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Human rights in Romania are generally respected by the government. However, there have been concerns regarding allegations of police brutality, mistreatment of the Romani minority, government corruption, poor prison conditions, and compromised judicial independence.Romania was ranked 59th out of 167 countries in the 2015 Democracy Index and is described as a "flawed democracy", similar to other countries in Central or Eastern Europe.
Corruption in Romania is a serious systemic problem, according to the anti-corruption report of the EC.Although the anti-corruption struggle has seen an upward trend in recent years, and the investigations of the National Anticorruption Directorate (NAD) have led to a former prime minister's trial in 2015 and other important public representatives, corruption still affects many aspects of life. The US Department of State's report on human rights practices highlights that bribes has remained an ordinary thing in the public sector. Romania and Bulgaria are the only EU members monitored through the Mechanism for Cooperation and Verification. The MCV was established at the time Romania joined the European Union in 2007 to remedy the shortcomings of judicial reform and the fight against corruption.
Although there have been significant improvements, corruption remains an issue, affecting many areas of life. Despite the fact that Romanian law and regulations contain provisions intended to prevent corruption, enforcement has generally been weak until recently. The image of Romania was badly affected by the 2012 political crisis, when the European Commission expressed concerns about the rule of law.The Commission also criticised Romania for failing to root out corruption and political influence in its state institutions. The 2017 Romanian protests were massive public protests against government plans of decriminalizing certain forms of corruption.
Police brutality is also a problem. The Romanian Police was demilitarized in 2002, and has been reorganized, in order to modernize it and rid it of former abusive practices inherited from the communist era. However problems, such as police brutality, are reported to persist. According to the US Country Reports on Human Rights Practices, NGOs and the media reported that "police mistreated and abused prisoners, pretrial detainees, gypsies, and other citizens, primarily through use of excessive force including beatings".Prison conditions are another problem: in 2017, the ECHR ruled that detention conditions in Romanian prisons are in breach of European Convention of Human Rights.
The government has been accused at times of restricting freedom of the press. Journalists who wrote reports critical of government policies and actions have claimed they were targets for harassment and intimidation during the 2004 Romanian presidential election.Romania was ranked 46th out of 178 countries in Reporters Without Borders' 2017 World Press Freedom Index; another report by Freedom House describes the Romanian press as "partly free".
There has been a growing awareness of human trafficking as a human rights issue in Europe (see main article: Human trafficking in Romania ). The end of communism has contributed to an increase in human trafficking, with the majority of victims being women forced into prostitution.Romania is a country of origin and country of transit for persons, primarily women and children, trafficked for the purpose of sexual exploitation. The Romanian government has shown some commitment to combat trafficking but has been criticized for failing to fully comply with the minimum standards for the elimination of trafficking.
The new Romanian Criminal Code, which came into force on 1 February 2014, creates several offenses against slavery, human trafficking, child trafficking, pimping, forced labour, and using exploited persons (Art. 182 Exploitation of a person, Art. 209 Slavery, Art. 210 Trafficking in human beings, Art. 211 Trafficking in underage persons, Art. 212 Pressing into forced or compulsory labor, Art. 213 Pandering, Art. 214 Exploitation of beggary, Art. 216 Use of an exploited person’s services).
Romania has ratified the Council of Europe Convention on Action against Trafficking in Human Beings;and is also a party to the UN Protocol to Prevent, Suppress and Punish Trafficking in Persons, Especially Women and Children.
Children's rights are protected by several laws; and Romania also has international obligations due to the conventions it has ratified.
Children have equal rights, regardless of whether they were born inside or outside of marriage. This is stipulated in the Romanian Constitution, at Art. 48 (3) which states "Children born out of wedlock are equal before the law with those born in wedlock";and also by Art. 260 of the civil code. In addition, Romania ratified The European Convention on the Legal Status of Children Born out of Wedlock, and, therefore, it is bound to ensure that children born outside marriage are provided with legal rights as stipulated in the text of this Convention.
The [272/2004] Law on the protection and promotion of the rights of the child, republished in 2014 is an important law dealing with children's rights.
According to the new criminal code which came into force on 1 February 2014, Article 197 titled Ill treatments applied to underage persons outlaws child abuse.The general age of consent in Romania is 15. Romania has also ratified the Lanzarote Convention. As a European Union member, it is also subject to the EU's Directive 2011/92/EU of the European Parliament and of the Council of 13 December 2011 on combating the sexual abuse and sexual exploitation of children and child pornography.
With regard to the right to education of children, parents/legal guardians are obligated to ensure the child gets an education; failure to do so can result in criminal prosecution (Art. 380 Preventing access to compulsory public education).
Parents/legal guardians have an obligation to ensure that their children do not engage in undesirable behaviors. For example, according to Art 33 of Law No. 61/1991 penalising the violation of public order and social standards, parents/legal guardians who fail to take "adequate measures" to prevent children under 16 from engaging in vagrancy, begging, or prostitution are liable to pay a contraventional fine (Law No. 61/1991 on contraventions applies only in cases when the deed of the guilty party does not constitute a criminal offense).
The US Country Reports on Human Rights Practices reports that some children, particularly from the Roma ethnicity, were not registered (although birth registration is mandatory under the law).
Under the new Civil Code of Romania which came into force in October 2011, the general marriageable age is set at 18, but can be lowered to 16 under special circumstances, with authorization from the district's administrative board. (Art 272 Marriageable age). Law nr. 288/2007 increased girls' marriageable age, bringing it in line with that of boys; prior to this law, girls could, in special cases, get married at 15, and as a general rule at 16.
Romania is a party to the 1980 Hague Convention on the Civil Aspects of International Child Abduction.
Women's rights in Romania are subject to constitutional provisions and internal laws. Romania is also bound by directives of the European Union, and international conventions it has ratified.
The Constitution of Romania protects women's rights. Article 4 (2) enshrines the principle of non-discrimination, stating that: "Romania is the common and indivisible homeland of all its citizens, without any discrimination on account of race, nationality, ethnic origin, language, religion, sex, opinion, political adherence, property or social origin".Art 48 (1) ensures equal rights in family law: "The family is founded on the freely consented marriage of the spouses, their full equality [...]." The rights of women in the workforce are also protected: Article 47 (2) reads: "Citizens have the right to pensions, paid maternity leave [...]" and Article 41 states: (2) "All employees have the right to measures of social protection. These concern employees' safety and health, working conditions for women and young people [...]" and (4) "On equal work with men, women shall get equal wages."
With regard to the new civil code, relevant provisions include Art. 30 Equality in front of the civil lawand Art. 258 The Family (freely given consent for marriage; equality of the spouses).
In 2016, Romania ratified the Council of Europe Convention on preventing and combating violence against women and domestic violence (Istanbul Convention).
Romania has many laws banning discrimination.The problems in the country are not rooted in lack of legislation, as Romania has a strong de jure framework, but in the lack of enforcement of the existing laws - often due to bureaucracy, corruption, and social norms. The most important anti-discrimination laws are:
In addition to these laws specifically created to deal with discrimination, articles banning discrimination can also be found in many general laws, which deal with general aspects of life, and also contain specific articles banning discrimination in that area (e.g. Law no. 188 of 8 December 1999 republished [law on the status of civil servants], the Labour Code of 24 January 2003, the Law on National Education no.1/2011, etc.). Furthermore, discrimination is also addressed in the Criminal Code, art Art. 297 (2) which reads:"The same punishment applies to the action of a public servant who, while exercising their professional responsibilities, limits the exercise of a right of a person or creates for the latter a situation of inferiority on grounds of race, nationality, ethnic origin, language, religion, sex, sexual orientation, political membership, wealth, age, disability, chronic non-transmissible disease or HIV/AIDS infection".
Domestic violence is serious problem in Romania. Although Romania has improved its legislative framework in the 21st century, and also ratified the Istanbul Convention in 2016, violence against women occurring in the private sphere remains an issue. Romania was convicted by the ECHR in 2017 for its failure to act.
Romania has been criticized for its failure to enforce the right to education of certain social groups, namely rural children and Roma children, notwithstanding the fact education in Romania is compulsory until the 10th grade (usually corresponding to age 16 or 17). Segregation of Roma children in schools, which is illegal, continues unofficially in some schools, and in 2017 the NGOs ERRC and Romani CRISS urged the European Commission to launch an investigation into the segregation of Roma children in schools.The access of children who live in rural areas to education is another area of concern: their situation becomes very problematic after the eighth grade (the last grade of middle school/gymnasium corresponding to age 14-15) because children must change schools to go to high school, and many villages do not have high schools, and therefore parents must make arrangements for their children to commute to the nearest locality or for the child to move there, which is difficult, and as a result many children abandon school (despite the fact that education is compulsory until tenth grade). In one study, a third of rural school children said they planned to drop out of school after eighth grade.
Romania at the turn of the 20th century was a very progressive country and had strong human rights roots: it was, for instance, one of only seven countries in Europe to have abolished the death penalty during peacetime.However the image of Romania was later tarnished internationally by severe violations of human rights during successive dictatorship systems: that of Ion Antonescu during World War II; and the following communist Romania regime which included executions of political 'enemies' in the 1950s, and later on, the infamous natalist policy of Nicolae Ceaușescu, with its resulting abuse of unwanted children in Romanian orphanages, as well as the extreme control of everyday life through practices such as phone bugging, and other abuses of the communist Securitate. Human rights improved greatly after the Romanian Revolution.
The following is a list of public holidays in Romania. According to Romanian law, Romania had 51 public holidays as of 2011, which cover 14% of the days of the year in the country.
Romania does not allow same-sex marriage or civil unions, though it does recognise the right of residence of same-sex married couples if one partner is an EU citizen. As a result of a ruling of the European Court of Justice in June 2018, same-sex married partners of EU citizens must be recognised for the purpose of establishing a right of residency in Romania.
The Protocol to Prevent, Suppress and Punish Trafficking in Persons, Especially Women and Children is a protocol to the United Nations Convention against Transnational Organized Crime. It is one of the three Palermo protocols, the others being the Protocol against the Smuggling of Migrants by Land, Sea and Air and the Protocol against the Illicit Manufacturing of and Trafficking in Firearms.
Japan is a constitutional monarchy. According to Ministry of Justice (MOJ) figures, the Japanese Legal Affairs Bureau offices and civil liberties volunteers dealt with 359,971 human rights related complaints and 18,786 reports of suspected human rights violations during 2003. Many of these cases were ultimately resolved in the court. Human rights issues occur in present-day Japan, as modernization history of Japan only reached in the non-humanity areas with the rise of military expansion of Empire of Japan in the 20th century. due to the rights of the citizens the republic causes a cascade in the government.
Human rights in France are contained in the preamble of the Constitution of the French Fifth Republic, founded in 1958, and the 1789 Declaration of the Rights of Man and of the Citizen. France has also ratified the 1948 Universal Declaration of Human Rights, as well as the European Convention on Human Rights 1960 and the Charter of Fundamental Rights of the European Union (2000). All these international law instruments take precedence on national legislation. However, human rights abuses take place nevertheless. The state of detention centres for unauthorized migrants who have received an order of deportation has also been criticized.
Lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender (LGBT) persons in Romania may face legal challenges and discrimination not experienced by non-LGBT residents. Attitudes in Romania are generally conservative, with regard to the rights of gay, lesbian, bisexual, and transgender citizens. Nevertheless, the country has made significant changes in LGBT rights legislation since 2000. In the past two decades, it fully decriminalised homosexuality, introduced and enforced wide-ranging anti-discrimination laws, equalised the age of consent and introduced laws against homophobic hate crimes. Furthermore, LGBT communities have become more visible in recent years, as a result of events such as Bucharest's annual pride parade and Cluj-Napoca's Gay Film Nights festival. In 2006, Romania was named by Human Rights Watch as one of five countries in the world that had made "exemplary progress in combating rights abuses based on sexual orientation or gender identity."
Bulgaria joined the European Union in 2007, its compliance with human rights norms, however, is far from perfect. Although the media have a record of unbiased reporting, Bulgaria’s lack of specific legislation protecting the media from state interference is a theoretical weakness. Conditions in Bulgaria’s twelve aging and overcrowded prisons generally are poor. A probate reform in mid-2005 was expected to relieve prison overcrowding.
Forced prostitution, also known as involuntary prostitution, is prostitution or sexual slavery that takes place as a result of coercion by a third party. The terms "forced prostitution" or "enforced prostitution" appear in international and humanitarian conventions such as the Rome Statute of the International Criminal Court but have been insufficiently understood and inconsistently applied. "Forced prostitution" refers to conditions of control over a person who is coerced by another to engage in sexual activity.
Human rights in Serbia are a product that reflect the country’s social norms, local political processes, state and legal history, and foreign relations with parties such as the European Union. Like human rights more generally, these rights are protected through the ongoing incorporation of global norms into legal systems and enforcement of the law, with the goal of holding duty-bearers accountable for their enactment and redress for victims of their violation. Recent reports by Human Rights Watch note persistent flaws with systemic exclusion of the Roma minority population, harassment of the press and LGBT populations, hesitant prosecution of war crimes, and faulty asylum protections.
The condition of human rights in Moldova has come under scrutiny since 2002, and human rights organizations within Moldova and around the world have spoken out against what they feel to be unfair suppression of the independent media, as well as other abuses.
Prostitution in Romania is not itself criminalized, although associated activities, such as procuring, are criminal offenses, and solicitation is a contravention punishable by fines.
Human rights in the Netherlands are codified in the Dutch constitution. Together with other European states, the Netherlands is often at or near the head in international civil liberties and political rights rankings. Per year there are about 6,000 victims of and 100 convictions for human trafficking. Despite this, the Netherlands is considered to have one of the best human rights records in the world.
As in most other countries, minimum ages apply in Romania for various activities involving minors.
Human trafficking is the trade of humans for the purpose of forced labour, sexual slavery, or commercial sexual exploitation for the trafficker or others. This may encompass providing a spouse in the context of forced marriage, or the extraction of organs or tissues, including for surrogacy and ova removal. Human trafficking can occur within a country or trans-nationally. Human trafficking is a crime against the person because of the violation of the victim's rights of movement through coercion and because of their commercial exploitation. Human trafficking is the trade in people, especially women and children, and does not necessarily involve the movement of the person from one place to another.
The Council of Europe Convention on preventing and combating violence against women and domestic violence, better known as the Istanbul Convention, is a human rights treaty of the Council of Europe against violence against women and domestic violence which was opened for signature on 11 May 2011, in Istanbul, Turkey. The convention aims at prevention of violence, victim protection and to end the impunity of perpetrators. As of March 2019, it has been signed by 45 countries and the European Union. On 12 March 2012, Turkey became the first country to ratify the convention, followed by 33 other countries from 2013 to 2019. The Convention came into force on 1 August 2014.
A name in Romanian tradition consists of a given name (prenume) and a family name (surname). In official documents, surnames usually appear before given names.
The Penal Code of Romania is a document providing the legal basis regarding criminal law in Romania. The Code contains 446 articles. The articles mention aspects such as the national boundaries of law and the crimes that fall under the incidence of penal law. Judicial discretion is granted by the Code through the use of minimum and maximum sentences. The most recent version of the Romanian Penal Code has come into effect on 1 February 2014.
In Bucharest - the capital city of Romania - the problem of stray dogs has been acknowledged for decades. The number of stray dogs has been reduced drastically since 2014, following the death of a four-year-old child who was attacked by a dog. In 2015, the Bucharest City Hall stated that over 51,200 stray dogs were captured between October 2013 and January 2015, with more than half being euthanized, about 23,000 being adopted, and 2,000 still residing in the municipality's shelters. The issue has not only been a heated subject of debate in Bucharest, but also on a nationwide scale.
The Federated States of Micronesia is a United States Associated State consisting of 4 states across the Western Pacific Ocean. The estimated population in 2015 was 105,216. Formerly the FSM was a part of the Trust Territory of the Pacific Islands (TTPI) but in 1979 formed its own constitutional government. FSM has a written constitution which took effect in 1979 and has been amended only once in 1990. By virtue of membership in the United Nations, the FSM abides by the UN Declaration of Human Rights (UDHR). Key human rights concerns in FSM include judicial delays, government corruption, discrimination against women, domestic violence and child neglect.
Gabon, also known as the Gabonese Republic is a sovereign state located in Central Africa along the Atlantic coastline. Gabon gained its independence from France in 1960. Human rights are rights that are inherent and universal to all human beings. Typical human rights include, freedom of speech, freedom of slavery, freedom of fair representation, a right to adequate living standards and exclusion of child labour. These human rights and more are included in the Declaration of Human Rights legislated by the United Nations of which the Gabonese Republic is a party. Gabon has signed multiple conventions such as the International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights, the International Covenant on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights, the International Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Racial Discrimination, the Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Discrimination Against Women, the United Nations Convention against Torture, the Convention on the Rights of the Child, the International Convention on the Protection of the Rights of All Migrant Workers and Members of Their Families, and Convention on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities, all of which are binding to them. However, despite Gabon having ratified many of these human rights conventions and laws within their own sovereign state there are still ongoing human right issues such as human trafficking, child trafficking, lack of political freedom and poverty. Political freedom is an essential human right in all societies and nations as it helps to protect democratic systems. The Gabonese governments have drawn criticism from multiple non-governmental organizations such as Freedom House and foreign governing bodies, especially the United States Department, for the lack of transparency of their political systems.