The fauna of Romania comprises all the animal species inhabiting the country of Romania and its coastal territory in the Black Sea.
This section is empty. You can help by adding to it. (April 2020)
According to a systematic list of the Romanian vertebrate fauna, there are 732 species of vertebrates living in Romania. When grouped into classes, the largest number of these species are birds, with 382 species, followed by fish with 184. 110 of these species are mammals, 31 are reptiles, 20 are amphibians, while only four belong to the Cyclostomata class of jawless fish.
The cyclostomata superclass of vertebrates is represented in Romania by four species of lampreys that live in fast, mountains streams, particularly in Transylvania, in rivers such as Criș, Mureș, Someș and Vișeu.
Romania's rivers, lakes and ponds are home to numerous species of freshwater fish, most importantly carp, Prussian carp, chub, trout, perch, zander, bream, pike, roach and the Wels catfish.
Additionally, six species of sturgeon live in the Black Sea, but travel upriver on the Danube in order to mate.Five of the six Danube sturgeon species are critically endangered, with only the sterlet being considered vulnerable. The most well known of these six species is probably the beluga sturgeon, which is heavily fished for the female's valuable roe – known as beluga caviar.
The saltwater fish of Romania are the Black Sea species of fish that live in the territorial waters of Romania. A 2005 biodiversity inventory of the Romanian waters identified around 140 species and subspecies of marine fish.Many of the species have seen their stocks plummet in the last 50 years due to commercial exploitation. The six species that are the most commercially viable today are all small-sized fish: the red mullet, the sand smelt, the round goby, the European anchovy, the merling and the sprat.
According to recent reports, dozens of species of fish that were believed to be extinct in the Black Sea have reappeared in the area in the last few years, most likely travelling from the Mediterranean, due to the improved water quality and regeneration of the Black Sea ecosystem.
Other species that can be found on the Romanian coast include two species of rays, two species of sharks and dozens of species of teleostean fish.
The amphibian population of Romania includes more than a dozen species of frogs and toads, several species of newts and the fire salamander, out of which nine species are not found anywhere else outside of Romania.
The most common amphibians are the common toad, the yellow-belled toad, the European green toad, the agile frog and the smooth newt.
There are a total of ten species of snakes living in Romania, of which three, the common European viper, the meadow viper and the horned viper, are venomous.The horned viper in particular is considered to be extremely dangerous and possibly the most venomous snake in Europe.
The javeline sand boa, the rarest species of snake in Europe and the only species of boa on the continent, was believed extinct in Romania, with the last live specimen being reported in 1937. An entire stable population of the species was discovered by experts in 2014 along the banks of the Danube, with the exact location being kept a secret to avoid trophy hunting.
Four species of turtle and tortoise call Romania their home: The European pond turtle, the common tortoise, Hermann's tortoise and the marine loggerhead sea turtle.In recent years, a number of exotic species such as the Mississippi map turtle and even the Chinese softshell turtle were spotted in ponds and rivers around Bucharest, but their presence has not been extensively documented and their impact on the environment is not yet clearly understood.
Over a dozen species of lizard can be found in the country, with the most common one being the European green lizard. While not yet present in Romania, the Pallas's glass lizard and Kotschy's gecko are considered likely to join the list of reptiles in Romania in the near future, both being present in Bulgaria, near the Romanian border.
Romania is home to a few dozen species of birds of prey, which includes hawks, eagles, kites, harriers, falcons, owls and Old World vultures.The golden eagle is seen as a symbol of Romania and it appears on the country's coat of arms.
The last bearded vulture in Romania was shot in Sibiu in 1927 and there would not be another credible sighting of the bird until 2009.In 2016, researchers managed to provide the first photographic evidence of bearded vulture activity in Romania in almost 90 years.
The water-dwelling birds of Romania are mainly concentrated on the lower Danube, in the Danube Delta, and the littoral area of the Black Sea. The Dobruja region in general and the Danube Delta in particular are hotspots for nesting migratory birds. These include numerous species of ducks, geese, cormorants, shags, herons, storks, ibises, pelicans, swans and, occasionally, flamingos.
Several species of seagulls can be found not only on the coast, but hundreds of kilometers inland, becoming somewhat of a pest in cities such as Bucharest and Brașov.The great white pelican is sometimes mentioned in the media as being the national bird of Romania, despite the lack of any official decision in this regard.
Among small birds, the most numerous species in Romania is probably the chaffinch, with an estimated 5 million adult individuals, followed by the robin, the goldcrest, the great tit, the white wagtail, the song thrush, the red-backed shrike and several species of sparrow.
The great bustard, the world's largest flying animal,was common in Central and South-Eastern Romania until the early 20th century, when agrarian reform severely restricted its habitat. They were considered extinct in Romania, with no sightings between 1981 and 2002, but can now be found in two small, isolated groups in Bihor and Timiș, near the border with Hungary. The first conservationist measures regarding the great bustard populations in Western Romania began in 2018.
Rodents make up a large proportion of the mammals in Romania, especially in the low-lying plains. This includes species of hamsters, field mice, ground squirrels, voles, dormice, red squirrels, nutrias and beavers. Other common small mammals include shrews, rabbits, hedgehogs, polecats, martens and badgers.
The bat population in Romania is particularly plentiful with a total of 32 species present in the country.The Huda lui Papară cave in the Trascău Mointains is home to the largest known bat colony in Europe, while the Topolnița Cave in Mehedinți hosts the largest colony of greater horseshoe bat on the continent. Several other caves display extraordinary biodiversity, with up to 20 species of bats living in the same cave system. Romania is also home to the greater noctule bat (Nyctalus lasiopterus), a rare species that is Europe's largest and least studied bat, as well as probably its most threatened. It is a carnivorous bat that eats insects and even regularly preys on birds.
Large species of non-carnivorous mammals in Romania include the Carpathian boar, fallow deer, red deer, roe deer and the chamois. The endangered saiga antelope was once common in Moldavia and Eastern Wallachia, but has gone all but extinct in the 18th century. Today only a few specimens survive in a small natural reserve in the northeastern county of Botoșani.The chamois is a protected species in Romania and is the subject of several conservation efforts.
The European bison, the largest European land mammal, became extinct in the region in the 18th century,However, in 1958, Romania began the reintroduction of the bison into its nature reserves. In the 21st century, Romania also began reintroducing the European bison in the wild, the ninth country to do so as part of a continent-wide effort that saw the total number of bison in Europe go from 54 captive individuals in 1927 to more than 7000 in 2018. In 2016, there were over 100 bison living in wild or semi-wild areas in different regions of Romania.
Romania is also home to the Danube Delta horses, a population of feral horses that has lived for hundreds of years in and around Letea Forest in the Danube Delta and is possibly the last sizable population of wild horses in Europe.After collective farms were closed down in the 1990s, the population was supplanted by freed horses and by the beginning of the 21st century, it increased to around 4000 individuals, turning them into a threat to the protected flora of the region. Following media and public outrage in 2011, authorities walked back on the initial plan of killing the horses and the population is now controlled through birth-control vaccines.
The large species of carnivores living in Romania are the European wildcat, the Eurasian lynx, the red fox, the golden jackal, the grey wolf and the brown bear.
There are over 6000 brown bears living in Romania, in one of the largest concentrations in Europe.Because of the increasing number of interactions with settled areas, including a number of attacks, but also because the "optimum size of the population of brown bear, from an ecological, social and economic point of view" is around 4000, the Romanian government announced plans in 2018 for a culling of about 2000 of the country's brown bears. This measured was met with hostility by many conservationist organisations and the public.
One species of porpoise (Phocoena phocoena) and several species of dolphins live in the Black Sea off the cost of Romania.While the endangered Mediterranean monk seal still occurs in the Black Sea, it has not been recorded in Romanian waters for several decades.
Several non-native species of mammals were introduced to Romania during the 20th Century. Among these the most notable are the East-Asian raccoon dog, which spread to Europe through the USSR and was first seen in Romania in 1951,the European mouflon, which was introduces starting with 1966 in game reserves and later in the wilderness, and the North-American muskrat, which was introduced to Romania accidentally, after individuals which escaped captivity in Czech and Russian farms spread across the continent around the middle of the century.
Due to the low level of research done in Romania in this regard and the rapid pace of environmental changes that the country went through in the last decades, there is no definitive list of endangered species in Romania. According to a 2013 paper on biodiversity,
The incomplete and biased species inventory in Romania may have several causes: difficult access due to low road density, complex landscape (with 15% of the territory above 800 m), limited funds available for large-scale inventory and monitoring projects, and lack of institutional support. For instance, no species distribution databases are publicly available at the Romanian Ministry of the Environment
Some species, such as the chamois, the Eurasian lynx, the European bison, the wood grouse and the Danube salmon have been the subject of some high-profile conservation efforts and are protected by national laws.
One species that only lives in Romania and might soon become extinct is the Romanian darter, a species of perch that was once common in the waters of the Argeș river and its tributaries, Râul Doamnei and Vâlsan, but is now only extant in a 1 km stretch of the Vâlsan.
A 2017 study identified 390 alien species of terrestrial animals with (of which 90% are invertebrates) and 102 species of aquatic organisms (44 freshwater and 58 marine) in Romania. Most of these originate in North America and Southeast Asia and have been introduced accidentally. Despite being a signatory of the Berne Convention on the Conservation of European Wildlife and Natural Habitats, Romania is behind many other countries when it comes to protecting its ecosystems from invasive alien species. There is currently no official list of alien species or invasive species provided by the Romanian Ministry of Environment.
Some of the invasive alien species, such as the veined rapa whelk , the sea walnut or the soft-shell clam have been well documented,but the impact of most invasive species on the Romanian ecosystems has not been properly researched, with serious academic research into the topic only beginning in the last decade.
The Danube Delta is the second largest river delta in Europe, after the Volga Delta, and is the best preserved on the continent. The greater part of the Danube Delta lies in Romania, with a small part in Ukraine. Its approximate surface area is 4,152 km2 (1,603 sq mi), of which 3,446 km2 (1,331 sq mi) is in Romania. With the lagoons of Razim–Sinoe, located south of the main delta, the total area of the Danube Delta is 5,165 km2 (1,994 sq mi). The Razim–Sinoe lagoon complex is geologically and ecologically related to the delta proper and the combined territory is listed as a World Heritage Site.
The Danube–Black Sea Canal is a navigable canal in Romania, which runs from Cernavodă on the Danube river, via two branches, to Constanța and Năvodari on the Black Sea. Administrated from Agigea, it is an important part of the waterway link between the North Sea and the Black Sea via the Rhine–Main–Danube Canal. The main branch of the canal, with a length of 64.4 km (40.0 mi), which connects the Port of Cernavodă with the Port of Constanța, was built in 1976–1984, while the northern branch, known as the Poarta Albă–Midia Năvodari Canal, with a length of 31.2 km (19.4 mi), connecting Poarta Albă and the Port of Midia, was built between 1983 and 1987.
Grigore Antipa was a Romanian naturalist, zoologist, ichthyologist, ecologist, oceanologist, university professor, Darwinist biologist who studied the fauna of the Danube Delta and the Black Sea. Between 1892 and 1944 he was the director of the Bucharest Natural History Museum, which now bears his name. He is also considered to be the first person to modernize the diorama by emphasizing the three-dimensional aspect and first to use dioramas in a museum setting. He is the scientist who reorganized the Grigore Antipa National Museum of Natural History in the new building that today bears his name, designed by the architect Grigore Cerchez, built in 1906 and inaugurated by Carol I of Romania in 1908. He was elected as member of the Romanian Academy in 1910 and was also a member of several foreign academies. Grigore Antipa founded a school of hydrobiology and ichthyology in Romania.
Titus Ozon was a Romanian international football striker and manager. He was considered one of the greatest talents of the postwar in the Romanian football, famous for his extraordinary ability to dribble.
Wildlife of Azerbaijan consists of its flora and fauna and their natural habitats.
The fauna of Europe is all the animals living in Europe and its surrounding seas and islands. Since there is no natural biogeographic boundary in the east and south between Europe and Asia, the term "fauna of Europe" is somewhat elusive. Europe is the western part of the Palearctic realm. Lying within the temperate region, the wildlife is not as rich as in the hottest regions, but is nevertheless diverse due to the variety of habitats and the faunal richness of Eurasia as a whole.
The Danube Delta horses are a population of feral horses in Romania. They live in and around Letea Forest in the Danube Delta, between the Sulina and Chilia branches of the Danube. About 4000 feral horses live in the Danube Delta, 2000 of them in the Letea nature reserve*, where on one hand, they are among the last remaining "wild" (feral) horses living at large on the European continent, but are also deemed to be a threat to the flora of the forest, including some plants on the IUCN Red List of Threatened Species.
Dan Stoenescu is a Romanian career diplomat, political scientist and journalist. He was a minister in the technocratic government of Prime Minister Dacian Cioloș.
The Danube is the second-longest river in Europe, after the Volga in Russia. It flows through much of Central and Southeastern Europe, from the Black Forest into the Black Sea. Its longest headstream Breg rises in Furtwangen im Schwarzwald, while the river carries its name from its source confluence in Donaueschingen onwards.
The A4 motorway is a motorway in Romania that serves as a bypass for the city of Constanța, between Ovidiu and the Port of Constanța, connecting with the A2 motorway via an interchange southwest of the city. It is 22 km long and is planned to be extended to approximately 60 kilometers, stretching further south to the Bulgarian border south of Mangalia, along the western Black Sea coast. The motorway is part of an extension of the Pan-European Corridor IV, that will be connecting with the Bulgarian city of Varna.
The Buila-Vânturarița National Park is a protected area situated in Romania, in the central-northern part of Vâlcea County, in the administrative territory of the localities Costești, Bărbătești, and Băile Olănești.
The Nera Gorge-Beușnița National Park is a protected area situated in Romania, in Caraș-Severin County.
The Lunca Joasă a Prutului Inferior Natural Park is a protected area situated in Romania, in Galați County.
Dragoș Bucurenci is a Romanian communication strategist and coach, civic activist and television personality. In 2010, his Process Communication Model course was awarded Best Training of the Year Prize at the Romanian Business Edu Gala. In 2014 he joined the cabinet of the European Commissioner for Regional Policy as Communication Adviser, but left a year later citing "different work styles". In 2019, he became communications director for Philip Morris International Romania.
The 1961 Cupa României Final was the 23rd final of Romania's most prestigious football cup competition. It was disputed between Arieșul Turda and Rapid București, and was won by Arieșul Turda after a game with 3 goals. It was the first cup for Arieșul Turda.
The eight season of the Romanian reality talent show Vocea României premiered on ProTV on September 7, 2018. Pavel Bartoș returned as host, while Irina Fodor replaced Lili Sandu as the social media correspondent. Laura Giurcanu was the vlogger of the show. Tudor Chirilă and Smiley returned as coaches, while Andra and Irina Rimes replaced Loredana Groza and Adrian Despot as coaches.
The 1976 Cupa României Final was the 38th final of Romania's most prestigious football cup competition. It was disputed between Steaua București and CSU Galaţi, and was won by Steaua București after a game with only one goal. It was the 12th cup for Steaua București.
Clubul Sportiv Universitatea "Dunărea de Jos" Galați commonly known as CS Universitatea "Dunărea de Jos" Galați, or simply as CSU Galați, was a Romanian football club based in Galați, Galați County who was founded in 1953, re-founded in 1967 and 2017 and finally dissolved in 2020. In 1976, CSU played the Cupa României Final, but lost 0–1 against Steaua București.
The 1975 Cupa României Final was the 37th final of Romania's most prestigious football cup competition. It was disputed between Rapid București and Universitatea Craiova, and was won by Rapid București after a game with 3 goals, in extra time. It was the 9th cup for Rapid București.
The 1982 Cupa României Final was the 44th final of Romania's most prestigious football cup competition. It was disputed between Dinamo București and FC Baia Mare, and was won by Dinamo București after a game with 5 goals. It was the forth cup for Dinamo București.