Game reserve

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Savanna at Ngorongoro Conservation Area, Tanzania Zebras, Serengeti savana plains, Tanzania.jpg
Savanna at Ngorongoro Conservation Area, Tanzania
Lodge at Botlierskop game reserve in South Africa (2015) Game Lodge Botlierskop, South Africa (2015).jpg
Lodge at Botlierskop game reserve in South Africa (2015)
Two lions at Botlierskop game reserve Lion couple, Botlierskop (South Africa).jpg
Two lions at Botlierskop game reserve

A game reserve (also known as a wildlife preserve or a game park) [1] is a large area of land where wild animals live safely [2] or are hunted in a controlled way for sport. [3] If hunting is prohibited, a game reserve may be considered a nature reserve; however, the focus of a game reserve is specifically the animals (fauna), whereas a nature reserve is also, if not equally, concerned with all aspects of native biota of the area (plants, animals, fungi, etc.).

Contents

Many game reserves are located in Africa. [4] Most are open to the public, and tourists commonly take sightseeing safaris. Historically, among the best-known hunting targets were the so-called Big Five game in Africa: rhinoceros, elephant, Cape buffalo, leopard, and lion, named so because of the difficulty and danger in hunting them. [5]

In a game reserve, ecosystems are protected and conservation is usually key. Indigenous wildlife in its natural habitat help in providing an environment where growth in numbers at a natural rate can occur.

Some game reserves contain several ecosystems, ranging from valley bushveld, savannah grassland and fynbos to riverine forest and acacia woodland; this provides a dramatic improvement on the types of wildlife that are present and the numerous species of birds that thrive in these environments[ citation needed ].

Wildlife conservation

Wildlife conservation is a costly endeavor for most African countries. One of the more common forms of generating income to establish a sustainable economy to provide for wildlife conservation is known as wild life viewing tourism. However, this attraction still does not generate enough to establish wildlife conservation. For regions that suffer political and economic instability, sustainable trophy hunting may be the only feasible source of sufficient income. Once established, another aspect to consider is the management of the land being used for hunting. Naturally, wildlife decreases with the increase of human presence which puts a strain on the quality of hunting. Generally, leases for hunting concessions are set up to last for multiple years all at once to encourage hunting operators to continue to manage the land for hunting; however, as the quality of hunting decreases, leases are shortened and this creates an overall negative impact to the economy. [6]

Many African countries benefit from community based conservation. This concept explores the relationship between wildlife and people and the notion that conserving every animal is also not sustainable because certain animals threaten human lives and crops. One of the biggest arguments in support of community based conservation is that allowing people to gain economic benefits from wildlife incentivizes conservation. One country that benefits from adopting this strategy is Zambia. The Zambian government established a wildlife conservation fund to act as the responsible player for redistributing funds from the hunting industry into wildlife conservation and community development.

Ethical problems

Using game hunting as a conservation tool has negative perceptions that impose harsh restrictions across several countries in Africa. Some of the activities that induce hunting bans include canned hunting, shooting young or uncommon animals, shooting from vehicles, and the use of bait, spotlights and hounds, all hunting practices that raise many alleged ethical problems. [7]

See also

Related Research Articles

Wildebeest Antelope of the genus Connochaetes

The wildebeest, also called the gnu, is an antelope in the genus Connochaetes. It belongs to the family Bovidae, which includes antelopes, cattle, goats, sheep, and other even-toed horned ungulates. Connochaetes includes two species, both native to Africa: the black wildebeest or white-tailed gnu, and the blue wildebeest or brindled gnu.

Hunting Searching, pursuing, and killing wild animals

Hunting is the practice of seeking, pursuing and capturing or killing wildlife or feral animals. The most common reasons for humans to hunt are to harvest useful animal products, for recreation/taxidermy, to remove predators dangerous to humans or domestic animals, to eliminate pests and nuisance animals that damage crops/livestock/poultry or spread diseases, for trade/tourism, or for ecological conservation against overpopulation and invasive species.

Poaching Illegal hunting of wildlife

Poaching has been defined as the illegal hunting or capturing of wild animals, usually associated with land use rights. Poaching was once performed by impoverished peasants for subsistence purposes and a supplement for meager diets. It was set against the hunting privileges of nobility and territorial rulers.

Protected area Areas protected for having ecological or cultural importance

Protected areas or conservation areas are locations which receive protection because of their recognized natural, ecological or cultural values. There are several kinds of protected areas, which vary by level of protection depending on the enabling laws of each country or the regulations of the international organizations involved. Generally speaking though, protected areas are understood to be those in which human presence or at least the exploitation of natural resources is limited.

Habitat conservation

Habitat conservation is a management practice that seeks to conserve, protect and restore habitats and prevent species extinction, fragmentation or reduction in range. It is a priority of many groups that cannot be easily characterized in terms of any one ideology.

Nairobi National Park First national park in Kenya, Africa

Nairobi National Park is a national park in Kenya that was established in 1946 about 7 km (4.3 mi) south of Nairobi. It is fenced on three sides, whereas the open southern boundary allows migrating wildlife to move between the park and the adjacent Kitengela plains. Herbivores gather in the park during the dry season. Nairobi National Park is negatively affected by increasing human and livestock populations, changing land use and poaching of wildlife. Despite its proximity to the city and its relative small size, it boasts a large and varied wildlife population, and is one of Kenya's most successful rhinoceros sanctuaries.

International Council for Game and Wildlife Conservation (CIC)

The International Council for Game and Wildlife Conservation (CIC) is a politically independent not-for-profit international organisation, aiming to preserve wildlife through the promotion of sustainable use of wildlife resources. The acronym CIC comes from the organisation’s original French name Conseil International de la Chasse.

Trophy hunting Hunting of wild animals for trophies

Trophy hunting is hunting of wild animals as trophies, with the whole or parts of the hunted animal kept and usually displayed to represent the success of the hunter. The preferred target animal, known as the game, is typically a large or impressively ornamented male, such as one having large horns or antlers. Usually, only some parts of the animal are kept as trophies, although preserving the entire animal via taxidermy is also practised.

Wildlife management

Wildlife management is the management process influencing interactions among and between wildlife, its habitats and people to achieve predefined impacts. It attempts to balance the needs of wildlife with the needs of people using the best available science. Wildlife management can include wildlife conservation, gamekeeping and pest control. Wildlife management draws on disciplines such as mathematics, chemistry, biology, ecology, climatology and geography to gain the best results.

Game farm

A game farm is a place where game animals are raised to stock wildlife areas for hunting. The term also includes places where such animals are raised to be sold as food or for photography. Their existence has been exemplified within the South African countryside where they have become prevalent. The wildlife that is hunted is used for consumption as well for ecotourism. Local laws in South Africa during the 20th century have allowed the private ownership of wildlife, which has enabled the expansion and economic feasibility of game farms over typical livestock farming.

Wildlife tourism

Wildlife tourism is an element of many nations' travel industry centered around observation and interaction with local animal and plant life in their natural habitats. While it can include eco- and animal-friendly tourism, safari hunting and similar high-intervention activities also fall under the umbrella of wildlife tourism. Wildlife tourism, in its simplest sense, is interacting with wild animals in their natural habitat, either by actively or passively. Wildlife tourism is an important part of the tourism industries in many countries including many African and South American countries, Australia, India, Canada, Indonesia, Bangladesh, Malaysia, Sri Lanka and Maldives among many. It has experienced a dramatic and rapid growth in recent years worldwide and many elements are closely aligned to eco-tourism and sustainable tourism.

Wildlife trade

Wildlife trade refers to the commerce of products that are derived from non-domesticated animals or plants usually extracted from their natural environment or raised under controlled conditions. It can involve the trade of living or dead individuals, tissues such as skins, bones or meat, or other products. Legal wildlife trade is regulated by the United Nations' Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species of Wild Fauna and Flora (CITES), which currently has 183 member countries called Parties. Illegal wildlife trade is widespread and constitutes one of the major illegal economic activities, comparable to the traffic of drugs and weapons. Wildlife trade is a serious conservation problem, has a negative effect on the viability of many wildlife populations and is one of the major threats to the survival of vertebrate species. The illegal wildlife trade has been linked to the emergence and spread of new infectious diseases in humans, including emergent viruses. Global initiative like the United Nations Sustainable Development Goal 15 have a target to end the illegal supply of wildlife.

Namibia is one of few countries in the world to specifically address habitat conservation and protection of natural resources in their constitution. Article 95 states, "The State shall actively promote and maintain the welfare of the people by adopting international policies aimed at the following: maintenance of ecosystems, essential ecological processes, and biological diversity of Namibia, and utilization of living natural resources on a sustainable basis for the benefit of all Namibians, both present and future.".

Conservation refugees are people who are displaced from their native lands when conservation areas, such as parks and other protected areas, are created.

Wildlife of the Central African Republic

Wildlife in the Central African Republic is in the vast natural habitat located between the Congo Basin's rain forests and large savannas, where the human density was smaller than 0.5 per km2 prior to 1850. The forest area of 22.755 million, considered one of the richest storehouses of wildlife spread over national parks, hunting reserves and community hunting areas, experienced an alarming loss of wild life due to greed for ivory and bushmeat exploitation by hunters – mostly Arab slavers from across the borders of the Central African Republic with Chad and Sudan.

The Communal Areas Management Programme for Indigenous Resources (CAMPFIRE) is a Zimbabwean community-based natural resource management program. It is one of the first programs to consider wildlife as renewable natural resources, while addressing the allocation of its ownership to indigenous peoples in and around conservation protected areas.

The Peace Park Foundation, founded in 1997 by Dr Anton Rupert, President Nelson Mandela and Prince Bernhard of the Netherlands, is an organization that aims to re-establish, renew and conserve large ecosystems in Africa, transcending man-made boundaries by creating regionally integrated and sustainably managed networks of Transfrontier Conservation Areas (TFCAs). Peace Parks Foundation has been involved in the establishment and development of ten of the 18 TFCAs found throughout southern Africa, all of which are in various stages of development. The establishment of each TFCA, or peace park, is complex and far-reaching, and involves several phases of activity, which can take many years to achieve.

Green hunting

Green hunting(eco-hunting, green bullet concept, green darting, darting safari) is the practice of hunting game animals with tranquilizer dart guns or bows and the subsequent release of the live animals. Green hunting would typically be performed when tranquilization of the animal is necessary for veterinary, monitoring, or translocation purposes. Green hunting has been advocated as a conservation-minded alternative to destructive sport hunting, because it allows the hunter to experience the thrill of a traditional hunt without killing the animal, leaving the wildlife abundance undiminished and contributing directly to conservation initiatives. The measurements and details of a tranquilized animal are accepted in hunting organization's record books and fiberglass replicas can be made for the hunter. There are some advantages of eco-hunting. The hunter may have the additional option to be kept regularly updated on the animal's future movements if the darting was part of a GPS collaring project. Though still costly, green hunting is more economical as fees are lower than trophy hunting. The fees finance the conservation project that necessitates an immobilized animal for micro-chipping, ear-notching, tissue collection or GPS tracking and any additional funds can be used to support the management of the protected area involved. The hunter must get within 30 meters from the animal to successfully dart it, often much closer than required for traditional hunting. Group darting safaris also exist, where a group witnesses the work, without participating in the procedures.

Tarangire Ecosystem

The TarangireEcosystem is a geographical region in Africa. It is located in northern Tanzania and extends between 2.5 and 5.5 degrees south latitudes and between 35.5 and 37 degrees east longitudes.

References

  1. "Wildlife preserve". Collins English Dictionary: Complete and Unabridged (12th ed.). HarperCollins. 2014. Retrieved February 14, 2017.
  2. "preserve". merriam-webster.com. Merriam-Webster . Retrieved February 14, 2017.
  3. "game reserve". Macmillan Dictionary . Macmillan Publishers . Retrieved February 14, 2017.
  4. Pitman, Ross T; Fattebert, Julien; Williams, Samual T; Williams, Kathryn S; Hill, Russell A; Hunter, Luke T B; Slotow, Rob; Balme, Guy A (July 2016). "The Conservation Costs of Game Ranching" (PDF). Conservation Letters. 10: 403–413. doi: 10.1111/conl.12276 .
  5. Zijlma, Anouk. "Africa for Visitors: The Big Five". About.com . Retrieved 2006-12-29.
  6. Crosmary, W.-G.; et al. (April 2015). "The assessment of the role of trophy hunting in wildlife conservation". Animal Conservation. 18 (2): 2. doi: 10.1111/acv.12205 .
  7. Lindsey, Peter A.; et al. (June 2007). "Trophy hunting and conservation in Africa: Problems and one potential solution". Conservation Biology. 21 (3): 4. doi:10.1111/j.1523-1739.2006.00594.x. PMID   17531065.