|Polity type||Unitary semi-presidential republic|
|Constitution||Constitution of Romania|
|Meeting place||Palace of the Parliament|
|Presiding officer||Anca Dragu, President of the Senate|
|Name||Chamber of Deputies|
|Presiding officer||Ludovic Orban, President of the Chamber of Deputies|
|Head of State|
|Appointer||Direct popular vote|
|Head of Government|
|Name||Government of Romania|
|Current cabinet||Cîțu Cabinet|
|Deputy leader||Deputy Prime Minister|
|Name||Judiciary of Romania|
|High Court of Cassation and Justice|
|Chief judge||Corina Corbu|
Romania's political framework is a semi-presidential representative democratic republic where the Prime Minister is the head of government while the President represents the country internationally, signs some decrees, approves laws promulgated by parliament and nominations as head of state. Romania has a multi-party system, with legislative power vested in the government and the two chambers of Parliament: the Chamber of Deputies and the Senate. The judiciary is independent of the executive and the legislature. From 1948 until 1989, the Communist rule political structure took place in the framework of a one-party socialist republic governed by the Romanian Communist Party (PCR) as its only legal party.
Romania's 1991 constitution (amended in 2003) proclaims it a democratic and social republic, deriving its sovereignty from the people. According to the constitution, "Human dignity, civic rights and freedoms, the unhindered development of human personality, justice, and political pluralism are supreme and guaranteed values."
The constitution provides for a President, a Parliament, a Constitutional Court and a separate court system which includes the High Court of Cassation and Justice. The right to vote is granted to all citizens over 18 years of age.
The Economist Intelligence Unit rated Romania as a "flawed democracy" in 2016.
|President||Klaus Iohannis|| Independent |
Supported by: National Liberal Party
|21 December 2014|
|Prime Minister||Florin Cîțu||National Liberal Party (PNL)||23 December 2020|
The president is elected by popular vote for a maximum of two five-year terms (four-year terms until 2004). S/he is head of state (charged with safeguarding the constitution, foreign affairs, and the proper functioning of public authority), supreme commander of the armed forces and chairperson of the Supreme Council of National Defense. According to the constitution, s/he acts as a mediator among the state's power centers and between the state and society. The president nominates the prime minister after consultation with the party holding an absolute majority in Parliament or, if there is no such majority, with all the parties in Parliament.
Ambiguity in the Constitution of Romania (Article 85 (1), Article 103 (1))may lead to situations where a coalition of parties obtaining an absolute majority in Parliament, or a party holding a relative majority in Parliament, would be unable to nominate a prime minister because the president would refuse the nomination (with no party holding an absolute majority in Parliament). According to Article 103(1), "unless no such majority exists", interpreted by the president as "unless no such party exists" (although an absolute majority may be formed by one party, a coalition of parties or an alliance).
In the 2008 parliamentary elections,the Alliance PSD+PC won 33.09 percent of the seats in the Chamber of Deputies and 34.16 percent of the seats in the Senate. The PNL won 18.57 percent of the seats in the Chamber of Deputies and 18.74 percent of the seats in the Senate, giving both parties a majority in the Chamber of Deputies and the Senate. However, the president nominated a member of the PDL (which won less than 32.36 percent of the seats in the Chamber of Deputies and 33.54 percent of the seats in the Senate. The nominated prime minister chooses the other members of the government, and the government and its program must be confirmed by a vote of confidence from Parliament.
|President of the Senate||Anca Dragu||USR PLUS||21 December 2020|
|President of the Chamber of Deputies||Ludovic Orban||National Liberal Party||22 December 2020|
The national legislature is a bicameral parliament (Romanian: Parlament), consisting of the Chamber of Deputies (Camera Deputaților) and the Senate (Senat). Members are elected to four-year terms by universal suffrage in a party-list proportional representation electoral system. Beginning in 2008, members are elected by mixed member proportional representation.
The number of senators and deputies has varied in each legislature, reflecting changes in population. In 2008, there were 137 senatorial seats and 334 seats in the Chamber of Deputies; of the 334 deputy seats, 18 were held by the ethnic minorities representatives which would not meet the five-percent electoral threshold required for other parties and organizations.
Romania has a multiparty system, which makes a majority government virtually impossible; small parliamentary parties have merged with larger ones. Currently, there are five main parliamentary parties (excluding the 17 ethnic-minority parties which have one representative each):
| National Liberal Party |
(Romanian : Partidul Național Liberal)
|Conservative liberal, centre-right||Ludovic Orban||Current largest ruling party through a coalition government since December 2020.|
| Social Democratic Party |
(Romanian : Partidul Social Democrat)
|Social democratic, centre-left populist||Marcel Ciolacu||Currently the largest party in the Parliament but continuously in opposition since 2019.|
| USR PLUS |
(Romanian : Uniunea Salvați România)
|Progressive-liberal, anti-corruption|| Dan Barna |
|Third largest party (as a formal political alliance between the USR and PLUS) in the parliament (currently in a coalition government alongside the PNL and UDMR); Syncretic political position (mostly with focus towards anti-corruption and the rule of law).|
| Alliance for the Union of Romanians |
(Romanian: Alianța pentru Unirea Românilor)
|Romanian nationalism, right-wing populism, national conservatism, Romanian irredentism, Euroscepticism|| George Simion |
|In the legislative elections, AUR won 9% of the votes in all of Romania and its diaspora, which resulted in a surprise that led the party to become the fourth largest one in the country at central political level.|
| Democratic Alliance of Hungarians in Romania |
(Romanian : Uniunea Democrată Maghiară din România)
|Centre-right, Hungarian minority party||Hunor Kelemen||Smallest ruling party in the right-wing coalition established in December 2020.|
The main four non-parliamentary parties (the first two around the five-percent threshold) with local representatives are as follows:
|Logo||Party name||Romanian name||Ideology||Leader|
|People's Movement Party||Partidul Mișcarea Populară (PMP)||Centre-right||Cristian Diaconescu|
|PRO Romania||PRO România (PRO)||Social liberalism||Victor Ponta|
|Alliance of Liberals and Democrats||Alianța Liberalilor și Democraților (ALDE)||Social liberalism||Călin Popescu-Tăriceanu|
|Ecologist Party of Romania||Partidul Ecologist Român (PER)||Green liberalism||Dănuţ Pop|
Unlike other former Soviet-bloc countries, no party claiming to be the successor of the Romanian Communist Party has been or is currently a significant player on the political scene, although the main continuator of FSN, more specifically PSD, has many times raised suspicions and accusations from electoral contenders regarding the past political careers of many of its current and former members.
The last presidential election was held on 10 and 24 November 2019.
|Candidate||Party||First round||Second round|
|Klaus Iohannis||National Liberal Party||3,485,292||37.82||6,509,135||66.09|
|Viorica Dăncilă||Social Democratic Party||2,051,725||22.26||3,339,922||33.91|
|Dan Barna||2020 USR-PLUS Alliance||1,384,450||15.02|
|Mircea Diaconu||Alliance for "One Man" (PRO-ALDE)||815,201||8.85|
|Theodor Paleologu||People's Movement Party||527,098||5.72|
|Hunor Kelemen||Democratic Alliance of Hungarians in Romania||357,014||3.87|
|Ramona Bruynseels||Humanist Power Party||244,275||2.65|
|Viorel Cataramă||Liberal Right Party||48,662||0.53|
|Cătălin Ivan||Alternative for National Dignity||32,787||0.36|
|Ninel Peia||Romanian Nationhood Party||30,884||0.34|
|Sebastian Popescu||New Romania Party||30,850||0.33|
|John Ion Banu||Romanian Nation Party||27,769||0.30|
|Sources: BEC (first round); BEC (second round)|
The last European Parliamentary election was held on 26 May 2019.
|% of seats||% of votes|
|National Party||EU Party||EP Group|
| National Liberal Party [a] |
(Partidul Naţional Liberal)
|EPP [a]||EPP Group [a]||43||2,449,068||10||30.30%||27.00%|
| Social Democratic Party |
(Partidul Social Democrat)
| 2020 USR-PLUS Alliance |
(Alianța 2020 USR-PLUS)
|—||ALDE&R [c]||40 [g]||2,028,236||8||8||24.24%||22.36%|
| PRO Romania |
|EDP|| S&D [e] ||43||583,916||2||0||6.06%||6.44%|
| People's Movement Party |
(Partidul Mișcarea Populară)
| Democratic Alliance of Hungarians in Romania |
(Uniunea Democrată a Maghiarilor din România)
| Alliance of Liberals and Democrats |
(Alianța Liberalilor și Democraților)
|Independent candidate: Peter Costea||—||—||1||131,021||0||0||0%||1.44%|
|Independent candidate: George-Nicolae Simion||—||—||1||117,141||0||0||0%||1.29%|
|Independent candidate: Gregoriana Carmen Tudoran||—||—||1||100,669||0||0||0%||1.11%|
| National Union for the Progress of Romania |
(Uniunea Națională pentru Progresul României)
| United Romania Party |
(Partidul România Unită)
| Romanian Socialist Party |
(Partidul Socialist Român)
|Independent Social Democratic Party|
(Partidul Social Democrat Independent)
|National Unity Block - NUB|
(Blocul Unității Naționale - BUN)
|Total: 18,267,256 expected voters (turnout – 51.20%)||483||9,352,472||33||1||100%||100%|
|Source: Summary of the results|
The latest legislative election was held on 6 December 2020. In the two tables below are represented the results for both the Senate and the Chamber of Deputies:
|Social Democratic Party||1,705,777||28.90||110||–44|
|National Liberal Party||1,486,401||25.19||93||+24|
|2020 USR-PLUS Alliance||906,962||15.37||55||+25|
|Alliance for the Union of Romanians||535,828||9.08||33||New|
|Democratic Alliance of Hungarians in Romania||339,030||5.74||21||0|
|People's Movement Party||284,501||4.82||0||–18|
|PRO Romania Social Liberal||241,267||4.09||0||–20|
|Ecologist Party of Romania||65,807||1.12||0||0|
|Humanist Power Party (Social-Liberal)||59,465||1.01||0||0|
|Greater Romania Party||32,654||0.55||0||0|
|National Rebirth Alliance||21,662||0.37||0||New|
|Romanian Socialist Party||19,693||0.33||0||0|
|Party of the Roma "Pro Europe"||14,523||0.25||1||0|
|New Romania Party||14,089||0.24||0||0|
|League of Albanians of Romania||9,029||0.15||1||0|
|Democratic Forum of Germans in Romania||7,582||0.13||1||0|
|Association of Macedonians of Romania||7,144||0.12||1||0|
|Hellenic Union of Romania||6,096||0.10||1||0|
|Union of the Ukrainians of Romania||5,457||0.09||1||0|
|Democratic Union of Slovaks and Czechs in Romania||5,386||0.09||1||0|
|Community of the Lippovan Russians||5,146||0.09||1||0|
|Bulgarian Union of Banat–Romania||4,853||0.08||1||0|
|Union of Serbs of Romania||4,691||0.08||1||0|
|Association of Italians of Romania||4,170||0.07||1||0|
|Union of Armenians of Romania||3,820||0.06||1||0|
|Cultural Union of Ruthenians of Romania||3,779||0.06||1||0|
|Union of Poles of Romania||3,750||0.06||1||0|
|Democratic Turkish Union of Romania||3,539||0.06||1||0|
|Federation of the Jewish Communities in Romania||3,509||0.06||1||0|
|Union of Croatians of Romania||3,345||0.06||1||0|
|Democratic Union of Turkish-Muslim Tatars||2,862||0.05||1||+1|
|National Peasant Party Maniu-Mihalache||2,727||0.05||0||0|
|Social Democratic Workers' Party||1,912||0.03||0||New|
|Romanian Nation Party||1,752||0.03||0||New|
|Re:Start Romania Party||537||0.01||0||New|
|National Unity Bloc||293||0.00||0||0|
|National Force Party||148||0.00||0||New|
|Social Democratic Party||1,732,276||29.32||47||–20|
|National Liberal Party||1,511,225||25.58||41||+11|
|2020 USR-PLUS Alliance||936,862||15.86||25||+12|
|Alliance for the Union of Romanians||541,935||9.17||14||New|
|Democratic Alliance of Hungarians in Romania||348,262||5.89||9||0|
|People's Movement Party||291,484||4.93||0||–8|
|PRO Romania Social Liberal||244,225||4.13||0||–9|
|Ecologist Party of Romania||78,654||1.33||0||0|
|Humanist Power Party (Social-Liberal)||70,536||1.19||0||0|
|Greater Romania Party||38,474||0.65||0||0|
|National Rebirth Alliance||23,773||0.40||0||New|
|Romanian Socialist Party||23,093||0.39||0||0|
|New Romania Party||19,516||0.33||0||0|
|Social Democratic Workers' Party||3,855||0.07||0||New|
|National Peasant Party Maniu-Mihalache||2,803||0.05||0||New|
|Romanian Nation Party||2,061||0.03||0||New|
|Re:Start Romania Party||753||0.01||0||New|
|National Unity Bloc||410||0.01||0||0|
The latest general local election was held on 27 September 2020.
|Party||Mayor of Bucharest (PGMB)||Mayors (P)||Local Councils|
| National Liberal Party |
(Partidul Național Liberal - PNL)
| Social Democratic Party |
(Partidul Social Democrat - PSD)
| 2020 USR-PLUS Alliance |
(Alianța 2020 USR-PLUS - USR-PLUS)
| People's Movement Party |
(Partidul Mișcarea Populară - PMP)
| PRO Romania |
(PRO România - PRO RO)
| Democratic Alliance of Hungarians in Romania |
(Uniunea Democrată Maghiară din România - UDMR)
| Alliance of Liberals and Democrats |
(Alianța Liberalilor și Democraților - ALDE)
|Other political parties, independent contenders, and local alliances||39,034||5.91%||0||1,140,903||15.30%||282||1,086,907||14.76%||3,448||1,528,189||21.24%||209|
|Sources: Romanian Permanent Electoral Authority|
|President of the High Court of Cassation and Justice||Cristina Tarcea||None||2016|
|President of the Superior Council of Magistrates||Lia Savonea||None||January 2019|
The Romanian legal system, based on the Napoleonic Code, is inquisitorial. The judiciary is independent, and judges appointed by the president are not removable. The president and other judges of the Supreme Court are appointed for six-year terms, and may serve consecutive terms. Proceedings are public, except in special circumstances provided for by law.
Judicial power is vested in a hierarchical system of courts, culminating with the supreme court: Înalta Curte de Justiție și Casație (High Court of Cassation and Justice), whose judges are appointed by the president on the recommendation of the Superior Council of Magistrates.
The Ministry of Justice represents the general interests of society and defends the rule of law and citizens' rights and freedoms. The ministry exercises its power through independent, impartial public prosecutors.
|President of the Constitutional Court||Valer Dorneanu||None||June 2016|
The (Constitutional Court) judges issues of constitutionality invoked in any court and judges the compliance of laws (or other state regulations) with the Romanian Constitution. The court, outside the judicial branch, follows the tradition of the French Constitutional Council with nine judges serving nine-year, non-renewable terms. Since the 2003 revision of the constitution, its decisions cannot be overturned by parliamentary majority.
For territorial and administrative purposes, Romania is divided into 41 counties (județe, singular județ) and the city of Bucharest. Each county is governed by an elected council. Local councils and elected mayors are the public authorities in villages and towns. The county council coordinates the activities of village and town councils.
The central government appoints a prefect for each county and Bucharest, who represents the government at the local level and directs the ministries and other central agencies at the county level. A prefect may block the action of a local authority if he deems it unlawful or unconstitutional, with the matter then adjudicated by an administrative court.
Under legislation enacted in January 1999, local councils control the spending of their allocations from the central government budget and have the authority to raise additional revenue locally. Although centrally-appointed prefects formerly had significant authority over the budget, this is now limited to a review of expenditures to determine their constitutionality.
Romania has made progress in institutionalizing democratic principles, civil liberties, and respect for human rights since the Romanian Revolution in December 1989. Some present-day Romanian politicians are former members of the Romanian Communist Party (PCR). Since membership in the party was a requirement for advancement before 1989, many people joined to get ahead rather than because of ideological conviction; however, the Communist past of some Romanian politicians remains controversial.
Over 200 new political parties sprang up after 1989, most gravitating to leaders rather than programs. All major parties espoused democracy and market reforms in varying degrees. The largest party by far, the governing National Salvation Front (FSN), proposed slow, cautious economic reforms and a social safety net. The main opposition parties, the National Liberal Party (PNL) and the Christian Democratic National Peasants' Party (PNŢ-CD), favored rapid, sweeping reform, immediate privatization, and a reduction in the role of former Communist Party members. The Communist Party ceased to exist.
In the 1990 presidential and legislative elections, the FSN and its presidential candidate, Ion Iliescu, won with a large majority of the votes (67.02 and 85.07 percent, respectively). The strongest opposition parties in the Senate were the Democratic Union of Hungarians in Romania (UDMR), with 7.20 percent, and the National Liberal Party (PNL) with 7.06 percent.
After FSN Prime Minister Petre Roman's dismissal a few months before the 1992 general elections (following a late 1991 Mineriad), the FSN split in two. President Iliescu's supporters formed a new party, the Democratic National Salvation Front (FDSN), and Roman's supporters retained the FSN name.
The 1992 local, legislative, and presidential elections indicated a political rift between the urban centres and the countryside. Rural voters, grateful for the restoration of most agricultural land to farmers but fearful of change, strongly favoured President Iliescu and the FDSN; the urban electorate favoured the CDR (a coalition of several parties – the strongest of which were the PNŢ-CD and the PNL – and civic organizations) and quicker reform. Iliescu easily won re-election from a field of five other candidates, and the FDSN won a plurality in both chambers of parliament.
With the CDR, the second-largest parliamentary group, reluctant to participate in a national-unity coalition, the FDSN (now the PDSR) formed a government under Prime Minister and economist Nicolae Văcăroiu with parliamentary support from the nationalist Romanian National Unity Party (PUNR) and Greater Romania Party (PRM), and the Socialist Workers' Party (PSM). In January 1994, the governing coalition's stability became problematic when the PUNR threatened to withdraw its support unless it received cabinet portfolios. After intense negotiations, two PUNR members received cabinet portfolios in the Văcăroiu government in August. The following month, the incumbent justice minister also joined the PUNR. The PRM and the PSM left the coalition in October and December 1995, respectively.
The 1996 local elections indicated a major shift in the political orientation of the Romanian electorate, with opposition parties sweeping Bucharest and most of the larger cities in Transylvania, Banat, Bukovina, and Dobruja. The trend continued in that year's legislative and presidential elections, when the opposition dominated the cities and made strong inroads into rural areas previously dominated by President Iliescu and the PDSR (which lost many voters in their traditional stronghold constituencies outside Transylvania).
The opposition campaign emphasized the need to squelch corruption and introduce economic reform. This message resonated with voters, resulting in a historic victory for the CDR coalition and the election of Emil Constantinescu as president. To secure its electoral majority, the CDR invited Petre Roman's Democratic Party (the former FSN) and the UDMR (representing the Hungarian minority) to join the government. Although over the next four years Romania had three prime ministers (and despite internal frictions), the governing parties preserved their coalition and initiated a series of needed reforms.
The coalition lost the first round of presidential elections in November 2000 as a result of popular dissatisfaction with infighting among the parties during the preceding four years and the economic hardship brought about by structural reforms. In the second round Iliescu, running again as the Social Democratic Party (PSD) candidate, won by a wide margin over extreme nationalist Greater Romania Party (PRM) candidate Corneliu Vadim Tudor. Iliescu appointed Adrian Năstase prime minister. In Parliament the PSD government (like its predecessor) relied on the support of the UDMR, which did not join the Cabinet but negotiated annual packages of legislation and other measures favoring Romania's ethnic Hungarians.
Năstase, in his four years as prime minister, continued the previous government's pro-Western foreign policy. The period was characterized by a political stability unprecedented in post-communist Romania and consistent economic growth. Romania joined NATO in spring 2004 and signed an accession treaty to join the EU. However, the PSD government was plagued by allegations of corruption which would be significant factors in its defeat in local and national elections in 2004.
In September, 2003 the Democratic Party (PD) and National Liberal Party (PNL) formed an electoral alliance, the Justice and Truth (DA) Alliance, as a mainstream opposition bloc to the ruling PSD. The DA Alliance agreed, among other measures, to vote as a bloc in parliament and local councils and run common candidates in national and local elections. In October 2003, the country held a referendum on several constitutional amendments deemed necessary for EU accession. The amendments included provisions to allow foreigners to own land in Romania and to change the president's term from four to five years.
In 2004 Traian Băsescu, the then leader of the Democratic Party (PD), won the presidential election by a narrow margin. Băsescu subsequently appointed former liberal leader Călin Popescu-Tăriceanu as Prime Minister. Popescu-Tăriceanu headed a government composed of the PNL, PD, UDMR, and PC (formerly known as the Humanist Party).In order to secure a parliamentary majority, the coalition government relied on the support of 18 parliamentary seats reserved for ethnic-minority representatives.
The government's narrow majority in Parliament led to calls for early elections. In July 2005, Prime Minister Popescu-Tăriceanu voiced plans to resign, prompting new elections; he then backtracked, noting his and the cabinet's need to focus on relief efforts for summer floods. During its first year the government was also tested by a successfully-resolved hostage crisis involving three Romanian journalists kidnapped in Iraq and avian influenza in several parts of the country, transmitted by wild birds migrating from Asia.
The government's overriding objective was the accession of Romania to the European Union, and on 1 January 2007 Romania became the 26th member of the EU. The government also maintained good relations with the United States, signing an agreement in December 2005 which would allow American troops to train and serve at several Romanian military facilities. Băsescu and Popescu-Tăriceanu pledged to combat high-level corruption and implement broader reform to modernize sectors such as the judicial system and health care.
On 19 April 2007, Parliament suspended President Băsescu on charges of unconstitutional conduct. The suspension, passed by a 322–108 vote, opened the way for a national referendum on impeachmentwhich failed.
The November 2008 parliamentary elections were close, with the Social Democrats (PSD) winning 33.9 percent of the vote, President Traian Băsescu's centre-right Liberal Democrats (PDL) taking 32.34 percent, and the ruling National Liberals (PNL) receiving 18.6 percent.The Liberal Democrats and Social Democrats formed a coalition after the election. Former prime minister Theodor Stolojan withdrew his candidacy for the premiership and President Băsescu nominated Emil Boc, president of the Liberal Democrats, as prime minister.
With the onset of the Great Recession, the Romanian political scene saw tensions between the president and the prime minister on the one hand as well as between the general population and both on the other hand. Tensions escalated with a 2012 political crisis and another attempt to impeach President Băsescu. In the referendum, more than 7.4 million people (nearly 90 percent) supported Băsescu's removal from office. However, the Constitutional Court invalidated the referendum because the majority of the population did not vote (the voter turnout was 46%); Băsescu had called the referendum a coup d'état , and asked the public to boycott it. All these events have been heavily criticized by international political figures, most notably by German chancellor Angela Merkel.
The legislative elections of 9 December 2012 were seen by the public as an opportunity for change and to oust Băsescu. The Social Liberal Union (USL) received a large majority in the Chamber of Deputies and the Senate (60.07 and 58.61 percent of the vote, respectively) and a record 395 seats. The new prime minister, Victor Ponta, quickly formed a government but the failure to adopt reforms quickly triggered a wave of protests against a government seen as not fulfilling the promises of the 2012 electoral campaign. Two other projects of national interest (shale drilling and the Roșia Montană mining project) unleashed more protests. The demonstrations, initially ecological in focus, became anti-government protests.
In early 2014, the PNL broke away from the USL and entered opposition. Along with the PDL, the PNL formed the Christian Liberal Alliance (ACL) in order to support the candidature of Klaus Iohannis as President of Romania and later agreed on a future merger that would retain the name of the National Liberal Party (PNL). Iohannis won a surprise victory in front of then incumbent PM Victor Ponta in the second round of the 2014 presidential elections, by a margin of 54.43%.At that time, many voters abroad were righfully angry because of the fact that they were not all given the right to cast their ballots, which represented one of the key reasons for Ponta's defeat.
In late 2015, another series of nationwide protests ultimately prompted Prime Minister Victor Ponta's resignation. Shortly afterwards, President Iohannis appointed then independent-technocrat Dacian Cioloș as Prime Minister,who led a likewise independent-technocratic government between late 2015 and early 2017.
The legislative elections of 11 December 2016 saw a predictable comeback of the PSD as the major party in the Romanian Parliament, as most opinion polls gave them an electoral score of at least 40%. Alongside ALDE (a mainly splinter group from the PNL), the PSD initially formed a governing coalition under Prime Minister Sorin Grindeanu.
In early 2017, a series of massive nationwide protests (the greatest in Romania's history) requested Grindeanu's resignation and early elections because of the government's secret procedure of giving an ordinance modifying the Penal Code and Penal Procedure Code on the night of 31 January. The PM along with the entire government refused to step down but, nonetheless, decided to withdraw the decrees that started the protests on 5 February at the protests' peak.
Approximately four months later, tensions arose between PM Sorin Grindeanu and PSD leader Liviu Dragnea, which ultimately resulted in the loss of political support for the government on behalf of the PSD-ALDE coalition. The PM refused to resign but was eventually dismissed by a motion of no confidence passed by the Parliament with 241 votes (233 minimum needed).
Quickly afterwards, Mihai Tudose was proposed by the socialists for the position of Prime Minister and was subsequently accepted by president Iohannis.However, just after 6 months of governance, he resigned from this dignity. Consequently, the ruling coalition nominated a new Prime Minister candidate in the person of Viorica Dăncilă, a former socialist MEP in the 2014–19 who was also accepted by the state president. She was also the first female Prime Minister of Romania. Subsequently, on 4 November 2019, after a motion of no confidence, the PSD minority government was replaced by a minority cabinet led by the National Liberal Party under Ludovic Orban. Furthermore, in November 2019, President Klaus Iohannis was re-elected by a landslide.
All throughout this period of time (i.e. the two years spanning between 2017 and 2019) which was marked by governmental mayhem produced by the previous PSD-ALDE ruling coalition regarding their change of PMs as well as their intentions of changing both the Penal Code and the Penal Procedure Code, the Romanian society took to the streets of Bucharest and many other major cities of the country in huge numbers for more than 500 consecutive days in order to oppose the modification of these law packages, prompt early elections, as well as a referendum on the topic of justice.
The 2020 Romanian local elections held on 27 September were won by the PNL. On 6 December, the PNL finished second after the 2020 Romanian legislative election. The election was won by the oppositional Social Democrats (PSD) who came in first. Shortly after the official results came out, Orban resigned from his position as PM and was replaced by Nicolae Ciucă as acting PM.
In the meantime, the national liberals proceeded to negotiate the formation of a coalition government alongside USR PLUS and UDMR for a stable governance for the next four years in Romania. The newly designated PM was therefore Florin Cîțu, a member of the National Liberal Party (PNL), who took office on 23 December 2020, after forming a three party, center-right coalition consisting of the PNL, the USR PLUS, and the Democratic Alliance of Hungarians in Romania (UDMR).
Romania participates in the following international organisations:
After the Communist leader Nicolae Ceaușescu was executed in the Romanian Revolution of December 1989, the National Salvation Front (FSN) took power, led by Ion Iliescu. The FSN transformed itself into a political party and overwhelmingly won the general election of May 1990, with Iliescu as president. These first months were marked by violent protests and counter-protests, involving among others the coal miners of the Jiu Valley.
The Social Democratic Party is the major social democratic political party in Romania founded by Ion Iliescu, Romania's first democratically elected president at the 1990 Romanian general election. The largest party in Parliament with initially 47 seats in the Senate and 110 seats in the Chamber of Deputies, it also has the largest number of mayors as well as the second largest number of local and county councillors and county presidents, thus still being the biggest and most influential political force in the country as of 2021.
Cohabitation is a system of divided government that occurs in semi-presidential systems, such as France, whenever the president is from a different political party than the majority of the members of parliament. It occurs because such a system forces the president to name a premier who will be acceptable to the majority party within parliament. Thus, cohabitation occurs because of the duality of the executive: an independently elected President and a prime minister who must be acceptable both to the president and to the legislature.
The National Liberal Party is the first and most significant centre-right conservative-liberal and liberal-conservative political party in Romania. Refounded in early January 1990, shortly after the violent 1989 Romanian Revolution, it claims the legacy of the major political party of the same name, active between 1875 and 1947 in the Kingdom of Romania. Based on this legacy, it often presents itself as the first formally constituted political party in the country and the oldest party from the family of European liberal parties.
General elections were held in Romania on 28 November 2004, with a second round of the presidential elections on 12 December between Prime Minister Adrian Năstase of the ruling Social Democratic Party of Romania (PSD) and Bucharest Mayor Traian Băsescu of the opposition Justice and Truth Alliance (DA). Băsescu was elected President by a narrow majority of just 51.2%.
The Justice and Truth Alliance was a political alliance comprising two political parties in Romania: the centre-right liberal National Liberal Party (PNL) and the initially left-wing Democratic Party (PD), which later switched to center-right ideology.
The Chamber of Deputies is the lower house in Romania's bicameral parliament. It has 330 seats to which deputies are elected by direct popular vote using party-list proportional representation to serve four-year terms. Additionally, the organisation of each national minority is entitled to a seat in the Chamber.
The Democratic Party was a social-democratic and, later on, centre-right political party in Romania. In January 2008, it merged with the Liberal Democratic Party (PLD), a splinter group of the National Liberal Party (PNL), to form the Democratic Liberal Party (PDL).
Călin Constantin Anton Popescu-Tăriceanu is a Romanian politician who was Prime Minister of Romania from 29 December 2004 to 22 December 2008. He was also president of the National Liberal Party (PNL) and the vice-president of the European Liberal Democrat and Reform Party (ELDR), two positions he assumed in 2004. He was the President of the Senate, second position in the Romanian state, from 10 March 2014 until he resigned on 2 September 2019, having previously resigned from the PNL party, becoming an independent senator. In July 2014, he established the Liberal Reformist Party (PLR).
Klaus Werner Iohannis is the president of Romania. He became leader of the National Liberal Party (PNL) in 2014, after having served as leader of the Democratic Forum of Germans in Romania (FDGR/DFDR) from 2002 to 2013. Iohannis was a physics teacher and a school inspector before entering full-time politics.
Legislative elections were held in Romania on 30 November 2008. The Democratic Liberal Party (PDL) won most seats in both the Chamber of Deputies and the Senate, although the alliance headed by the Social Democratic Party (PSD) won a fractionally higher vote share. The two parties subsequently formed a governing coalition with Emil Boc of the PDL as Prime Minister.
Presidential elections were held in Romania in 2009. The first round took place on 22 November, with a run-off round between the top two candidates Traian Băsescu and Mircea Geoană on 6 December 2009. Although most exit polls suggested a win for Geoană in the runoff, the authorities declared Băsescu the narrow victor with 50.33% of the votes. To date, it is the closest election in Romanian history.
The Democratic Liberal Party was a liberal-conservative political party in Romania. The party was formed on 15 December 2007, when the Democratic Party (PD) merged with the Liberal Democratic Party (PLD). On 17 November 2014 the PDL officially merged into the National Liberal Party (PNL), ceasing to exist. The PDL was associated with Traian Băsescu, who was previously leader of the PD and President of Romania from 2004 to 2014.
Cătălin Marian Predoiu is a Romanian lawyer who served as the ad interim Prime Minister of Romania from February 6 to 9 February 2012, following the resignation of Emil Boc. He had previously been the Minister of Justice of Romania since 29 February 2008.
Lucian Croitoru is a Romanian economist. On October 15, 2009, following the defeat of Emil Boc's government through a motion of no confidence, President Traian Băsescu nominated Croitoru to be Prime Minister of Romania. The nomination was opposed by a majority of Parliament, which adopted a declaration asking for his withdrawal, and vowing support for the candidature of Klaus Iohannis. Croitoru assembled a proposed cabinet, but this was voted down by Parliament on November 4.
Legislative elections were held in Romania on 11 December 2016. They were the first held under a new electoral system adopted in 2015, which saw a return to the proportional electoral system last used in the 2004 elections. The new electoral legislation provides a norm of representation for deputies of 73,000 inhabitants and 168,000 inhabitants for senators, which decreased the number of MPs.
Legislative elections were held in Romania on 6 December 2020 to elect the 330 constituent members of the Chamber of Deputies and the 136 members of the Senate.
A consultative referendum took place in Romania on 26 May 2019, on the same day as the European Parliament elections, about whether to prohibit amnesties and pardons for corruption offences, as well as whether to prohibit the Government from passing emergency ordinances concerning the judiciary and to extend the right to appeal against them to the Constitutional Court. Both proposals were approved by wide margins.