Carp

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Common carp, Cyprinus carpio Cyprinus carpio.jpeg
Common carp, Cyprinus carpio

Carp are various species of oily [1] freshwater fish from the family Cyprinidae, a very large group of fish native to Europe and Asia.

Contents

Biology

The cypriniformes (family Cyprinidae) are traditionally grouped with the Characiformes, Siluriformes, and Gymnotiformes to create the superorder Ostariophysi, since these groups share some common features. These features include being found predominantly in fresh water and possessing Weberian ossicles, an anatomical structure derived from the first five anterior-most vertebrae, and their corresponding ribs and neural crests. The third anterior-most pair of ribs is in contact with the extension of the labyrinth and the posterior with the swim bladder. The function is poorly understood, but this structure is presumed to take part in the transmission of vibrations from the swim bladder to the labyrinth and in the perception of sound, which would explain why the Ostariophysi have such a great capacity for hearing. [2]

Carp have been domesticated for decoration in their koi form So many carp!.jpg
Carp have been domesticated for decoration in their koi form
Goldfish are popular pets that descended from carp LionheadGoldfishSideviewRodsan18b.jpg
Goldfish are popular pets that descended from carp

Most cypriniformes have scales and teeth on the inferior pharyngeal bones which may be modified in relation to the diet. Tribolodon is the only cyprinid genus which tolerates salt water. Several species move into brackish water but return to fresh water to spawn. All of the other cypriniformes live in continental waters and have a wide geographical range. [2] Some consider all cyprinid fishes carp[ by whom? ], and the family Cyprinidae itself is often known as the carp family. In colloquial use, carp usually refers only to several larger cyprinid species such as Cyprinus carpio (common carp), Carassius carassius (Crucian carp), Ctenopharyngodon idella (grass carp), Hypophthalmichthys molitrix (silver carp), and Hypophthalmichthys nobilis (bighead carp). Carp have long been an important food fish to humans. Several species such as the various goldfish breeds and the domesticated common carp variety known as koi have been popular ornamental fishes. As a result, carp have been introduced to various locations, though with mixed results. Several species of carp are considered invasive species in the United States, [3] and, worldwide, large sums of money are spent on carp control. [4]

At least some species of carp are able to survive for months with practically no oxygen (for example under ice) by metabolizing glycogen to form lactic acid which is then converted into ethanol and carbon dioxide. The ethanol diffuses into the surrounding water through the gills. [5] [6] [7]

Species

Some prominent carp in the family Cyprinidae
Common nameScientific nameMax
length (cm)
Common
length (cm)
Max
weight (kg)
Max
age (yr)
Trophic
level
Fish
Base
FAO ITIS IUCN status
Silver carp Hypophthalmichthys molitrix(Valenciennes, 1844)10518502.0 [8] [9] [10] NT IUCN 3 1.svg Near threatened [11]
Common carp Cyprinus carpioLinnaeus, 17581103140.1383.0 [12] [13] [14] VU IUCN 3 1.svg Vulnerable [15]
Grass carp Ctenopharyngodon idella(Valenciennes, 1844)15010.745.0212.0 [16] [17] Not assessed
Bighead carp Hypophthalmichthys nobilis(Richardson, 1845)1466040.0202.3 [18] [19] DD IUCN 3 1.svg Data deficient [20]
Crucian carp Carassius carassius(Linnaeus, 1758)64153.0103.1 [21] [22] LC IUCN 3 1.svg Least concern [23]
Catla carp (Indian carp)Cyprinus catla(Hamilton, 1822)18238.62.8 [24] [25] Not assessed
Mrigal carp Cirrhinus cirrhosus(Bloch, 1795)1004012.72.5 [26] [27] VU IUCN 3 1.svg Vulnerable [28]
Black carp Mylopharyngodon piceus(Richardson, 1846)12212.235133.2 [29] [30] Not assessed
Mud Carp Cirrhinus molitorella(Valenciennes, 1844)55.015.20.502.0 [31] [32] NT IUCN 3 1.svg Near threatened [15]

Recreational fishing

An angler with 17 kg (37 lb) mirror carp (Cyprinus carpio) Carpe miroir de 17kg.jpg
An angler with 17 kg (37 lb) mirror carp (Cyprinus carpio)

In 1653 Izaak Walton wrote in The Compleat Angler , "The Carp is the queen of rivers; a stately, a good, and a very subtle fish; that was not at first bred, nor hath been long in England, but is now naturalised."

Carp are variable in terms of angling value.

Aquaculture

Aquaculture production of cyprinids by species in million tonnes, 1950-2010, as reported by the FAO. Cyprinids aquaculture production.png
Aquaculture production of cyprinids by species in million tonnes, 1950–2010, as reported by the FAO.

Various species of carp have been domesticated and reared as food fish across Europe and Asia for thousands of years. These various species appear to have been domesticated independently, as the various domesticated carp species are native to different parts of Eurasia. Aquaculture has been pursued in China for at least 2,400 years. A tract by Fan Li in the fifth century BC details many of the ways carp were raised in ponds. [40] The common carp, Cyprinus carpio, is originally from Central Europe. [41] Several carp species (collectively known as Asian carp) were domesticated in East Asia. Carp that are originally from South Asia, for example catla (Gibelion catla), rohu (Labeo rohita) and mrigal (Cirrhinus cirrhosus), are known as Indian carp. Their hardiness and adaptability have allowed domesticated species to be propagated all around the world.

Although the carp was an important aquatic food item, as more fish species have become readily available for the table, the importance of carp culture in Western Europe has become less important. Demand has declined, partly due to the appearance of more desirable table fish such as trout and salmon through intensive farming, and environmental constraints. However, fish production in ponds is still a major form of aquaculture in Central and Eastern Europe, including the Russian Federation, where most of the production comes from low or intermediate-intensity ponds. In Asia, the farming of carp continues to surpass the total amount of farmed fish volume of intensively sea-farmed species, such as salmon and tuna. [42]

The major traditional aquaculture carp of China

Breeding

Selective breeding programs for the common carp include improvement in growth, shape, and resistance to disease. Experiments carried out in the USSR used crossings of broodstocks to increase genetic diversity, and then selected the species for traits such as growth rate, exterior traits and viability, and/or adaptation to environmental conditions such as variations in temperature. [43] [44] selected carp for fast growth and tolerance to cold, the Ropsha carp. The results showed a 30 to 77.4% improvement of cold tolerance, but did not provide any data for growth rate. An increase in growth rate was observed in the second generation in Vietnam, [45] Moav and Wohlfarth (1976) showed positive results when selecting for slower growth for three generations compared to selecting for faster growth. [46] Schaperclaus (1962) showed resistance to the dropsy disease wherein selected lines suffered low mortality (11.5%) compared to unselected (57%). [47]

The major carp species used traditionally in Chinese aquaculture are the black, grass, silver and bighead carp. In the 1950s, the Pearl River Fishery Research Institute in China made a technological breakthrough in the induced breeding of these carps, which has resulted in a rapid expansion of freshwater aquaculture in China. [48] In the late 1990s, scientists at the Chinese Academy of Fishery Sciences developed a new variant of the common carp called the Jian carp. This fish grows rapidly and has a high feed conversion rate. Over 50% of the total aquaculture production of carp in China has now converted to Jian carp. [48] [49]

As ornamental fish

Goldfish and other carp from Fish Swimming Amid Falling Flowers, a Song dynasty painting by Liu Cai (c. 1080-1120) Goldfish in Fish Swimming Amid Falling Flowers by Liu Cai (cropped).jpg
Goldfish and other carp from Fish Swimming Amid Falling Flowers, a Song dynasty painting by Liu Cai (c. 1080–1120)
Six different colored koi and a small koi Six koi.jpg
Six different colored koi and a small koi
An unusual goldfish breed: An oranda-type variegated pearlscale. GoldfishPearl.jpg
An unusual goldfish breed: An oranda-type variegated pearlscale.

Carp, along with many of their cyprinid relatives, are popular ornamental aquarium and pond fish.

Goldfish (Carassius auratus) were originally domesticated from the Prussian carp (Carassius gibelio), a dark greyish-brown carp native to Asia. They were first bred for color in China over a thousand years ago. Due to selective breeding, goldfish have been developed into many distinct breeds, and are found in various colors, color patterns, forms and sizes far different from those of the original carp. Goldfish were kept as ornamental fish in China for thousands of years before being introduced to Japan in 1603, and to Europe in 1611. [50]

Koi are a domesticated subspecies of common carp (Cyprinus carpio) that have been selectively bred for color. The common carp was introduced from China to Japan, where selective breeding of the common carp in the 1820s in the Niigata region resulted in koi. [51] In Japanese culture, koi are treated with affection, and seen as good luck. They are popular in other parts of the world as outdoor pond fish.

As food

Packaged grass carp fillets for sale HK Westwood Wellcome Shop packaged iced Seafood for Hot pot Wan Yu Pian Grass Carp April-2012.jpg
Packaged grass carp fillets for sale

List of carp-based dishes

See also

Related Research Articles

Koi Varieties of ornamental pondfish

Koi or more specifically jinli or nishikigoi, are colored varieties of the Amur carp that are kept for decorative purposes in outdoor koi ponds or water gardens.

Common carp Species of fish

The common carp or European carp is a widespread freshwater fish of eutrophic waters in lakes and large rivers in Europe and Asia. The native wild populations are considered vulnerable to extinction by the International Union for Conservation of Nature (IUCN), but the species has also been domesticated and introduced into environments worldwide, and is often considered a destructive invasive species, being included in the list of the world's 100 worst invasive species. It gives its name to the carp family, Cyprinidae.

<i>Cyprinus</i> genus of fishes

Cyprinus is the genus of typical carps in family Cyprinidae. Most species in the genus are of East Asia origin with only the common carp in Western Asia and Europe; this invasive species has also been introduced to many other regions around the world. Cyprinus are closely related to some more barb-like genera, such as Cyclocheilichthys and Barbonymus (tinfoils). The crucian carps (Carassius) of western Eurasia, which include the goldfish, are apparently not as closely related.

Asian carp several species of heavy-bodied cyprinid fish

Several species of heavy-bodied cyprinid fishes are collectively known in the United States as Asian carp. Cyprinids from the Indian subcontinent—for example, catla and mrigal —are not included in this classification and are known collectively as "Indian carp".

Bighead carp species of fish

The bighead carp is a species of freshwater fish, one of several Asian carps. It is one of the most intensively exploited fishes in aquaculture, with an annual worldwide production of over three million tonnes in 2013, principally from China.

Silver carp species of fish

The silver carp is a species of freshwater cyprinid fish, a variety of Asian carp native to China and eastern Siberia. Although a threatened species in its natural habitat, it has long been cultivated in China. By weight more silver carp are produced worldwide in aquaculture than any other species of fish except for the grass carp. Silver carp are usually farmed in polyculture with other Asian carp, or sometimes with catla or other fish species.

<i>Carassius</i> genus of fishes

Carassius is a genus in the ray-finned fish family Cyprinidae. Most species in this genus are commonly known as crucian carps, though this term often specifically refers to C. carassius. The most well known is the goldfish. They have a Eurasian distribution, apparently originating further to the west than the typical carps (Cyprinus), which include the common carp.

<i>Hypophthalmichthys</i> genus of fishes

Hypophthalmichthys is a genus of large cyprinid fish consisting of three species. The name comes from Greek ὑπό, (hypó) "below"; ὀφθαλμός (ophthalmós), "eye"; ἰχθῦς (ichthŷs), "fish", thus "fish with eyes below", referring to the fact that the fish has its eyes below the mouth line. Members of this genus are native to fresh water in East Asia, ranging from Siberia to Vietnam, but have been widely introduced outside their native range, where often considered invasive.

<i>Cyprinus carpio carpio</i> subspecies of fish

Cyprinus carpio carpio is a subspecies of the common carp that is commonly found in Europe. They are native to much of Europe and can also be found in the Caucasus and Central Asia. Mitochondrial DNA analysis shows a difference between C. carpio carpio and Carpio carpio haematopterus. They are omnivorous in nature and feed on mollusks, insects, crustaceans and seeds. Though dark in color, there are some wild caught specimens which are colored orange. This subspecies has also been domesticated in European ponds for hundreds of years. They are considered as an invasive species in the state of Washington and fishing them is encouraged to diminish their population.

Fishing industry in Laos

The fishing industry in the land-locked country of Laos is a major source of sustenance and food security to its people dwelling near rivers, reservoirs and ponds. Apart from wild capture fisheries, which is a major component of fish production, aquaculture and stocking are significant developments in the country. Historically, fishing activity was recorded in writings on the gate and walls of the Wat Xieng Thong in Luang Prabang dated 1560. For many Laotians, freshwater fish are the principal source of protein. The percentage of people involved in regular fishing activity is very small, only near major rivers or reservoirs, as for most of the fishers it is a part-time activity.

Carp fishing

Carp is a common name for various species of freshwater fish of the family Cyprinidae, a very large group of fish native to Europe and Asia. They have been introduced to various locations around the world, though with mixed results.

Japanese white crucian carp species of fish

The Japanese white crucian carp, also known as Japanese carp, white crucian carp, or gengoro-buna, is a species of freshwater fish in the carp family. It is found in Japan and, as an introduced species, in several other countries in Asia. This fish is closely related to the commonly known goldfish.

The mrigal carp, also known as the white carp, is a species of ray-finned fish in the carp family. Native to streams and rivers in India, the only surviving wild population is in the Cauvery River, leading to its IUCN rating as vulnerable. It is widely aquafarmed and introduced populations exist outside its native range. It reaches a maximum length of 1 m (3.3 ft). This species and Cirrhinus mrigala are considered distinct.

<i>Cirrhinus molitorella</i> species of fish

Cirrhinus molitorella is a species of ray-finned fish in the genus Cirrhinus found mainly in southern China and Vietnam.

Cyprinus pellegrini is a species of cyprinid fish in the genus Cyprinus that is endemic to Yunnan, China. It is found in Xingyun Lake.

<i>Cyprinus rubrofuscus</i> species of fish

Cyprinus rubrofuscus, the Amur carp, is a species of cyprinid fish. It is widespread in Eastern Asia where native to Laos, Vietnam and China from the Amur to Red River drainages. It has also been introduced outside its native range. It is the wild form of the well known koi. It is known for its muddy flavor and boniness, hence, it is not commonly eaten by locals except when stewed.

<i>Cirrhinus mrigala</i> species of fish

Cirrhinus mrigala is a species of ray-finned fish in the genus Cirrhinus. It is found in northern India, Pakistan, Bangladesh and Nepal. This species and the Mrigal carp are both considered distinct.

Crucian carp species of fish

The crucian carp is a medium-sized member of the common carp family Cyprinidae. It occurs widely in northern European regions.

Ginbuna species of fish

The ginbuna, sometimes referred to as silver crucian carp or Japanese silver crucian carp, is a species of freshwater fish in the carp family. It is native to lakes and rivers in Japan.

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