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A feature of Romanian culture is the special relationship between folklore and the learned culture, determined by two factors. First, the rural character of the Romanian communities resulted in an exceptionally vital and creative traditional culture. Folk creations (the best known is the ballad Miorița) were the main literary genre until the 18th century. They were both a source of inspiration for cultivated creators and a structural model. Second, for a long time learned culture was governed by official and social commands and developed around courts of princes and boyars, as well as in monasteries.
Stories suggest God made the earth with the help of animals, while Satan was trying to thwart his plans. 11–12 In the majority of versions, before the earth existed, a boundless ocean called Apa Sâmbetei was the abode of God and the Devil, seen as master and servant rather than equals. In these stories the Devil goes by the name "Nefârtatul" and is the somewhat foolish brother of God in folk versions of stories. These stories appear not only in Romanian folklore, but also in those of Aromanian, Slavic Macedonian and Bulgarian folklore. Upon deciding to create the earth, God sent the Devil to bring a handful of clay from the ground of the World Ocean in his holy name. The Devil set forth and tried to bring it to the surface in his name instead, but could not succeed until he brought it up in the name of God. As this piece of clay grew into the earth, God laid himself down to sleep. The Devil tried to push him over the side, but the ever-expanding earth would hinder that. After trying to throw God off the earth in every one of the four cardinal directions, he shied away from the cross he drew in the ground himself.:
Other accounts, closer to the biblical one, suggest that the Devil and his demons were once angels of God. The Devil, however, tried to rebel, and, in response, God opened up the heavens so that he might fall to the earth. Fearing that Heaven might be voided, the archangel Michael re-sealed it, thus freezing the demons that had not yet fallen to hell in place. This is related to the concept of soul customs , where every soul is intercepted on its way to heaven by these demons, who force it into hell. It has also given rise to the Romanian saying până ajungi la Dumnezeu, te mănâncă sfinţii ("before you reach God, the saints will eat you"). 13–14:
Another question commonly addressed is that of the origin of God, which is explained in a Russian doll-type fashion; before every God there was another God that created him. Thus explaining the many names the Bible used for God, the Oltenians believed the first God was called Sabaoth, followed by Amon, Apollo, the Creator God of the Bible and, finally, Jesus Christ. 12:
Even after Christian imagery and symbolism became part of Romanian culture, Mother Earth is identified as the consort of God, the heavenly Father. 55:
The origin of mountains is explained in a number of ways by the cultures of the different regions of Romania. One account is that mountains formed as a response to God demanding the Earth to nurture all life, to which the earth shuddered and brought forth mountains. Another version suggests the Earth was too large to fit under the firmament, and so God attempted to shrink it, thus raising mountains. Often, these accounts are accompanied by the imagery of one or several World Pillars, which sustain the earth from below and are usually placed beneath mountains. Earthquakes are frequently attributed to the earth slipping due to the Devil's constant gnawing at these pillars, which are rebuilt by God and his angels in times of fasting. 38–42:
The etymology of the word blajin (adj.) is the Slavonian blažĕnŭ meaning kind, well-minding person. [blaˈʒinʲ] ("gentle/kind-hearted ones"), sometimes given the name Rohmani [ˈroh.manʲ] in Bucovina. They are described as anthropomorphic and short, sometimes having the head of a rat. They are either described as malicious or as having great respect for God and leading a sinless life. They are considered to fast the year through, and thus doing humans a great service. :33According to Christian calendar, Romanians from Banat, Transylvania, Bucovina and Maramureș counties celebrate Easter of Blajini on first Monday after St. Thomas Sunday. Easter of Blajini is called also Easter of Deaths or Mighty Easter. Romanians generally perceived the earth as a disc, and they imagined what existed on the other side. This other earth is imagined as a mirror image of our own, and as a home to creatures called Blajini
The Romanian holiday Paştele Blajinilor (Easter of Blajini) is a way to repay them for the benefits they bring. Since they live in isolation, they have no way of knowing when Easter comes. It is for this reason that Romanians eat dyed eggs and let the shells flow downstream, from there they believe they will get to the Apa Sâmbetei, and from there to the Blajini. 37 Blajini are invisible connectors between Inner and Hollow Earth.:
Blajin also means a dead child who did not receive the benediction of Holy Spirit. The ethnograph Marian Simion Florea wrote : Blajini are fictitious beings, incarnations of dead children not baptized who live at the end of Earth, nearby The Holy water (of Saturday). Some explain them as the descendants of Adam's son Seth. Others think that they used to live alongside humans on the earth, but Moses, seeing his people oppressed by them, split the waters and, after he and his people had retreated to safety, poured the waters back onto them, sending them to their current abode. :34
For celebrating the souls of dead relatives or friends, Romanians from above mentioned counties prepare festive meals and offer them, in the cemetery, nearby the tombs, after the religious mass and benediction, to all who wished to commemorate and pay their respects to the dead. They cheer up in memory of the deceased.
The most prominent symbol associated with the End Times is that of the earthquake. Waters overflowing and mountains collapsing are both linked to these earthquakes, which are mainly caused by lack of faith, which accelerates the crumbling of the World Pillars. Others attribute the earthquakes to the earth (which is alive, and can therefore feel) realising the wicked ways of humans, and trembling in fright. Other rare natural phenomena such as Eclipses or Comets were seen as a sign of impending doom. 61:
If these warnings should fail, God will initiate the End of the World. Such imagery as a darkened sun, a bleeding moon and falling stars are associated with the beginning of the End Times. Three saints (usually in the persons of Enoch, John and Elijah) are said to come to earth to unveil the Devil's attempts to destroy the world, whereupon they shall be killed by decapitation. The sky and the earth will be set alight and the earth will be purged, so that its Creator may descend upon it. The 12 winds are said to sweep up the ashes of people and gather them in the valley of Safed, where the Last Judgement shall be done. 67–68:
Sources form Moldova and Bucovina also speak of a great army led by the emperor Constantine, which will conquer all the world's states, and kill everyone save for a few pure ones, which will then repopulate the earth. In another instance, should this army not come, God shall burn the earth as described and bring the Blajini to live there. In another version, true to the succession of Gods mentioned earlier (s. here), Jesus Christ is said to come and create a new world like his father before him. A not-so-widespread belief is that of a definitive destruction of the earth, whereupon God and the Devil shall divide the souls of the dead among themselves and retire to the moon, who is considered to have been made in the image of the earth to serve a place of retreat after the destruction of the earth. 69–71:
Strong folk traditions have survived to this day due to the rural character of the Romanian communities, which has resulted in an exceptionally vital and creative traditional culture. Romania's rich folk traditions have been nourished by many sources, some of which predate the Roman occupation. Traditional folk arts include wood carving, ceramics, weaving and embroidery of costumes, household decorations, dance, and richly varied folk music. Ethnographers have tried to collect in the last two centuries as many elements as possible: the Museum of the Romanian Peasant and the Romanian Academy are currently the main institutions which systematically organise the data and continue the research.
Wood used to be the main construction material, and heavily ornamented wooden objects were common in old houses. In Maramureș, wood was used to create impressive structures such as churches or gates; in Dobruja, windmills were made of wood, and in mountainous regions hardwood was used even for covering the roof. To preserve traditional houses, many village museums have been created in the last century throughout Romania,such as the Village Museum in Bucharest, the Traditional Popular Civilisation ASTRA Museum in Sibiu or the Oltenian Village Museum in Râmnicu Vâlcea.
Linen was the most common material for clothing, combined with wool during the winter or colder periods. These are embroidered with traditional motifs that vary from region to region. Black is the most common colour used, but red and blue are predominant in certain areas. Traditionally, men wore a white shirt and pants (if made of wool they are called iţari) with a wide leather belt, usually over the shirt, and a vest sometimes made of leather and embroidered. They wore either boots or a simple shoe made of leather and tied around the foot called opincă and they wore a hat which differs in design from region to region. Women also wore a white skirt and a shirt with a vest. They wore an apron called şorţ or cătrinţă which is also embroidered and a headscarf called basma;on special occasions they wore more elaborate outfits.
Music and dance represent a lively part of the Romanian folklore and there are a great variety of musical genres and dances. Party music is very lively and shows both Balkan and Hungarian influences. Sentimental music, however, is the most valued, and Romanians consider their doina (a sad song either about one's home or about love, composed like an epic ballad) unique in the world. Maria Tănase is considered to be one of the greatest Romanian folk singers and today Grigore Leşe and Taraful Haiducilor are two of the most famous musicians. The dances are lively and are practiced throughout Romania by a large number of professional and amateur groups, thus keeping the tradition alive; Hora is one of the most famous group dances but men's folk dances such as căluşari are extremely complex and have been declared by UNESCO to be "Masterpieces of the Oral and Intangible Heritages of Humanity".
Romanians have had, from time immemorial, a myriad of customs, tales and poems about love, faith, kings, princesses, and witches. Ethnologists, poets, writers and historians have tried in recent centuries to collect and to preserve tales, poems, ballads and have tried to describe as well as possible the customs and habits related to different events and times of year. Customs related to certain times of year are the colinde - Romanian Christmas carols, sorcova on New Year's Eve or the Mărţişor custom on the 1st of March marking the spring. Other customs are presumably of pre-Christian pagan origin, like the Paparuda rain enchanting custom in the summer, or the masked folk theatre or Ursul (the bear) and Capra (the goat) in winter.
Perhaps the most successful collector of folk tales was the novelist and storyteller Ion Creangă, who, in very picturesque language, shaped into their now-classic form stories like Harap Alb (roughly, "The White Moor´´) or Fata babei şi fata moşului ("The old woman's daughter and the old man's daughter"). Also, the poet Vasile Alecsandri published the most successful version of the ballad Mioriţa (The Little Ewe), a sad, philosophical poem, centered on a simple action: the plot by two shepherds to kill a third shepherd because they envied his wealth. Another prolific editor of folk tales was Petre Ispirescu, who, in the 19th century published an impressive number of volumes containing a large number of short novels and tales from popular mythology. They are centered on popular characters like the prince Făt-Frumos (the Romanian "Prince Charming"), the princess Ileana Cosânzeana, the villain or monster Zmeu or Căpcăun , the dragon Balaur or fantastic superbeings like the good Zână and the evil Muma Pădurii .
Most of these names can be found in the Romanian Lore in reference to Vampires and Dragons.
|List of mythologies|
A demon is a supernatural being, typically associated with evil, prevalent historically in religion, occultism, literature, fiction, mythology, and folklore; as well as in media such as comics, video games, movies, anime, and television series.
A folk dance is a dance developed by people that reflect the life of the people of a certain country or region. Not all ethnic dances are folk dances. For example, ritual dances or dances of ritual origin are not considered to be folk dances. Ritual dances are usually called "Religious dances" because of their purpose. The terms "ethnic" and "traditional" are used when it is required to emphasize the cultural roots of the dance. In this sense, nearly all folk dances are ethnic ones. If some dances, such as polka, cross ethnic boundaries and even cross the boundary between "folk" and "ballroom dance", ethnic differences are often considerable enough to mention.
The culture of Romania is the product of its geography and its distinct historical evolution. It is theorized and speculated that Romanians and related peoples are the combinations of descendants of Roman colonists and people indigenous to the region who were Romanized.
Romania is a European country with a multicultural music environment which includes active ethnic music scenes. Romania also has thriving scenes in the fields of pop music, hip hop, heavy metal and rock and roll. During the first decade of the 21st century some Europop groups/artists, such as Tom Boxer, Morandi, Akcent, Edward Maya, Alexandra Stan, Inna and Yarabi, achieved success abroad. Traditional Romanian folk music remains popular, and some folk musicians have come to national fame.
The Romanian word lăutar denotes a class of musicians, traditionally members of a professional clan of Romani musicians, also called țigani lăutari. The term is derived from lăută, the Romanian word for lute. Lăutari usually perform in bands, called taraf.
Ileana Cosânzeana is a figure in Romanian mythology. She is represented as a beautiful good-natured princess or daughter of an Emperor, or described as a fairy with immense powers.
A balaur in Romanian folklore is a type of many-headed dragon or monstrous serpent, sometimes said to be equipped with wings. The number of heads is usually around three, but they can also have seven heads or even twelve heads according to some legends.
The doina is a Romanian musical tune style, possibly with Middle Eastern roots, customary in Romanian peasant music, as well as in Lăutărească. It was also adopted into klezmer music.
In Romanian folklore, Muma Pădurii is an ugly and mischievous or mad old woman living in the forest. She is the opposite of fairies such as Zână. She is also the protector of the animals and plants, brewing potions and helping injured animals. She cures the forest if it is dying and she keeps unwanted trespassers away by driving them mad and scaring them.
Sânziană is the Romanian name for gentle fairies who play an important part in local folklore, also used to designate the Galium verum or Cruciata laevipes flowers. Under the plural form Sânziene, the word designates an annual festival in the fairies' honor. Etymologically, the name comes from the Latin Sancta Diana, the Roman goddess of the hunt and moon, also celebrated in Roman Dacia. Diana was known to be the virgin goddess and looked after virgins and women. She was one of the three maiden goddesses, Diana, Minerva and Vesta, who swore never to marry.
Estonian mythology is a complex of myths belonging to the Estonian folk heritage and literary mythology. Information about the pre-Christian and medieval Estonian mythology is scattered in historical chronicles, travellers' accounts and in ecclesiastical registers. Systematic recordings of Estonian folklore started in the 19th century. Pre-Christian Estonian deities included a sky-god known as Jumal or Taevataat in Estonian, corresponding to Jumala in Finnish, and Jumo in Mari.
The Călușari were the members of a Romanian fraternal secret society who practiced a ritual acrobatic dance known as the căluș. According to the Romanian historian Mircea Eliade, the Călușari were known for "their ability to create the impression of flying in the air" which he believed represented both the galloping of a horse and the dancing of the fairies (zîne). Indeed, the group's patron was the "Queen of the Fairies", who was also known as Irodiada and Arada, and who Eliade connected with the folkloric figure Diana.
Ion Ivanovici was a Romanian military band leader and composer of Banat Serbian origin, best remembered today for his waltz Waves of the Danube.
Ion Petre Stoican was a Romani-Romanian violinist, a lăutar.
The iele are feminine mythical creatures in Romanian mythology. There are several differing descriptions of their characteristics. Often they are described as faeries, with great seductive power over men, with magic skills and attributes similar to nymphs, naiads and dryads found in Greek mythology. They are also similar to the Samodivas in Bulgaria.
Vâlvă is a female spirit mentioned in the Romanian folklore. The Vâlve are believed to walk over the hilltops at night, and are subdivided into Vâlve Albe, who are considered beneficial, and Vâlve Negre, who are considered evil. In certain contexts, they are believed to have human form. They may also appear under various guises, such as shadows or black cats. They also have the ability to shapeshift.
Margot Loyola Palacios was a musician, folk singer and researcher of the folklore of Chile and Latin America in general.
Bardha is an Albanian mythological creature. According to old folklore, to propitiate them one strews cakes or sugar on the ground. It is similar to Zana e malit.
Quebec has a rich history of folklore.
Anca Giurchescu née Ciortea was a Romanian researcher of folk dance, and an ethnochoreologist, one of the founders of the discipline. Born in Bucharest to a family formerly from Translylvania, she lived in that region as a child. Entering university, she studied dance at the National Institute of Physical Education. During her schooling, she participated in competitive target shooting and was a silver (team) and bronze (individual) medalist in the 1955 European Shooting Championship. While still studying, she began working as a researcher at the Folklore Institute and in 1962 became a member of the International Council for Traditional Music. The Council established a working group which included Giurchescu, that laid the foundation for the science of ethnochoreology.
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