Romania was the largest European producer of oil in World War II. The oil extracted from Romania was essential for Axis military operations.The petrochemical industry near Ploieşti was bombed heavily by American bombers (see Operation Tidal Wave). After the war, a heavy reconstruction and expansion was done under the communist regime. Since then, most of the industry has been privatized.
Possessing substantial oil refining capacities, Romania is particularly interested in the Central Asia-Europe pipelines and seeks to strengthen its relations with some Arab States of the Persian Gulf. With 10 refineries and an overall refining capacity of approximately 504,000 bbl/d (80,100 m3/d), Romania has the largest refining industry in the region. Romania's refining capacity far exceeds domestic demand for refined petroleum products, allowing the country to export a wide range of oil products and petrochemicals — such as lubricants, bitumen, and fertilizers — throughout the region.
This is an incomplete list of oil refineries in Romania:
1857 - First drilling of oil wells at Bend, northeast of Bucharest, on the Romanian side of the Carpathians; this year is registered as a beginning of Romania’s oil production. It was happened 11 years after the drilling of the first oil well in Baku (in Bibi-Heybat settlement) in 1846.
An oil refinery or petroleum refinery is an industrial process plant where crude oil is transformed and refined into useful products such as petroleum naphtha, gasoline, diesel fuel, asphalt base, heating oil, kerosene, liquefied petroleum gas, jet fuel and fuel oils. Petrochemicals feed stock like ethylene and propylene can also be produced directly by cracking crude oil without the need of using refined products of crude oil such as naphtha. The crude oil feedstock has typically been processed by an oil production plant. There is usually an oil depot at or near an oil refinery for the storage of incoming crude oil feedstock as well as bulk liquid products. According to the Oil and Gas Journal, on 31 December 2014, a total of 636 refineries operated worldwide with a total capacity of 87.75 million barrels (13,951,000 m3).
Ploiești, formerly spelled Ploești, is a city and county seat in Prahova County, Romania.
The petroleum industry, also known as the oil industry or the oil patch, includes the global processes of exploration, extraction, refining, transporting, and marketing of petroleum products. The largest volume products of the industry are fuel oil and gasoline (petrol). Petroleum is also the raw material for many chemical products, including pharmaceuticals, solvents, fertilizers, pesticides, synthetic fragrances, and plastics. The extreme monetary value of oil and its products has led to it being known as "black gold". The industry is usually divided into three major components: upstream, midstream, and downstream. Upstream deals with Drilling and Production mainly.
The PJSC LukoilOil Company is a Russian multinational energy corporation headquartered in Moscow, specializing in the business of extraction, production, transport, and sale of petroleum, natural gas, and petroleum products. It was formed in 1991 when three state-run, western Siberian companies named after the respective town in Khanty–Mansi Autonomous Okrug that each was based in, Langepasneftegaz, Urayneftegaz, and Kogalymneftegaz, merged. Its name is the combination of the acronym LUK and the English word "oil".
OMV is an Austrian multinational integrated oil, gas and petrochemical company which is headquartered in Vienna, Austria. The company is listed on the Vienna Stock Exchange. In the 2020 Forbes Global 2000, OMV Group was ranked as the 441st -largest public company in the world.
Rompetrol is of KMG International of Romanian origin, initially as a company representative of the Romanian oil and gas industry on international level, becoming later an international oil group with operations in 12 countries, known as The Rompetrol Group N.V.
OMV Petrom S.A. is a Romanian integrated oil company, controlled by Austria's OMV. It is one of the largest corporations in Romania and the largest oil and gas producer in Southeast Europe. Since 2004 it is a subsidiary of OMV.
Petroleum production in Canada is a major industry which is important to the economy of North America. Canada has the third largest oil reserves in the world and is the world's fourth largest oil producer and fourth largest oil exporter. In 2017 it produced an average of 667,747 cubic metres per day (4.2 Mbbl/d) of crude oil and equivalent. Of that amount, 64% was upgraded and non-upgraded bitumen from oil sands, and the remainder light crude oil, heavy crude oil and natural-gas condensate. Most of Canadian petroleum production is exported, approximately 3.8 million barrels per day in 2019, with 98% of the exports going to the United States. Canada is by far the largest single source of oil imports to the United States, providing 43% of US crude oil imports in 2015.
Kochi Refinery (KR) is a crude oil refinery in the city of Kochi in Kerala, India. It is the largest public sector refinery in India with a production capacity of 31.54 million tonnes per year. Formerly known as Cochin Refineries Limited and later renamed as Kochi Refineries Limited, it was acquired by Bharat Petroleum Corporation Limited in the year 2006. The refinery is situated at Ambalamugal, around 12 km (7.5 mi) east of the city centre.
The petroleum industry in Azerbaijan produces about 873,260 barrels (138,837 m3) of oil per day and 29 billion cubic meters of gas per year as of 2013. Azerbaijan is one of the birthplaces of the oil industry. Its history is linked to the fortunes of petroleum. It is poised to become an important oil and gas producer once again.
The petroleum industry is not of recent origin, but petroleum's current status as a key component of politics, society, and technology has its roots in the early 20th century. The invention of the internal combustion engine was the major influence in the rise in the importance of petroleum.
Qatar Petroleum (QP) is a state owned petroleum company of Qatar. The company operates all oil and gas activities in Qatar, including exploration, production, refining, transport, and storage. QP's President & CEO is Saad Sherida Al-Kaabi, Minister of State for Energy Affairs. QP's operations are directly linked with state planning agencies, regulatory authorities, and policy making bodies. Together, revenues from oil and natural gas amount to 60% of the country's GDP. As of 2018 it was the third largest oil company in the world by oil and gas reserves.
The National Oil Corporation is the national oil company of Libya. It dominates Libya's oil industry, along with a number of smaller subsidiaries, which combined account for around 70% the country's oil output. Of NOC's subsidiaries, the largest oil producer is the Waha Oil Company (WOC), followed by the Arabian Gulf Oil Company (Agoco), Zueitina Oil Company (ZOC), and Sirte Oil Company (SOC).
Petromidia Refinery is the largest Romanian oil refinery and one of the largest in Eastern Europe, located in Năvodari, Constanţa County. It has an annual processing capacity of 4.8 million tonnes/year or 100,000 bbl/d (16,000 m3/d). The refinery is supplied with oil through an oil terminal located in the Port of Midia that can accommodate ships up to 24,000 DWT or by a pipeline of 40 km (25 mi) which has a terminus in the Port of Constanţa.
Arpechim Refinery was one of the largest Romanian refineries and one of the largest in Europe, located in Piteşti, Argeș County, and had both refining and petrochemical capacities. The refinery has two processing modules with a nominal capacity of 6.5 million tonnes/year. Now only one of the two modules is operating with a capacity of 3.5 million tonnes/year or 70,000 bbl/d (11,000 m3/d). The facility is connected by pipeline to the oil fields in the Oltenia Region and to the Port of Constanţa. The refinery produces around 60% of all the bitumen used in Romania.
Petrobrazi Refinery is one of the largest Romanian refineries and one of the largest in Eastern Europe, located in Ploieşti, Prahova County having as a main activity the processing of Romanian oil but also has a separate unit specialised in processing chemical products. The refinery had two processing modules with a nominal capacity of 3.5 million tonnes/year each and a total capacity of 7 million tonnes/year. Now only one of the two modules is operational and has a capacity of 4.1 million tonnes/year or 90,000 bbl/d (14,000 m3/d), 1 million tonnes larger due to an investment program from 1999 - 2000. The facility is connected by pipeline to virtually all of the oil fields in Romania by an extensive pipe network and to the Port of Constanţa by a pipeline with a capacity of 10,000 tonnes/day.
Petrotel Lukoil Refinery is one of the largest Romanian oil refineries and one of the largest in Eastern Europe, located in Ploieşti, Prahova County. Its main activity is the processing of Romanian and Russian oil, but a separate unit is specialised in biodiesel production and another unit specialises in energy production. Russian oil is transported by oil tankers from the Novorossiysk Commercial Sea Port, unloaded at an oil terminal located in the Port of Constanţa, and transported to the refinery by rail or by a 250 kilometres (155 mi) underground pipeline that links the refinery to the port. In 2004, the refinery underwent a major modernization that reduced the production capacity of 3.5 million tonnes/year to 2.4 million tonnes/year but made the refinery more efficient, with a higher percentage of use. The refinery also has a biodiesel producing capacity of 100,000 tonnes and the energy division has a gas-fired turbine with a nominal capacity of 30MW.
S.C. IPIP S.A. the Engineering and Design Institute for Oil Refineries and Petrochemical Plants is a Romanian company which was established in 1950, at Ploiești, as a milestone in the development of the petroleum, hydrocarbon processing and petrochemical industries as well as of their related fields, in Romania.
KMG International N.V. is an international oil company with operations in 15 countries throughout Europe, Central Asia and North Africa. The group is active primarily in refining, marketing and trading, with additional operations in exploration and production, and other oil industry services such as drilling, EPCM, and transportation.