Demographics of Romania

Last updated
Demographics of Romania
Romania single age population pyramid 2020.png
Romania population pyramid in 2020
Population19,317,984 (2020 national population estimate) [1]
Growth rate-0.29% (2014)
Birth rate9.27 births/1,000 population (2014)
Death rate11.88 deaths/1,000 population (2014)
Life expectancy75 years (2015) [2]
  male71.4 years
  female78.8 years
Fertility rate1.76 children born/woman (2018) [3]
Infant mortality rate9.01 deaths/1,000 live births (2012) [4]
Net migration rate-0.24 migrants/1,000 population (2015)
Age structure
0–14 years3,189,646 (15.8%)
15–64 years13,684,251 (68.1%)
65 and over3,247,744 (16.1%)
Sex ratio
Total0.95 males/female (2014)
At birth1.06 males/female
Under 151.05 males/female
15–64 years0.99 males/female
65 and over0.69 males/female
Nationalitynoun: Romanian(s), adjective: Romanian
Major ethnicRomanian
Minor ethnicHungarian, Romani, Ukrainian, German, Turkish, Tatar, Russian, Lipovan, Serbian, Slovak, etc.
Official Romanian
SpokenRomanian and other minority languages

This article is about the demographic features of the population of Romania, including population density, ethnicity, education level, health of the populace, economic status, religious affiliations, and other aspects of the population.


About 88.9% of the people of Romania are ethnic Romanians, whose language, Romanian, is a Balkan Romance language, descended from Latin with some German, French, English, Greek, Slavic, and Hungarian borrowings.

Romanians are by far the most numerous group of speakers of a Balkan Romance language today. It has been said that they constitute "an island of Latinity" [5] in Eastern Europe, surrounded on all sides either by Slavic peoples or by the Hungarians. The Hungarian minority in Romania constitutes the country's largest minority, 6.1 per cent of the population. [6]


Romania's population has declined steadily in recent years, from 21.83 million in 2002 to 19.95 million in 2014. [7] Among the causes of population decline are high mortality, a low fertility rate after 1989, and tremendous emigration. [7]

In 1990, Romania's population was estimated to be 23.21 million inhabitants. [8] For the entire period 1990–2006, the estimated population loss tops 1.5 million, [8] but it is likely to be higher, given the explosion of migration for work after 2001 and the tendency of some migrants to settle permanently in the countries where they live. [9]

Population evolution

Birth and death rates in 1950-2008. A huge surge of the birth rate in 1967 is the most prominent feature of these graphs. BirthDeath 1950 RO.svg
Birth and death rates in 1950–2008. A huge surge of the birth rate in 1967 is the most prominent feature of these graphs.

Sources give varied estimates for Romania's historical population. The National Institute for Research and Development in Informatics (NIRDI) gives the following numbers (the figure for 2020 was provided by the National Institute of Statistics - INSSE):

Demographics of Romania

Ethnic groups

Ethnic map (1930 census) Romania 1930 ethnic map EN.png
Ethnic map (1930 census)
Romanians in Romania by counties (Ethnic maps 1930-2011) Romanii pe judete (Romania, 1930-2011).jpg
Romanians in Romania by counties (Ethnic maps 1930–2011)
Ethnic map (1977 census) Romania harta etnica 1977.PNG
Ethnic map (1977 census)
Ethnicity in Romania by county (inhabitants) based on the 2002 census data RoCensus2002Inhab.png
Ethnicity in Romania by county (inhabitants) based on the 2002 census data
Romanians in Romania based on 2002 census data Romani in Romania (2002).png
Romanians in Romania based on 2002 census data
Ethnic map (2011 census) Romania detailed ethnic map.PNG
Ethnic map (2011 census)
The Romani minority in Romania by county (2011 census) RROMI 2011 JUD.png
The Romani minority in Romania by county (2011 census)

Slightly more than 10% of the population of Romania is formed of minorities of Romania. The principal minorities are Hungarians and Roma, although other smaller ethnic groups exist too. Before World War II, minorities represented more than 28% of the total population. During the war that percentage was halved, largely by the loss of the border areas of Bessarabia and northern Bukovina (to the former Soviet Union, now Moldova and Ukraine) and southern Dobrudja (to Bulgaria). Two-thirds of the ethnic German population either left or were deported after World War II, a period that was followed by decades of relatively regular (by communist standards) migration. During the interwar period in Romania, the total number of ethnic Germans amounted to as much as 786,000 (according to some sources and estimates dating to 1939), [10] [11] a figure which had subsequently fallen to circa 36,000 as of 2011 in contemporary Romania. One of the reasons for which the number of Germans in Romania fell is because after the Romanian Revolution there has been a mass migration of Transylvania Saxons to Germany, in what was referred by British daily newspaper Guardian to as 'the most astonishing, and little reported, ethnic migration in modern Europe'. [12]

Of a total official population of over three quarter million Jews before World War II, more than half were killed during the Holocaust. [13] Mass emigration, mostly to Israel and United States, has reduced the surviving Jewish community to less than 6,000 in 2002 (it is estimated that the real numbers could be 3-4 times higher). [14]

Hungarians (Magyars; see Hungarians in Romania , especially in Harghita, Covasna, and Mureș counties) and Romani (Roma; see Romani people in Romania ) are the principal minorities, with a declining German population (Banat Swabians in Timiș; Transylvanian Saxons in Sibiu, Brașov and elsewhere), and smaller numbers of Czechs, Slovaks, Serbs, Croats, and Banat Bulgarians (in Banat), Ukrainians (especially in Maramureș and Bukovina), Greeks of Romania (especially in Brăila and Constanța), Turks and Tatars (mainly in Constanța), Armenians, Russians (Lipovans, Old Believers in Tulcea), Jews and others. Since the Romanian Revolution of 1989, Bucharest and other cities have again become increasingly cosmopolitan, including identifiable presences from outside the EU (Chinese, Turks, Moldovans, Syrians, Iraqis, Africans) as well as from the EU (French, Italians, Germans, British, Greeks). [15] In Romania, there are also guest workers from countries such as Vietnam and Nepal. [16] [17]

Minority populations are greatest in Transylvania and the Banat, areas in the north and west of the country, which were part of the Kingdom of Hungary (after 1867 the Austria-Hungary) until the end of World War I. Even before the union with Romania, ethnic Romanians comprised the overall majority in Transylvania. However, ethnic Hungarians and Germans were the dominant urban population until relatively recently, while Hungarians still constitute the majority in Harghita and Covasna counties.

Romani people constitute one of Romania's largest minorities. According to the 2011 Romanian census, they number 621,573 people or 3.08% of the total population, being the second-largest ethnic minority in Romania after Hungarians, [18] with significant populations in Mureș (8.9%) and Călărași (7,47%) counties. There are different estimates about the size of the total population of people with Romani ancestry in Romania because a lot of people of Romani descent do not declare themselves Romani. The number of Romani people is usually underestimated in official statistics and may represent 5–11% of Romania's population. [19]

After Hungarians and Romani, Ukrainians of Romania are the third-largest minority. According to the 2011 Romanian census they number 51,703 people, making up 0.3% of the total population. [20] Ukrainians mainly live in northern Romania, in areas close to the Ukrainian border. Over 60% of all Romanian Ukrainians live in Maramureș County (where they make up 6.77% of the population).


Population of Romania according to ethnic group in 1930 [21]
Ethnicitynumber %
Romanians 12,981,32471.9
Hungarians 1,425,5077.9
Germans 745,4214.1
Jews 728,1154.0
Ruthenians and Ukrainians 582,1153.2
Russians 409,1502.3
Bulgarians 366,3842.0
Romani (Gypsies) 262,5011.5
Turks 154,7720.9
Gagauzians 105,7500.6
Czechs and Slovaks 51,8420.3
Serbs, Croats and Slovenes 51,0620.3
Poles 48,3100.3
Greeks 26,4950.2
Tatars 22,1410.1
Armenians 15,544<0.1
Hutsuls 12,456<0.1
Albanians 4,670<0.1
Population of Romania according to ethnic group 1948–2011
census 19481census 19562census 19663census 19774census 19925census 20026census 20117
Number %Number %Number %Number %Number %Number %Number %
Romanians 13,597,61385.714,996,11485.716,746,51087.718,999,56588.120,408,54289.519,399,59789.516,792,86888.9
Hungarians 1,499,8519.41,587,6759.11,619,5928.51,713,9287.91,624,9597.11,431,8076.61,227,6236.1
Romani (Gypsies) 53,4250.3104,2160.664,1970.3227,3981.05401,0871.8535,1402.5621,5733.0
Ukrainians 37,5820.260,4790.454,7050.355,5100.365,7640.361,0980.350,9200.2
Germans 343,9132.2384,7082.2382,5952.0359,1091.6119,4620.559,7640.336,0420.2
Turks 28,7820.214,3290.218,0400.123,4220.129,8320.132,0980.227,6980.2
Tatars 20,4690.222,1510.123,3690.124,5960.123,9350.120,2820.1
Russians 39,3320.238,7310.239,4830.221,2060.27,9830.135,7910.223,8640.1
Lipovans 11,0900.130,6230.2
Serbs 45,4470.346,5170.344,2360.334,4290.229,4080.122,5610.118,0760.1
Croats 7,5000.04,0850.06,8070.05,4080.0
Slovenes 1750.0
Slovaks 35,1430.223,3310.222,1510.121,2860.119,5940.117,2260.213,6540.1
Czechs 11,8210.09,9780.07,6830.05,7970.03,9410.02,4770.0
Bulgarians 13,4080.112,0400.111,1930.110,3720.09,8510.18,0250.07,3360.0
Greeks 8,6960.111,1660.09,0880.06,2620.03,9400.06,4720.03,6680.0
Jews 138,7950.9146,2640.842,8880.224,6670.18,9550.05,7850.03,2710.0
Poles 6,7530.07,6270.05,8600.04,6410.04,2320.03,5590.02,5430.0
Armenians 6,9870.06,4410.03,4360.02,3420.01,9570.01,7800.01,3610.0
Macedonians 1,1760.06,8670.07310.01,2640.0
Csangos 1,2660.01,5360.0
Aromanians 9820.021,7360.1
1 The results of the 1948 census are according to language. 2 Source:. [22] 3 Source:. [22] 4 Source:. [22] 5 Source:. [22] 6 Source: [23] 7 Source: [24]

Vital statistics

Romania total fertility rate by region (2014)
.mw-parser-output .legend{page-break-inside:avoid;break-inside:avoid-column}.mw-parser-output .legend-color{display:inline-block;min-width:1.25em;height:1.25em;line-height:1.25;margin:1px 0;text-align:center;border:1px solid black;background-color:transparent;color:black}.mw-parser-output .legend-text{}
1.9 - 2.1
1.7 - 1.9
1.5 - 1.7
1.4 - 1.5
1.3 - 1.4
< 1.3 Romania total fertility rate by region 2014.png
Romania total fertility rate by region (2014)
  1.9 - 2.1
  1.7 - 1.9
  1.5 - 1.7
  1.4 - 1.5
  1.3 - 1.4
  < 1.3

Total Fertility Rate from 1850 to 1899

The total fertility rate is the number of children born per woman. It is based on fairly good data for the entire period. Sources: Our World In Data and Gapminder Foundation. [25]

Years18501851185218531854185518561857185818591860 [25]
Total Fertility Rate in Romania5.225.084.944.84.664.524.384.244.113.974.23
Years1861186218631864186518661867186818691870 [25]
Total Fertility Rate in Romania4.
Years1871187218731874187518761877187818791880 [25]
Total Fertility Rate in Romania4.494.294.364.65.24.964.744.224.975.05
Years1881188218831884188518861887188818891890 [25]
Total Fertility Rate in Romania5.565.415.745.555.785.655.495.685.445.16
Years189118921893189418951896189718981899 [25]
Total Fertility Rate in Romania5.675.235.435.485.675.455.754.925.63

Before WWI

Average populationLive birthsDeathsNatural changeCrude birth rate (per 1000)Crude death rate (per 1000)Natural change (per 1000) Total fertility rates [25]
Years191619171918 [25]
Total Fertility Rate in Romania4.844.253.67

Between WWI and WWII

Average populationLive birthsDeathsNatural changeCrude birth rate (per 1000)Crude death rate (per 1000)Natural change (per 1000)Natural change (per 1000) Total fertility rates [25]
Years194019411942194319441945 [25]
Total Fertility Rate in Romania3.553.082.873.142.912.63

After WWII

Main sources: [25] [26] [27]

Source: National Institute of Statistics [28]

Average populationLive birthsDeathsNatural changeCrude birth rate (per 1000)Crude death rate (per 1000)Natural change (per 1000)Total fertility rates [fn 1]
2015 [29] 19,822,250185,006260,661-75,6559.313.1-3.81.62
2016 [30] 19,706,424188,415256,476-68,0619.613.0-3.51.69
2017 [31] 19,592,933189,474260,599-71,1259.713.3-3.61.78
2018 [32] 19,476,713187,824263,125-75,3019.613.5-3.91.76
2019 [33] 19,370,448185,677259,307-73,6309.613.4-3.81.77
2020 [34] 19,265,662176,766297,039-120,2739.215.4-6.2

Note: The 2011 Romanian Census gave a figure of 20,121,641.

Current vital statistics

The current vital statistics of Romania are as follows: [35]

PeriodLive birthsDeathsNatural increase
January - April 202060,29090,955-30,665
January - April 202151,938111,527-59,589
DifferenceDecrease2.svg -8,352 (-13.85%)Increase Negative.svg +20,572 (+22.61%)Decrease2.svg -28,934

Life expectancy 1950–2015

Average life expectancy at age 0 of the total population. [36]

PeriodLife expectancy in


1955–1960Increase2.svg 63.287
1960–1965Increase2.svg 67.78
1965–1970Decrease2.svg 67.34
1970–1975Increase2.svg 69.02
1975–1980Increase2.svg 69.59
1980–1985Increase2.svg 69.73
1985–1990Decrease2.svg 69.52
1990–1995Increase2.svg 69.60
1995–2000Increase2.svg 69.71
2000–2005Increase2.svg 71.47
2005–2010Increase2.svg 73.08
2010–2015Increase2.svg 74.85

Birth rates by counties

Romania has 41 counties and one city with a special status, namely Bucharest. Ilfov County has the highest crude birth rate (12.0‰), while Vâlcea County has the lowest crude birth rate (6.6‰). Birth rates are generally higher in rural areas compared to urban areas.

Crude birth rate by province in 2016 (Insse) [37]
Județ Total CBR (‰)Urban (‰)Rural (‰)
Alba County
Arad County
Argeș County
Bacău County
Bihor County
Bistriţa-Năsăud County
Botoşani County
Brașov County 9.68.612.6
Brăila County
Bucharest city 8.88.8N/A
Buzău County
Caraș-Severin County
Călărași County
Cluj County
Constanța County 9.38.810.4
Covasna County
Dâmbovița County
Dolj County
Galați County
Giurgiu County
Gorj County
Harghita County 9.48.410.2
Hunedoara County
Ialomița County
Iași County
Ilfov County 12.012.311.8
Maramureș County
Mehedinți County
Mureș County
Neamț County
Olt County
Prahova County
Satu Mare County
Sălaj County
Sibiu County 9.38.411.3
Suceava County 10.39.610.8
Teleorman County
Timiș County
Tulcea County
Vaslui County
Vâlcea County
Vrancea County

Largest urban agglomerations

1. Bucharest 2. Iași 3. Cluj-Napoca 4. Timișoara 5. Constanța 6. Craiova 7. Brașov 8. Galați

Demographics statistics

Live births and deaths between 1930 and 2006 Evolutia demografica din Romania.png
Live births and deaths between 1930 and 2006

Demographic statistics according to the World Population Review in 2019. [39]

The following demographic statistics are from the CIA World Factbook, unless otherwise indicated. [40]


19,265,662 (December 2020 est.)

Median age

total: 41.6 years. Country comparison to the world: 38th
male: 40.2 years
female: 43 years (2018 est.)

Birth rate

8.7 births/1,000 population (2018 est.) Country comparison to the world: 211st

Death rate

12 deaths/1,000 population (2018 est.) Country comparison to the world: 17th

Total fertility rate

1.71 children born/woman (2017) Country comparison to the world: 154th

Net migration rate

-0.2 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2018 est.) Country comparison to the world: 113rd
-0.13 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2006 est.) [41]

Mother's mean age at first birth

26.7 years (2014 est.)

Population growth rate

-0.35% (2018 est.) Country comparison to the world: 219th
-0.127% (2007 estimate). [41]

Urban-rural ratio

Romania is one of the least urbanised countries in Europe. Just a slight majority, 56.4 percent, lives in urban areas (12,546,212 people in total). The remainder, 43.6 percent, lives in rural areas (9,695,506 people in total). [42]

urban population: 54% of total population (2018)
rate of urbanization: -0.38% annual rate of change (2015–20 est.)

Sex ratio

at birth::1.06 male(s)/female
under 15 years::1.05 male(s)/female
15–64 years::0.99 male(s)/female
65 years and over::0.71 male(s)/female
total population::0.95 male(s)/female (2008 est.)

Infant mortality rate

9.2 deaths/1,000 live births (May 2010); [43] down from 17.3 deaths/1,000 live births in 2002. [44]

Life expectancy at birth


definition: age 15 and over can read and write (2015 est.)

total population: 98.8%
male: 99.1%
female: 98.5% (2015 est.)

School life expectancy (primary to tertiary education)

total: 14 years
male: 14 years
female: 15 years (2016)

Unemployment, youth ages 15-24

total: 20.6%. Country comparison to the world: 62nd
male: 19.9%
female: 21.8% (2016 est.)


The noun form is Romanian(s), and the adjectival form is Romanian.

Age structure

Population pyramid of Romania in 2017 Romaniapop.svg
Population pyramid of Romania in 2017
0-14 years: 14.31% (male 1,576,621 /female 1,493,082)
15-24 years: 10.45% (male 1,151,312 /female 1,091,956)
25-54 years: 46.11% (male 5,010,272 /female 4,883,090)
55-64 years: 12.37% (male 1,244,669 /female 1,409,854)
65 years and over: 16.76% (male 1,454,320 /female 2,141,940) (2018 est.)

The following demographic statistics are from National Institute of Statistic on 1 July 2016.

As a consequence of the pro-natalist policies of the Nicolae Ceaușescu regime (see Decree 770), Romania has a higher proportion of people born in the late 1960s and 1970s its population than any other Western country except Slovenia. The generations born in 1967 and 1968 were the largest, although fertility remained relatively high until 1990. 8.55% of the Romanian population was born in the period from 1976 to 1980, compared with 6.82% of Americans and 6.33% of Britons. [46]

Age structure by ethnicity

Population by ethnicity based on age groups, according to the 2011 census: [47]

Age groupTotal populationRomaniansHungariansRomaUkrainiansGermansTurksOthers/Undeclared


Foreign-born population (according to Eurostat): [48]

Population total19,724,07419,720,64719,644,350
Flag of Moldova.svg  Moldova 59,670114,654161,846
Flag of Europe.svg Flag of Italy.svg  Italy 22,48638,58056,515
Flag of Europe.svg Flag of Spain.svg  Spain 18,82729,93742,165
Flag of Ukraine.svg  Ukraine 8,74311,90016,729
Flag of the United Kingdom.svg  United Kingdom 2,6045,20815,346
Flag of Europe.svg Flag of Germany.svg  Germany 3,7596,55215,121
Flag of Europe.svg Flag of France.svg  France 3,7806,47112,589
Flag of Europe.svg Flag of Bulgaria.svg  Bulgaria 11,16310,46510,646
Flag of Europe.svg Flag of Hungary.svg  Hungary 5,7956,4208,184
Flag of Turkey.svg  Turkey 5,05737,986
Flag of Europe.svg Flag of Greece.svg  Greece 4,0854,6536,494
Flag of Russia.svg  Russia 4,9525,2696,063
Flag of the People's Republic of China.svg  China 2,9783,7225,068
Flag of the United States.svg  United States 2,3602,8764,428
Flag of Syria.svg  Syria 2,2952,5763,492
Flag of Israel.svg  Israel 1,6651,8372,936
Flag of Europe.svg Flag of Belgium (civil).svg  Belgium 541,1022,650
Flag of Iraq.svg  Iraq 1,1361,4192,338
Flag of Serbia.svg  Serbia 1,5295,7832,296
Flag of Europe.svg Flag of Austria.svg  Austria 1215091,934
Flag of Europe.svg Flag of Ireland.svg  Ireland 226571,876
Flag of Tunisia.svg  Tunisia 1,0341,0621,627
Flag of Iran.svg  Iran 1,1141,2611,464
Flag of Europe.svg Flag of Portugal.svg  Portugal 813641,377
Flag of the Republic of the Congo.svg  Republic of the Congo 1023011,189
Flag of Somalia.svg  Somalia 90329978
Flag of Nigeria.svg  Nigeria 103298932


Distribution of religions in Romania ROreligion.png
Distribution of religions in Romania
Distribution of Orthodox in Romania Ortodocsi Romania (2002).png
Distribution of Orthodox in Romania

Religious affiliation tends to follow ethnic lines, with most ethnic Romanians identifying with the Romanian Orthodox Church. The Greek Catholic or Uniate church, reunified with the Orthodox Church by fiat in 1948, was restored after the 1989 revolution. The 2002 census indicates that 0.9% of the population is Greek Catholic, as opposed to about 10% prior to 1948. Roman Catholics, largely ethnic Hungarians and Germans, constitute 4.7% of the population; Calvinists, Baptists (see Baptist Union of Romania and Convention of the Hungarian Baptist Churches of Romania), Pentecostals, and Lutherans make up another 5%. There are smaller numbers of Unitarians, Muslims, and other religions.

See also


  1. In fertility rates, 2.1 and above is a stable population and has been marked blue, 2 and below leads to an aging population and the result is that the population decreases.

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  2. "Life expectancy". World Health Organization.
  3. "Eurostat - Tables, Graphs and Maps Interface (TGM) table". Retrieved 3 October 2017.
  4. "European health for all database (HFA-DB)". World Health Organization Regional Office for Europe.
  5. See, for example, Fabio Bordignon, "Italian Decentralisation in Romania", SEF 2003, Warsaw. Abstract available online. Archived 2007-09-26 at the Wayback Machine
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