Apple cider

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Apple cider (left) is an unfiltered, unsweetened apple juice. Most present-day apple juice is pasteurized and filtered (right). Cider and apple juice.jpg
Apple cider (left) is an unfiltered, unsweetened apple juice. Most present-day apple juice is pasteurized and filtered (right).

Apple cider (also called sweet cider or soft cider or simply cider) is the name used in the United States and parts of Canada for an unfiltered, unsweetened, non-alcoholic beverage made from apples. Though typically referred to simply as "cider" in those areas, it is not to be confused with the alcoholic beverage known as cider in other places, which is called "hard cider" in the US and Canada.

Apple edible fruit of domesticated deciduous tree

An apple is a sweet, edible fruit produced by an apple tree. Apple trees are cultivated worldwide and are the most widely grown species in the genus Malus. The tree originated in Central Asia, where its wild ancestor, Malus sieversii, is still found today. Apples have been grown for thousands of years in Asia and Europe and were brought to North America by European colonists. Apples have religious and mythological significance in many cultures, including Norse, Greek and European Christian traditions.

Cider fermented alcoholic beverage from apple juice

Cider is an alcoholic beverage made from the fermented juice of apples. Cider is popular in the United Kingdom and Ireland and widely available. The UK has the world's highest per capita consumption, as well as its largest cider-producing companies. Cider is also popular in many Commonwealth countries, such as India, Canada, Australia, and New Zealand. Aside from the UK and its former colonies, cider is popular in other European countries including Portugal, France, northern Italy, and northern Spain. Central Europe also has its own types of cider with Rhineland-Palatinate and Hesse producing a particularly tart version known as Apfelwein. In the U.S., varieties of fermented cider are often called hard cider to distinguish alcoholic cider from non-alcoholic apple cider or "sweet cider", also made from apples. In Canada, cider cannot be called cider if there are no apples. Furthermore, according to the Food and Drug Regulations in Canada, cider cannot contain less than 2.5% or over 13% absolute alcohol by volume.

Contents

It is the liquid extracted from an apple and all its components, that is then boiled to concentration. The liquid can be extracted from the apple itself, the apple core, the trimmings from apples, or apple culls. Once pressed mainly at farmsteads and local mills, apple cider is easy and inexpensive to make. [1] It is typically opaque due to fine apple particles in suspension and generally tangier than commercial filtered apple juice, but this depends on the variety of apples used. [2] Cider is typically pasteurized to kill bacteria and extend its shelf life, but untreated cider is common. In either form, apple cider is seasonally produced in autumn. [3] It is traditionally served on the Halloween, Thanksgiving, Christmas, and various New Year's Eve holidays, sometimes heated and mulled.

In chemistry, concentration is the abundance of a constituent divided by the total volume of a mixture. Several types of mathematical description can be distinguished: mass concentration, molar concentration, number concentration, and volume concentration. A concentration can be any kind of chemical mixture, but most frequently solutes and solvents in solutions. The molar (amount) concentration has variants such as normal concentration and osmotic concentration.

Apple juice Juice produced from apples

Apple juice is a fruit juice made by the maceration and pressing of an apple. The resulting expelled juice may be further treated by enzymatic and centrifugal clarification to remove the starch and pectin, which holds fine particulate in suspension, and then pasteurized for packaging in glass, metal or aseptic processing system containers, or further treated by dehydration processes to a concentrate.

Pasteurization or pasteurisation is a process in which water and certain packaged and non-packaged foods are treated with mild heat, usually to less than 100 °C (212 °F), to eliminate pathogens and extend shelf life. The process is intended to destroy or deactivate organisms and enzymes that contribute to spoilage or risk of disease, including vegetative bacteria, but not bacterial spores. Since pasteurization is not sterilization, and does not kill spores, a second "double" pasteurization will extend the quality by killing spores that have germinated.

Nomenclature

A vintage combination apple grinder and press. Moving slatted baskets left to right allows simultaneous two-man production. Juicing3.jpg
A vintage combination apple grinder and press. Moving slatted baskets left to right allows simultaneous two-man production.
A small scale hydraulic apple press. Each load produces about 140 US gallons (530 L)/(31 Imperial gallons) Juicing1.jpg
A small scale hydraulic apple press. Each load produces about 140 US gallons (530 L)/(31 Imperial gallons)

Although the term cider is used for the fermented alcoholic drink in most of the world, it refers to fresh "apple cider" in the United States and much of Canada; hard cider is used there instead for the alcoholic drink.

While some states specify a difference between apple juice and cider, the distinction is not well established across the U.S. [4] Massachusetts makes an attempt to at least differentiate fresh cider and processed apple juice: according to its Department of Agricultural Resources, "apple juice and apple cider are both fruit beverages made from apples, but there is a difference between the two. Fresh cider is raw apple juice that has not undergone a filtration process to remove coarse particles of pulp or sediment. Apple juice is juice that has been filtered to remove solids and pasteurized so that it will stay fresh longer. Vacuum sealing and additional filtering extend the shelf life of the juice." [5] This still leaves unfiltered apple juice that is no longer raw in a gray area, presumably cider but not labeled as such. The addition of sweeteners or reconstitution from concentrate are left even grayer.

Massachusetts State in the northeastern United States

Massachusetts, officially the Commonwealth of Massachusetts, is the most populous state in the New England region of the northeastern United States. It borders on the Atlantic Ocean to the east, the states of Connecticut and Rhode Island to the south, New Hampshire and Vermont to the north, and New York to the west. The state is named after the Massachusett tribe, which once inhabited the east side of the area, and is one of the original thirteen states. The capital of Massachusetts is Boston, which is also the most populous city in New England. Over 80% of the population of Massachusetts lives in the Greater Boston metropolitan area, a region influential upon American history, academia, and industry. Originally dependent on agriculture, fishing and trade, Massachusetts was transformed into a manufacturing center during the Industrial Revolution. During the 20th century, Massachusetts's economy shifted from manufacturing to services. Modern Massachusetts is a global leader in biotechnology, engineering, higher education, finance, and maritime trade.

Canada recognizes unfiltered, unsweetened apple juice as cider, fresh or not. [6]

Natural cider

Golden Gate Park apple press monument Golden Gate Park - Apple Press Monument 02.jpg
Golden Gate Park apple press monument

Historically all cider was left in its natural state, unprocessed. In time, airborne yeasts present on apple skins or cider making machinery would start fermentation in the finished cider. Left on its own, alcohol would develop and forestall growth of harmful bacteria. When modern refrigeration emerged, cider and other fruit juices could be kept cold for long periods of time, retarding fermentation. Any interruption of the refrigeration, however, could allow bacterial contamination to grow. Outbreaks of illness resulted in government regulation requiring virtually all commercially produced cider to be treated either with heat or radiation.

As a result, natural raw cider is a specialty seasonal beverage, produced on-site at orchards and small rural mills in apple growing areas and sold there, at farmers markets, and some juice bars. Such traditional cider is typically made from a mixture of several different apples to give a balanced taste. Frequently blends of heirloom varieties such as Winesap, once among the most sought-after cider apples for its tangy flavor, are used. The US government requires that unpasteurized cider and juice have a warning label on the bottle. [7]

Orchard Intentionally planted trees or shrubs that are maintained for food production

An orchard is an intentional planting of trees or shrubs that is maintained for food production. Orchards comprise fruit- or nut-producing trees which are generally grown for commercial production. Orchards are also sometimes a feature of large gardens, where they serve an aesthetic as well as a productive purpose. A fruit garden is generally synonymous with an orchard, although it is set on a smaller non-commercial scale and may emphasize berry shrubs in preference to fruit trees. Most temperate-zone orchards are laid out in a regular grid, with a grazed or mown grass or bare soil base that makes maintenance and fruit gathering easy.

Heirloom plant cultivar grown during earlier periods of human history

An heirloom plant, heirloom variety, heritage fruit, or heirloom vegetable is an old cultivar of a plant used for food that is grown and maintained by gardeners and farmers, particularly in isolated or ethnic minority communities of the Western world. These were commonly grown during earlier periods in human history, but are not used in modern large-scale agriculture.

Winesap apple cultivar

Winesap is an old apple cultivar of unknown origin, dating at least to American Colonial times. Its apples are sweet with a tangy finish. They are used for eating, cooking, and cider.

Even with refrigeration, raw cider will begin to become slightly carbonated within a week or so and eventually become hard cider as the fermentation process continues. Some producers use this fermentation to make hard cider; others carry it to acetification to create artisanal apple cider vinegar.

Apple cider vinegar, or cider vinegar, is a vinegar made from fermented apple juice, and used in salad dressings, marinades, vinaigrettes, food preservatives, and chutneys. It is made by crushing apples, then squeezing out the juice. Bacteria and yeast are added to the liquid to start the alcoholic fermentation process, which converts the sugars to alcohol. In a second fermentation step, the alcohol is converted into vinegar by acetic acid-forming bacteria. Acetic acid and malic acid combine to give vinegar its sour taste. Apple cider vinegar has no medicinal or nutritional value. There is no high-quality clinical evidence that regular consumption of apple cider vinegar helps to maintain or lose body weight, or is effective to manage blood glucose and lipid levels.

Treated cider

Many commercially produced ciders are pasteurized which extends its shelf life; the most common method used is pasteurization, [8] but UV irradiation [7] is also employed.

Pasteurization, which partially cooks the juice, results in some change of the sweetness, body and flavor of the cider; [7] irradiation has less noticeable effects.

Impetus for Federal level regulation began with outbreaks E. coli O157:H7 from unpasteurized apple cider and other illnesses caused by contaminated fruit juices in the late 1990s. [9] The U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) made proposals in 1998; [10] Canada began to explore regulation in 2000. [11]

The U.S. regulations were finalized in 2001, with the FDA issuing a rule requiring that virtually all juice producers follow Hazard Analysis and Critical Control Points (HACCP) controls, [12] using either heat pasteurization, ultraviolet germicidal irradiation (UVGI), or other proven methods to achieve a 5-log reduction in pathogens. [13]

Canada, however, relies on a voluntary Code of Practice for manufacturers, voluntary labelling of juice/cider as "Unpasteurized", and an education campaign to inform consumers about the possible health risks associated with the consumption of unpasteurized juice products. [6]

Commercial production

Cidering in a contemporary rural area mill. Custom batches pressed directly to bulk containers on demand. Juicing2.jpg
Cidering in a contemporary rural area mill. Custom batches pressed directly to bulk containers on demand.

Modern cider making has come a long way from early forms of production that involved a man- or horse-powered crusher. These consisted of a stone or wood trough with a heavy circulating wheel to crush the fruit, and a large manual screw press to express the juice from the pulp. Straw was commonly used to contain the pulp during pressing, later replaced by coarse cloth. The Palmer Bros. Company, of Cos Cob, CT, made the most popular "modern" rack and cloth press from the mid 1800s to the mid 1900s, when production shifted to OESCO in Massachusetts. As technology advanced, rotary drum "scratters"[ clarification needed ] came into use. Today, nearly all small pressing operations use electric-hydraulic equipment with press cloths and plastic racks in what is commonly called a "rack and cloth press", and electric hammermill "breakers".

Depending on the varieties of apples and using the optimal extraction methods, it takes about one third of a bushel (10 liters) to make a gallon (3.78 liters) of cider. [5] Apples are washed, cut, and ground into a mash that has the consistency of coarse applesauce. Layers of this mash are then either wrapped in cloth and placed upon wooden or plastic racks where a hydraulic press then squeezes the layers together, or the mash is distributed onto a continuous belt filter press, [14] which squeezes the pulp between two permeable belts fed between a succession of rollers that press the juice out of the pulp in a continuous, highly efficient operation. The resulting juice is then stored in refrigerated tanks, pasteurized to kill bacteria and extend shelf life, and bottled and sold as apple cider. The juice may also be fermented to produce hard cider, which then may be further treated by exposure to acetobacter to produce apple cider vinegar, or distilled to produce apple brandy. The waste left after pressing, known as pomace, is sold for cattle feed.

Variations

Hot mulled cider Hot cider.jpg
Hot mulled cider

Hot mulled cider, similar to "Wassail", is a popular autumn and winter beverage. [15] Cider is heated to a temperature just below boiling, with cinnamon, orange peel, nutmeg, cloves, or other spices added.

Authentic "sparkling cider" is a naturally carbonated beverage made from unfiltered apple cider. "Sparkling apple juice", often confused with it and sometimes even labeled as "sparkling cider", as does the popular Martinelli's brand, is filtered, pasteurized, and mechanically carbonated and thus not true cider.

Rosé apple cider can be obtained using red-fleshed applecrabs.

"Cider doughnuts" traditionally used the yeast in raw cider as a leavener. Today they are sometimes sold at cider mills and roadside stands, though there is no assurance natural cider is used. Visiting apple orchards in the fall for cider, doughnuts, and self-picked apples is a large segment in agritourism. [16] [17] [18]

Cultural significance

Apple cider is the official beverage of the U.S. state of New Hampshire. [19]

See also

Related Research Articles

Drink Kind of liquid which is specifically prepared for human consumption

A drink is a liquid intended for human consumption. In addition to their basic function of satisfying thirst, drinks play important roles in human culture. Common types of drinks include plain drinking water, milk, coffee, tea, hot chocolate, juice and soft drinks. In addition, alcoholic drinks such as wine, beer, and liquor, which contain the drug ethanol, have been part of human culture for more than 8,000 years.

Orange juice juice made from oranges

Orange juice is a liquid extract of the orange tree fruit, produced by squeezing or reaming oranges. It comes in several different varieties, including blood orange, navel oranges, valencia orange, clementine, and tangerine. As well as variations in oranges used, some varieties include differing amounts of juice vesicles, known as "pulp" in American English, and "(juicy) bits" in British English. These vesicles contain the juice of the orange and can be left in or removed during the manufacturing process. How juicy these vesicles are depend upon many factors, such as species, variety, and season. In American English, the beverage name is often abbreviated as "OJ".

Fruit press

A fruit press is a device used to separate fruit solids - stems, skins, seeds, pulp, leaves, and detritus - from fruit juice.

Perry is an alcoholic beverage made from fermented pears, similar to the way cider is made from apples. It has been common for centuries in England, particularly in the Three Counties ; it is also made in parts of South Wales and France, especially Normandy and Anjou.

Odwalla Inc. is an American food product company that sells fruit juices, smoothies and food bars. It was founded in Santa Cruz, California, in 1980 and since 1995 is headquartered in Half Moon Bay, California. Odwalla's products include juices, smoothies, soy milk, bottled water, organic beverages, and several types of energy bars, known as "food bars".

Makgeolli Raw Rice Wine

Makgeolli, sometimes anglicized to makkoli, is a Korean alcoholic beverage. The milky, off-white and lightly sparkling rice wine has a slight viscosity that tastes slightly sweet, tangy, bitter, and astringent. Chalky sediment gives it a cloudy appearance. As a low proof drink of six to nine percent alcohol by volume, it is often considered a happy, communal beverage. In Korea, makgeolli is often unpasteurized, and the wine continues to mature in the bottle. Because of the short shelf life of unpasteurized "draft" makgeolli, many exported makgeolli undergo pasteurization, which deprives the beverage of complex enzymes and flavor compounds.

Flash pasteurization, also called "high-temperature short-time" (HTST) processing, is a method of heat pasteurization of perishable beverages like fruit and vegetable juices, beer, kosher wine, and some dairy products such as milk. Compared with other pasteurization processes, it maintains color and flavor better, but some cheeses were found to have varying responses to the process.

Grape juice

Grape juice is obtained from crushing and blending grapes into a liquid. In the wine industry, grape juice that contains 7–23 percent of pulp, skins, stems and seeds is often referred to as "must". The sugars in grape juice allow it to be used as a sweetener, and fermented and made into wine, brandy, or vinegar.

The following list of international English food terms points out differences in food terminology between some different dialects of English:

Dimethyl dicarbonate chemical compound

Dimethyl dicarbonate (DMDC) is an organic compound which is a colorless liquid with a pungent odor at high concentration at room temperature. It is primarily used as a beverage preservative, processing aid, or sterilant, and acts by inhibiting the enzymes acetate kinase and L-glutamic acid decarboxylase. It has also been proposed that DMDC inhibits the enzymes alcohol dehydrogenase and glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate dehydrogenase by causing the methoxycarbonylation of their histidine components.

Banana beer alcoholic beverage made from fermentation of mashed bananas

Banana beer is an alcoholic beverage made from fermentation of mashed bananas. Sorghum, millet or maize flour are added as a source of wild yeast.

Juice liquid that is naturally contained in fruit and vegetables

Juice is a drink made from the extraction or pressing of the natural liquid contained in fruit and vegetables. It can also refer to liquids that are flavored with concentrate or other biological food sources, such as meat or seafood, such as clam juice. Juice is commonly consumed as a beverage or used as an ingredient or flavoring in foods or other beverages, as for smoothies. Juice emerged as a popular beverage choice after the development of pasteurization methods enabled its preservation without using fermentation. The largest fruit juice consumers are New Zealand and Colombia. Fruit juice consumption on average increases with country income level.

Cherry juice Cherry juice is from the juice of cherries, and is consumed as a beverage, health supplement and used as an added ingredient.

Cherry juice is a fruit juice consisting of the juice of cherries. It is consumed as a beverage and used as an ingredient in various foods, processed foods and beverages. It is also marketed as a health supplement. It is produced by hot- or cold-pressing cherries, collecting the juice, and then filtering and pasteurizing it.

Evolution Fresh company

Evolution Fresh, a subsidiary of Starbucks Corporation, is an American-based company producing fruit juices, fruit smoothies, gourmet soups, salads and signature bowls.

The 1996 Odwalla E. coli outbreak began on October 7, 1996, when Odwalla produced a batch of apple juice using blemished fruit contaminated with E. coli bacterium, which ultimately killed a 16-month-old girl and sickened 66 people. Odwalla made and marketed unpasteurized fruit juices for the health segment of the juice market.

Cold-pressed juice

Cold-pressed juice refers to juice that uses a hydraulic press to extract juice from fruit and vegetables, as opposed to other methods such as centrifugal or single auger.

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