Science and technology in Romania

Last updated

Science and technology in Romania is well developed, with the presence of several universities and research institutes, and has a distinguished tradition going back more than a century.


Aviation and aeronautics

Traian Vuia 2 Traian vuia flying machine.jpg
Traian Vuia 2
Countries whose citizens have flown in space as of 2006 Astronauts by country date first spaceflight2.PNG
Countries whose citizens have flown in space as of 2006

On March 18, 1906 Traian Vuia achieved a short hop at a height of about 1 foot. His flight was performed in Montesson near Paris and was about 12 meters long. [1]

Henri Coandă was a Romanian inventor and pioneer of aviation. He exhibited the non-flying Coandă-1910 at the Second International Aeronautical Exhibition in Paris in October 1910, and built his first flying aircraft in 1911. He discovered the Coandă effect of fluidics, and was the first to recognize the practical application of the phenomenon in aircraft design.

On May 14, 1981 Romania became the 11th country in the world to have an astronaut in space. That astronaut, Dumitru Prunariu later served as president of the Romanian Space Agency.

Biology, chemistry and medicine

George Emil Palade was a Romanian-born cell biologist who won the Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine in 1974 [2] for his study of internal organization of such cell structures as mitochondria, chloroplasts, the Golgi apparatus, and for the discovery of the ribosomes. [3] He also won the National Medal of Science in 1986.

George Constantinescu created the theory of sonics, while Lazăr Edeleanu was the first chemist to synthesize amphetamine and also invented the modern method of refining crude oil.


Mathematics research in Romania started in the late 19th century and the early 20th century with the work of Spiru Haret, Traian Lalescu, Octav Mayer, Miron Nicolescu, Octav Onicescu, Dimitrie Pompeiu, Isaac Jacob Schoenberg, Simion Stoilow, Gheorghe Țițeica, and Gheorghe Vrănceanu.

In the second half of the 20th century, there was a tremendous increase of research activity and international visibility. A very strong school of operator algebras and C*-algebras developed around Ciprian Foias and Dan-Virgil Voiculescu (the initiator of the field of Free probability), whose tradition has continued with Sorin Popa, Adrian Ioana, Adrian Ocneanu, Florin Boca, and others. Research in algebra and algebraic geometry is represented in the works of mathematicians such as Nicolae Popescu (of Gabriel–Popescu theorem fame), Alexandru Dimca, Mircea Mustață, and Mihnea Popa, while research in number theory is represented by Florian Pop, Preda Mihăilescu (proof of Catalan's conjecture), Cristian Dumitru Popescu, Alexandru Zaharescu, and Alina Carmen Cojocaru.

Research in the fields of topology, symplectic geometry, global analysis, and geometric group theory has been pursued my mathematicians such as Tudor Ganea, Valentin Poénaru, Henri Moscovici, Tudor Ratiu, Eleny Ionel, Cornelia Druțu, and Ciprian Manolescu (known for his application of Seiberg–Witten Floer theory to the Hauptvermutung [4] ). Finally, strong research in mathematical analysis, complex analysis, partial differential equations, and numerical analysis appears in the works of Cabiria Andreian Cazacu, Sergiu Klainerman, Daniel Tătaru, Matei Machedon, Monica Vișan, and Ioana Dumitriu.


Atomic dichotomy - a phenomenon discovered by Mihai Gavrila Atomic dichotomy.jpg
Atomic dichotomy – a phenomenon discovered by Mihai Gavrilă

Notable Romanian physicists and inventors also include: Horia Hulubei in atomic physics, Șerban Țițeica in theoretical physics, especially thermodynamics and statistical mechanics, Mihai Gavrilă in quantum theory, [5] [6] [7] Alexandru Proca known for the first meson theory of nuclear forces and Proca's equations of the vectorial mesonic field, [8] [9] formulated independently of the pion theory of Nobel laureate Hideki Yukawa (who predicted the existence of the pion in 1947), Ştefan Procopiu known for the first theory of the magnetic moment of the electron in 1911 (now known as the Bohr-Procopiu magneton), Theodor V. Ionescu – the inventor of a multiple-cavity magnetron in 1935, a hydrogen maser in 1947, 3D imaging for cinema/television in 1924, quantum emission in hot plasmas and hot deuterium plasma beams for controlled nuclear fusion in 1969, [10] Ionel Solomon  [ ro ] known for the nuclear magnetic resonance theory in solids in 1955, the Solomon equations, [11] solid state physics, [11] semiconductors in 1979, [12] [13] and photovoltaics since 1988, [14] Mircea Sabău [15] [16] and Florentina Mosora known for their contributions to nuclear medicine, Petrache Poenaru, Nicolae Teclu and

Computer science and technology

Mathematician Ştefan Odobleja was one of the precursors of cybernetics, while Grigore Moisil is viewed as the father of computer science in Romania. Another mathematician, Cristian S. Calude is known for his work on algorithmic information theory, while physicist Victor Toma is known for the invention and construction of the first Romanian computer, the CIFA-1 in 1955. [17]

At the beginning of the second millennium, there was a boom in Romania in the number of computer programmers. Romania is reported to be among the countries with the highest number of computer programmers in the world. [18] Some examples of successful software include RAV (Romanian AntiVirus) which was bought in 2003 by Microsoft for use in their development of Windows Defender, [19] and BitDefender, which was considered the number one antivirus software and internet security software in a report from TopTenReviews. [20]

See also


  1. "Traian I. Vuia".
  2. George E. Palade - The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1974 at
  3. Nicole Kresge, Robert D. Simoni, and Robert L. Hill George Emil Palade: How Sucrose and Electron Microscopy Led to the Birth of Cell Biology J. Biol. Chem., Vol. 280, Issue 22, 19, June 3, 2005
  4. Manolescu, Ciprian (2016) [2015]. "Pin(2)-equivariant Seiberg–Witten Floer homology and the Triangulation Conjecture". Journal of the American Mathematical Society . 29: 147–176. arXiv: 1303.2354 . doi:10.1090/jams829.
  5. Gavrilă, Mihai (1959-01-15). "Relativistic K-Shell Photoeffect". Physical Review . American Physical Society. 113 (2): 514–526. doi:10.1103/physrev.113.514. ISSN   0031-899X.
  6. McEnnan, James; Gavrilă, Mihai (1977-04-01). "Radiative corrections to the atomic photoeffect". Physical Review A . American Physical Society. 15 (4): 1537–1556. doi:10.1103/physreva.15.1537. ISSN   0556-2791.
  7. Florescu, Viorica; Gavrilă, Mihai (2003-11-14). "Extreme relativistic Compton scattering by K-shell electrons". Physical Review A . American Physical Society. 68 (5): 052709. doi:10.1103/physreva.68.052709. ISSN   1050-2947.
  8. Alexandru Proca. "On the relativistic theory of Dirac's electron" PhD thesis defended by Alexandru Proca under Nobel laureate Louis de Broglie at Sorbonne University
  9. Brown, Laurie M.; Rechenberg, Helmut (1996), The origin of the concept of nuclear forces, CRC Press, p. 185, ISBN   978-0-7503-0373-6
  10. Th.V. Ionescu et al. (1969). "Les oscillations ioniques dans les cathodes creuses dans un champ magnetique", transmise par M. Louis Neel, Comptes rendus de l'Académie des Sciences , 270: 1321-1324
  11. 1 2 Solomon, I. (1955-07-15). "Relaxation Processes in a System of Two Spins". Physical Review. American Physical Society (APS). 99 (2): 559–565. doi:10.1103/physrev.99.559. ISSN   0031-899X.
  12. I. Solomon. "Amorphous Semiconductors", In "Topics in Applied Physics", Ed. Springer Verlag, Berlin (1979)
  13. Solomon, I.; Schmidt, M. P.; Tran-Quoc, H. (1988-11-15). "Selective low-power plasma decomposition of silane-methane mixtures for the preparation of methylated amorphous silicon". Physical Review B. American Physical Society (APS). 38 (14): 9895–9901. doi:10.1103/physrevb.38.9895. ISSN   0163-1829.
  14. Solomon, I.; Drévillon, B.; Shirai, H.; Layadi, N. (1993). "Plasma deposition of microcrystalline silicon: the selective etching model". Journal of Non-Crystalline Solids. Elsevier BV. 164–166: 989–992. doi:10.1016/0022-3093(93)91164-x. ISSN   0022-3093.
  15. George Roca. In Memoriam: Prof. Dr. Mircea Sabău. Glas Comun-Revistă Cultural-creștină, Iulie 31, 2009
  16. AMERICAN ROMANIAN ACADEMY OF ARTS AND SCIENCES, Newsletter, vol. 10: 1, May 1999
  17. Victor Toma- "Tatăl calculatoarelor din țările socialiste". România Liberă , July 13, 2007
  18. Townsend, Eileen (2002), Global IT IQ Report (PDF), Brainbench, Inc.
  19. Microsoft to Acquire Antivirus Technology From GeCAD Software
  20. 2008 Internet Security Suite Report

Related Research Articles

Nuclear physics Field of physics that deals with the structure and behavior of atomic nuclei

Nuclear physics is the field of physics that studies atomic nuclei and their constituents and interactions. Other forms of nuclear matter are also studied.

University of Bucharest

The University of Bucharest, commonly known after its abbreviation UB in Romania, is a public university founded on 4 July 1864 by a decree of Prince Alexandru Ioan Cuza to convert the former Princely Academy into the current University of Bucharest, making it the second oldest modern Romanian university. It is one of the five members of the Universitaria Consortium.

Bellu Cemetery

Șerban Vodă Cemetery is the largest and most famous cemetery in Bucharest, Romania.

<i>100 Greatest Romanians</i>

In 2006, Romanian Television conducted a vote to determine whom the general public considered the 100 Greatest Romanians of all time, in a version of the British TV show 100 Greatest Britons. The resulting series, Great Romanians, included individual programmes on the top ten, with viewers having further opportunities to vote after each programme. It concluded with a debate. On 21 October, TVR announced that the "greatest Romanian of all time" according to the voting was Stephen the Great.

The State Philharmonic Orchestra of Sibiu is an orchestra from Romania.

Văcăroiu Cabinet

Nicolae Văcăroiu's cabinet 1992–1996 was the 111th cabinet of Romania.

The timeline of quantum mechanics is a list of key events in the history of quantum mechanics, quantum field theories and quantum chemistry.

Alexandru Proca

Alexandru Proca was a Romanian physicist who studied and worked in France. He developed the vector meson theory of nuclear forces and the relativistic quantum field equations that bear his name for the massive, vector spin-1 mesons.

Mihai Gavrilă Romanian quantum physicist

Mihai Gavrilă is a Romanian quantum physicist and a corresponding member of the Romanian Academy since 1974. He made fundamental contributions to the quantum theories of electromagnetic interactions with atoms.

The Romanian pavilion houses Romania's national representation during the Venice Biennale arts festivals.

Guy Laval is a French physicist, professor at the École polytechnique and member of the French Academy of Sciences.

Jürgen Meyer-ter-Vehn is a German theoretical physicist who specializes in laser-plasma interactions at the Max Planck Institute for Quantum Optics. He published under the name Meyer until 1973.

Kunioki Mima is a Japanese plasma physicist. He is known for his contributions to the theory of turbulent transport in plasmas, and in particular the derivation of the Hasegawa–Mima equation in 1977, which won him the 2011 Hannes Alfvén Prize.

Patrick Mora is a French theoretical plasma physicist who specializes in laser-plasma interactions. He was awarded the 2014 Hannes Alfvén Prize and 2019 Edward Teller Award for his contributions to the field of laser-plasma physics.

Victor Malka is a French plasma physicist and a pioneer in laser plasma acceleration. In 2004, Malka demonstrated that high energy monoenergetic electron beams could be generated using the technique of laser wakefield acceleration, and subsequently used them to develop compact X-ray and gamma radiation sources with applications in medicine, security technology and phase-contrast imaging. For these contributions to the field, he was awarded the IEEE Particle Accelerator Science and Technology Award in 2007, the Julius Springer Prize for Applied Physics in 2017, and the Hannes Alfvén Prize in 2019.