Historical Studies), page 24, London: I.B. Taurus. ISBN   1-86064-061-3
  5. Pascu, Ștefan (1972). "Voievodatul Transilvaniei". I: 22.
  6. István Lázár: Transylvania, a Short History, Simon Publications, Safety Harbor, Florida, 1996 + It was the nucleus of the Kingdom of Dacia (82 BC 106 AD). In 106 AD the Roman Empire conquered the territory, systematically exploiting its resources. After the Roman legions withdrew in 271 AD, it was overrun by a succession of various tribes, bringing it under the control of the Carpi, Visigoths, Huns, Gepids, Avars, and Slavs. −
  7. − Martyn C. Rady: Nobility, Land and Service in Medieval Hungary, Antony Grove Ltd, Great Britain, 2000 −
  8. Gyula - it is possible that during the 10th century some of the holders of the title of gyula also used Gyula as a personal name, but the issue has been confused because the chronicler of one of the most important primary sources (the Gesta Hungarorum) has been shown to have used titles or even names of places as personal names in some cases.
  9. 1 2 3 "Transylvania". Encyclopædia Britannica . Encyclopædia Britannica, Inc. 2008. Retrieved 2008-08-01.
  10. Engel, Pal; Andrew Ayton (2005). The Realm of St Stephen. London: Tauris. p. 27. ISBN   1-85043-977-X.
  11. 1 2 "Transylvania", Microsoft Encarta Online Encyclopedia 2008.
  12. K. Horedt, Contribuţii la istoria Transilvaniei în secolele IV-XIII, Editura Academiei RSR, 1958 p. 113.
  13. I.M.Țiplic (2000). Considerații cu privire la liniile întarite de tipul prisacilor din transilvania, Acta terrae Septemcastrensis, I, pag. 147-164
  14. "Settlements and Villages in Transylvania at the Time of the Conquest and in the early Árpádian Period". mek.oszk.hu.
  15. Madgearu, Alexandru (2001). Românii în opera Notarului Anonim. Cluj-Napoca: Centrul de Studii Transilvane, Fundația Culturală Română. ISBN   973-577-249-3.
  16. "Stephen I". Encyclopedia of World Biography. 14: 427–428. 2004 via Gale Virtual Reference Library.
  17. "Hungary". Merriam-Webster's geographical dictionary (3rd ed.). CREDO. 2007.
  18. Antonius Wrancius: Expeditionis Solymani in Moldaviam et Transsylvaniam libri duo. De situ Transsylvaniae, Moldaviae et Transalpinae liber tertius.
  19. Sándor Szilágyi: Erdély és az északkeleti háború. Levelek és okiratok Bp. 1890 I. 246-247, 255-256 - Sándor Szilágyi: Transylvania and the northeastern war. Letters and documents Bp. 1890 p. 246-247, 255-256
  20. "International Boundary Study - No. 47 – April 15, 1965 - Hungary – Romania (Rumania) Boundary" (PDF). US Bureau of Intelligence and Research. Archived from the original (PDF) on March 3, 2009.
  21. "Diploma Leopoldinum (Transylvanian history)". Britannica.com. Retrieved 2012-07-30.
  22. "Transylvania (region, Romania)". Britannica.com. Retrieved 2012-07-30.
  23. Peter F. Sugar. Southeastern Europe Under Ottoman Rule, 1354–1804 (History of East Central Europe), University of Washington Press, July 1983, page 163, https://books.google.com/books?id=LOln4TGdDHYC&pg=PA163&dq=independent+principality+that+was+not+reunited+with+Hungary&lr=
  24. John F. Cadzow, Andrew Ludanyi, Louis J. Elteto, Transylvania: The Roots of Ethnic Conflict, Kent State University Press, 1983, page 79, https://books.google.com/books?id=fX5pAAAAMAAJ&q=diploma+leopoldinum+transylvania&dq=diploma+leopoldinum+transylvania&lr=&pgis=1
  25. Paul Lendvai, Ann Major. "The Hungarians: A Thousand Years of Victory in Defeat" C. Hurst & Co. Publishers, 2003, page 146; https://books.google.com/books?id=9yCmAQGTW28C&pg=PA146&dq=diploma+leopoldinum+transylvania&lr=
  26. "Definition of Grand Principality of Transylvania in the Free Online Encyclopedia". Encyclopedia2.thefreedictionary.com. Retrieved 2012-07-30.
  27. The Austro-Hungarian Dual Monarchy and Romanian Political Autonomy Archived 2007-04-24 at the Wayback Machine in Paşcu, Ştefan. A History of Transylvania. Dorset Press, New York, 1990.
  28. CIA World Factbook, Romania - Government
  29. Történelmi világatlasz[World Atlas of History] (in Hungarian). Cartographia. 1998. ISBN   963-352-519-5.
  30. Transilvania at romaniatraveltourism.com
  31. Transylvania at 1911 Encyclopædia Britannica
  32. "Microsoft Word - REZULTATE DEFINITIVE RPL2011.doc" (PDF). Retrieved 2018-04-17.
  33. "Population at 20 October 2011" (in Romanian). INSSE. July 2013. Retrieved 2 February 2014.
  34. "Population on 1 January by age groups and sex – functional urban areas". Eurostat . Retrieved 16 August 2017.
  35. "Sibiu Cultural Capital Website". Archived from the original on 2006-10-15.
  36. "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 2017-02-02. Retrieved 2017-07-10.CS1 maint: Archived copy as title (link)
  37. Elek Fényes, Magyarország statistikája, Vol. 1, Trattner-Károlyi, Pest. VII, 1842
  38. Seton-Watson, Robert William (1933). "The Problem of Treaty Revision and the Hungarian Frontiers". International Affairs. 12 (4): 481–503. doi:10.2307/2603603. JSTOR   2603603.
  39. Varga, E. Árpád, Hungarians in Transylvania between 1870 and 1995, Translation by Tamás Sályi, Budapest, March 1999, pp. 30-34
  40. "Transylvania". Columbia Encyclopedia . Archived from the original on 2008-09-05. Retrieved 2008-11-18.
  41. Varga, E. Árpád, Hungarians in Transylvania between 1870 and 1995, Translation by Tamás Sályi, Budapest, March 1999, p. 31
  42. "Archived copy" (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on 2016-03-04. Retrieved 2016-01-21.CS1 maint: Archived copy as title (link)
  43. "Cultura". 2007-12-31. Archived from the original on December 31, 2007. Retrieved 2016-05-08.CS1 maint: Unfit url (link)
  44. Earl A. Pope, "Protestantism in Romania", in Sabrina Petra Ramet (ed.), Protestantism and Politics in Eastern Europe and Russia: The Communist and Postcommunist Eras, Duke University Press, Durham, 1992, p.158-160. ISBN   0-8223-1241-7
  45. "Situatia demografica a cultelor dupa 1918" (PDF).
  46. Anuarul statistic al Romaniei, 1937 si 1938
  47. "Populația stabilă după religie – județe, municipii, orașe, comune". Institutul Național de Statistică.
  48. "Travel to Romania - Densuș Church (Hunedoara)". Romanianmonasteries.org. 2006-05-31. Retrieved 2012-07-30.
  49. http://sibiupeople.ro/en/reports/732%5B%5D
  50. 1 2 "Apuseni Caves". Itsromania.com. Archived from the original on 2012-03-16. Retrieved 2012-07-30.
  51. "Zilele Filmului de Umor 2014". timisoreni.ro. Retrieved 25 January 2015.
  52. "O nouă ediție a Zilelor Filmului de Umor la Timișoara". HotNewsRo. Retrieved 25 January 2015.
  53. Dan Cernovodeanu, Știința și arta heraldică în România, Bucharest, 1977, p. 130
  54. 1 2 "Coat of arms of Dacia (medieval)". Archived from the original on 9 April 2014.
  55. Ströhl, Hugo Gerard (1890). Oesterreichish-Ungarische Wappenrolle (PDF). Vienna: Verlag vom Anton Schroll & C°. p. XV. Retrieved 24 November 2011.

Sources

Further reading