Rudolph the Red-Nosed Reindeer

Last updated

Rudolph the Red-Nosed Reindeer
Rudolph, The Red-Nosed Reindeer Marion Books.jpg
Cover of one of the books of the Robert L. May story by Maxton Publishers, Inc.
First appearance1939
Created by Robert L. May
Voiced by Billie Mae Richards (TV specials, 1964–2010)
Kathleen Barr (Rudolph the Red-Nosed Reindeer: The Movie, Rudolph the Red-Nosed Reindeer and the Island of Misfit Toys)
Information
NicknameRudolph in Rudolph the Red-Nosed Reindeer: The Movie : Red, Rudy, Rudy the Red nosed Reject, Neon-nose.
Species Reindeer
GenderMale
TitleThe Red Nosed Reindeer
FamilyDonner and Mrs. Donner (parents in 1964 TV special)
Blitzen (father in 1998 film)
Mitzi (mother in 1998 film)
Rusty (brother in Holidaze: The Christmas That Almost Didn't Happen )
Arrow (cousin in 1998 film)
Comet, Cupid and Dasher (uncles in 1998 film)
Leroy, the Redneck Reindeer (cousin from the Joe Diffie song of the same name, on the album, Mr. Christmas )
Robbie (son in Robbie the Reindeer )

Rudolph the Red-Nosed Reindeer, also popularly known as "Santa's ninth reindeer", is a 20th century reindeer created by Robert Lewis May. Rudolph is usually depicted as the lead reindeer, using his luminous red nose to guide Santa's sleigh on Christmas Eve, though he is a young buck who has only adolescent antlers and a glowing red nose. Though he receives ridicule for it, the luminosity of his nose is so great that it illuminates the team's path through harsh winter weather.

Santa Clauss reindeer Legendary reindeer who pull Santa Clauss sleigh

In traditional festive legend, Santa Claus's reindeer pull a sleigh through the night sky to help Santa Claus deliver gifts to children on Christmas Eve. The commonly cited names of the eight reindeer are Dasher, Dancer, Prancer, Vixen, Comet, Cupid, Donner and Blitzen. They are based on those used in the 1823 poem "A Visit from St. Nicholas" by Clement Clarke Moore, arguably the basis of the reindeers' popularity.

Christmas Eve Evening or entire day before Christmas Day

Christmas Eve is the evening or entire day before Christmas Day, the festival commemorating the birth of Jesus. Christmas Day is observed around the world, and Christmas Eve is widely observed as a full or partial holiday in anticipation of Christmas Day. Together, both days are considered one of the most culturally significant celebrations in Christendom and Western society.

Contents

Rudolph first appeared in a 1939 booklet written by Robert L. May and published by Montgomery Ward, the department store. [1] [2] [3]

Robert L. May was the creator of Rudolph the Red-Nosed Reindeer.

Montgomery Ward Inc. is the name of two historically distinct American retail enterprises. It can refer either to the original Montgomery Ward, a defunct mail order and department store retailer which operated between 1872 and 2001, or to the current, eponymous catalog and online retailer also known as Wards.

The story is owned by The Rudolph Company, LP and has been adapted and shaped in numerous forms including a popular song by Johnny Marks, the iconic 1964 stop-motion animated television special and its two sequels from Rankin/Bass Productions, as well as the 1998 traditional animated feature film and a 2001 CGI sequel from GoodTimes Entertainment. [4] Character Arts, LLC manages the licensing for the Rudolph Company, LP. In many countries, Rudolph has become a figure of Christmas folklore. 2014 marked the 75th anniversary of the character [5] and the 50th anniversary of the Rankin/Bass television special. [6] A series of postage stamps featuring Rudolph was issued by the United States Postal Service on November 6, 2014. [7]

Rudolph the Red-Nosed Reindeer (song) 1949 Christmas song by Gene Autry

"Rudolph, the Red-Nosed Reindeer" is a song by songwriter Johnny Marks based on the 1939 story Rudolph the Red-Nosed Reindeer published by the Montgomery Ward Company. Gene Autry's recording hit No. 1 on the U.S. charts the week of Christmas 1949.

John David Marks was an American songwriter. Although he was Jewish, he specialized in Christmas songs and wrote many holiday standards, including "Rudolph, the Red-Nosed Reindeer", "Rockin' Around the Christmas Tree", "A Holly Jolly Christmas", "Silver and Gold", "I Heard the Bells on Christmas Day", and "Run Rudolph Run".

<i>Rudolph the Red-Nosed Reindeer</i> (TV special) 1964 television film

Rudolph the Red-Nosed Reindeer is a 1964 Christmas stop motion animated television special produced by Videocraft International, Ltd. and currently distributed by Universal Television. It first aired Sunday, December 6, 1964, on the NBC television network in the United States, and was sponsored by General Electric under the umbrella title of The General Electric Fantasy Hour. The special was based on the Johnny Marks song "Rudolph the Red-Nosed Reindeer" which was itself based on the poem of the same name written in 1939 by Marks' brother-in-law, Robert L. May. Since 1972, the special has aired on CBS; the network unveiled a high-definition, digitally remastered version of the program in 2005. CBS now shares rights to the special with Freeform, which acquired rights to air the special as part of its annual "25 Days of Christmas" programming stunt beginning in 2019.

Publication history

Robert L. May created Rudolph in 1939 as an assignment for Chicago-based Montgomery Ward. The retailer had been buying and giving away coloring books for Christmas every year and it was decided that creating their own book would save money. Robert May considered naming the reindeer "Rollo" or "Reginald" before deciding upon using the name "Rudolph". [8] May said his daughter liked reindeer, and he said he was treated like Rudolph as a child. [9] In its first year of publication, Montgomery Ward distributed 2.4 million copies of Rudolph's story. [10] The story is written as a poem in anapestic tetrameter, the same meter as "A Visit from St. Nicholas" (also known as "'Twas the Night Before Christmas").[ citation needed ] Publication and reprint rights for the book Rudolph the Red-Nosed Reindeer are controlled by Pearson PLC.[ citation needed ]

Chicago city and county seat of Cook County, Illinois, United States

Chicago, officially the City of Chicago, is the most populous city in the U.S. state of Illinois and the third most populous city in the United States. With an estimated population of 2,705,994 (2018), it is also the most populous city in the Midwestern United States. Chicago is the county seat of Cook County, the second most populous county in the US, with portions of the northwest side of the city extending into DuPage County near O'Hare Airport. Chicago is the principal city of the Chicago metropolitan area, often referred to as Chicagoland. At nearly 10 million people, the metropolitan area is the third most populous in the nation.

Coloring book type of book containing line art to which a reader may add color

A coloring book is a type of book containing line art to which people are intended to add color using crayons, colored pencils, marker pens, paint or other artistic media. Traditional coloring books and coloring pages are printed on paper or card. Some coloring books have perforated edges so their pages can be removed from the books and used as individual sheets. Others may include a story line and so are intended to be left intact. Today many children's coloring books feature popular cartoon characters. They are often used as promotional materials for animated motion pictures. Coloring books may also incorporate other activities such as connect the dots, mazes and other puzzles. Some also incorporate the use of stickers.

Anapestic tetrameter is a poetic meter that has four anapestic metrical feet per line. Each foot has two unstressed syllables followed by a stressed syllable. It is sometimes referred to as a "reverse dactyl", and shares the rapid, driving pace of the dactyl.

While May was pondering how best to craft a Christmas story about a reindeer, while staring out his office window in downtown Chicago, a thick fog from Lake Michigan blocked his view—giving him a flash of inspiration. "Suddenly I had it!" he recalled. "A nose! A bright red nose that would shine through fog like a spotlight." [11]

Lake Michigan One of the Great Lakes of North America

Lake Michigan is one of the five Great Lakes of North America and the only one located entirely within the United States. It is the second-largest of the Great Lakes by volume and the third-largest by surface area, after Lake Superior and Lake Huron. To the east, its basin is conjoined with that of Lake Huron through the wide Straits of Mackinac, giving it the same surface elevation as its easterly counterpart; the two are technically a single lake.

The cultural significance of a red nose has changed since the story's publication. In 1930s popular culture, a bright red nose was closely associated with chronic alcoholism and drunkards, so the story idea was initially rejected. May asked his illustrator friend at Montgomery Ward, Denver Gillen, to draw "cute reindeer", using zoo deer as models. The alert, bouncy character Gillen developed convinced management to support the idea. [12]

Maxton Books published the first mass-market edition of Rudolph in 1947[ citation needed ] and a sequel, Rudolph the Red-Nosed Reindeer Shines Again, in 1954.[ citation needed ] In 1992, Applewood Books published Rudolph's Second Christmas, an unpublished sequel that Robert May wrote in 1947.[ citation needed ] In 2003, Penguin Books issued a reprint version of the original Rudolph the Red-Nosed Reindeer with new artwork by Lisa Papp.[ citation needed ] Penguin also reprinted May's sequels, Rudolph Shines Again and Rudolph's Second Christmas (now retitled Rudolph to the Rescue). [13]

Story

The story chronicles the experiences of Rudolph, a youthful reindeer buck (male) who possesses an unusual luminous red nose. Mocked and excluded by his peers because of this trait, Rudolph proves himself one Christmas Eve with poor visibility due to inclement weather after Santa Claus catches sight of Rudolph's nose and asks Rudolph to lead his sleigh for the evening. Rudolph agrees and is finally favored by his fellow reindeer for his heroism and accomplishment.

In media

Theatrical cartoon short (1948)

Rudolph made his first screen appearance in 1948, in a cartoon short produced by Max Fleischer for the Jam Handy Corporation that was more faithful to May's original story than Marks' song, which had not yet been written. [14] It was reissued in 1951 with the song added. [14]

Song (1949)

May's brother-in-law, Johnny Marks, adapted the story of Rudolph into a song. Gene Autry's recording of the song hit No. 1 on the Billboard pop singles chart the week of Christmas 1949. Autry's recording sold 2.5 million copies the first year, eventually selling a total of 25 million, and it remained the second best-selling record of all time until the 1980s. [15]

Comic books (beginning in 1950)

DC Comics, then known as National Periodical Publications, published a series of 13 annuals titled Rudolph the Red-Nosed Reindeer from 1950 to 1962. [16] [17] Rube Grossman drew most of the 1950s stories. [18]

In 1972, DC Comics published a 14th edition in an extra-large format. Subsequently, they published six more in that format: Limited Collectors' Edition C-24, C-33, C-42, C-50 [19] and All-New Collectors' Edition C-53, C-60. [20]

Additionally, one digest format edition was published as The Best of DC #4 (March–April 1980). [21] The 1970s Rudolph stories were written and drawn by Sheldon Mayer. [22] [23]

Children's book (1958)

In 1958, Little Golden Books published an illustrated storybook, adapted by Barbara Shook Hazen and illustrated by Richard Scarry. The book, similar in story to the Max Fleischer cartoon short, is no longer in print, but a revised Little Golden Books version of the storybook was reissued in 1972. [24]

Stop-motion animation television special (1964) and sequels (1976–79)

Young Rudolph (right) and Hermey the Elf as seen in the 1964 TV special. Hermey the elf and Rudolph.jpg
Young Rudolph (right) and Hermey the Elf as seen in the 1964 TV special.

Perhaps the most well-known version of all the Rudolph adaptations is New York-based Rankin/Bass Productions' Christmas television special in 1964.[ citation needed ] Filmed in stop-motion "Animagic" at Tadahito Mochinaga's MOM Productions in Tokyo, Japan, with the screenplay written by Romeo Muller and all sound recordings (with supervision by Bernard Cowan) done at the RCA studios in Toronto, Ontario, Canada, the show premiered on NBC. As the producers of the special, Arthur Rankin, Jr. and Jules Bass, only had the song as source material and did not have a copy of the original book, they interpolated an original story around the central narrative of the song, one that differed from the book. This re-telling chronicles Rudolph's social rejection among his peers and his decision to run away from home. Rudolph is accompanied by a similarly outcast elf named Hermey, who skipped elf practice to become a dentist, along with a loud, boisterous, eager prospector named Yukon Cornelius who was in search of wealth. Additional original characters include Rudolph's love interest, Clarice; the antagonistic "Abominable Snow Monster of the North"; and, as narrator, Sam the living Snowman, voiced by Burl Ives.

In the 1964 stop-motion movie, Rudolph is born to Donner the Reindeer and Donner's wife. He is discovered by Santa to have a shiny, glowing red nose. Donner, regardless of Rudolph's defect, trains him to be a normal reindeer with skills such as gathering food and hiding from the "Abominable Snow Monster", a giant, furry white beast. To hide Rudolph's nose, Donner puts dirt on it to cover it with a black coating. This causes Rudolph to talk in a funny accent, as told by the Rudolph's peers. A short time later, Rudolph joins his peers at the Reindeer Games, where he meets Fireball, who is initially friendly and has a shock of strawberry blond hair on his head, and Clarice, a female spectator who takes a liking to Rudolph. Clarice's flirtation inspires Rudolph to perform better than all of his peers at flying, but in his excitement he knocks the black cover off his nose, revealing a red glow that causes Fireball and the others to turn against him; this distraction, in turn, prompts the coach (Comet) to ban Rudolph from the Reindeer Games. Clarice remains loyal to him, only to be ordered by her father not to shame the family by associating with "a red-nosed reindeer."

Rudolph soon runs into Hermey, an elf who was forced out of his job at the North Pole's toy factory; Hermey showed a total lack of interest in the toymaking and singing aspects of being an elf and instead wanted to pursue dentistry. They come to the conclusion that they're both misfits and decide to run away together. On their aimless journey, they run into Yukon Cornelius, the self-described "greatest prospector of the North" who nevertheless seems to never find any silver or gold, and attempt to stay away from the Bumble, a huge abominable snow monster. Their journey leads them to the Island of Misfit Toys, where sentient but unorthodox toys go when they are abandoned by their owners. King Moonracer, the winged lion that lords over the Island, refuses to let them stay there permanently, instead telling the trio to return home and tell Santa Claus of the toys' plight, in exchange for one night's stay on the island. Rudolph refuses the offer and, fearing for his friends' life, runs off alone.

A now older Rudolph, still unable to find a place in the world, returns home to the North Pole, only to find that his family and Clarice had left to look for him and are now about to be eaten by the Bumble. With the help of Hermey and Yukon (who arrived separately), they lure the Bumble away and pacify him by knocking him unconscious and allowing Hermey (with dental skills he has acquired by reading books) to remove his sharp teeth. Everyone eventually returns to Santa's workshop, where a dismayed Santa Claus breaks the bad news that the weather is too bad to take the sleigh out and that Christmas would be canceled. Santa changes his mind when he notices Rudolph's red nose and asks Rudolph to lead the sleigh team, which he happily accepts.

After the story's initial broadcast, its closing credits were revised. Images of wrapped presents being dropped from Santa's sleigh were replaced by a scene in which Santa stops to pick up the Misfit Toys and delivers them to the homes of children below via umbrellas (with the exception of the misfit toy bird that swims but doesn't fly who is dropped to its destruction). The changes were prompted by viewer feedback pleading for a happy ending for each toy. The special now airs annually on CBS, rather than NBC, and is hailed as a classic by many. The special's original assortment of characters have acquired iconic status, and an uncertainty surrounding an error in the special's copyright has allowed the special to be widely parodied and imitated in the decades since its original airing.

The success of the special led to two sequels Rudolph's Shiny New Year (1976) which continued the reindeer's journeys, and the series was made into a trilogy with the feature-length film Rudolph and Frosty's Christmas in July (1979), which integrated the Rudolph universe into that of Rankin/Bass's adaptation of Frosty the Snowman (1969). Being one of the most popular Rankin/Bass characters, Rudolph also made his cameo appearances in two "Animagic" specials Santa Claus is Comin' to Town (1970) and Nestor, the Long–Eared Christmas Donkey (1977), and in the Easter television special The First Easter Rabbit (1976) with cel animation by Toru Hara's Topcraft.

Animated feature-length films

Rudolph the Red-Nosed Reindeer: The Movie (1998) is an 2D-animated feature film presented by GoodTimes Entertainment and Golden Books Family Entertainment (now Western Publishing), and produced by Tundra Productions in Hollywood, California. It received only a limited theatrical release before debuting on home video. Its inclusion of a villain, a love interest, a sidekick, and a strong protector are more derivative of the Rankin/Bass adaptation of the story than the original tale and song (the characters of Stormella, Zoey, Arrow, Slyly, and Leonard parallel the Rankin/Bass characters of the Bumble, Clarice, Fireball, Hermey, and Yukon, respectively). The movie amplifies the early backstory of Rudolph's harassment by his schoolmates (primarily his cousin Arrow) during his formative years. It was produced and directed by William R. Kowalchuk, and written by Michael Aschner, with music and songs by Al Kasha and Michael Lloyd, and with most of the casting being assembled at BLT Productions in Vancouver, British Columbia. The film's recording facilities were Pinewood Sound in Vancouver, Schwartz Sound in New York, and Wally Burr Recording in Hollywood. Among the all-star cast of voices were American actors John Goodman, Whoopi Goldberg, Debbie Reynolds, Richard Simmons and Bob Newhart, British actor Eric Idle, and Canadian actress Kathleen Barr as Rudolph. Animation production services for the film were outsourced to Colorland Animation Productions in Hong Kong.

GoodTimes Entertainment, the producers of Rudolph the Red-Nosed Reindeer: The Movie, brought back most of the same production team for a CGI animated sequel, Rudolph the Red-Nosed Reindeer and the Island of Misfit Toys (2001). Unlike the previous film, the sequel featured the original characters from the Rankin/Bass special (as GoodTimes soon learned that Rankin/Bass had made a copyright error that made the characters unique to their special free to use).

Role Rudolph the Red-Nosed Reindeer:
The Movie

(1998)
Rudolph the Red-Nosed Reindeer and the Island of Misfit Toys
(2001)
DirectorWilliam R. Kowalchuk
Producer
WriterMichael Aschner
Composer Al Kasha and Michael Lloyd Bruce Roberts and Diana B
EditorTom HokLennie Nelson
Production
Companies
GoodTimes Entertainment
Golden Books Family Entertainment
Tundra Productions
Distributor Legacy Releasing GoodTimes Entertainment
Running Time80 minutes74 minutes
Release DateOctober 6, 1998October 30, 2001

Other

A live-action version of Rudolph (complete with glowing nose) along with Donner and Blitzen appears in the Doctor Who Christmas special, "Last Christmas" which was broadcast on BBC One on 25 December 2014. [25] In this special, Santa is able to park him like a car and turn off his nose.

Nathaniel Dominy, an anthropology professor at Dartmouth College (Robert L. May's alma mater), published a scholarly paper on Rudolph's red nose in the open access online journal Frontiers for Young Minds in 2015. In the paper, Dominy noted that reindeer eyes can perceive shorter wavelengths of light than humans, allowing them to see ultraviolet light; ultraviolet light, however, is much more easily scattered in fog, which would blind reindeer. Thus, Rudolph's red nose, emitting longer-wavelength red light, would penetrate the fog more easily. A summary of Dominy's findings was released in an Associated Press article on December 22. [26]

Cast and characters

CharactersCartoon shortStop-motion television specialsFeature-length filmsSpin-off specials
Rudolph the Red-Nosed ReindeerRudolph's Shiny New YearRudolph and Frosty's
Christmas in July
Rudolph the Red-Nosed Reindeer:
The Movie
Rudolph the Red-Nosed Reindeer
and the Island of Misfit Toys
Nestor, the Long-Eared Christmas Donkey Robbie the Reindeer in Hooves of Fire
19481964197619791999200119771999
RudolphN/ABillie Mae RichardsKathleen BarrSilent role cameoPainting
Michael Lloyd (singing voice)
Eric Pospisil (young)
Santa ClausStan Francis Paul Frees Mickey Rooney
Bob McFadden (singing voice)
John GoodmanGarry Chalk
DasherSilent role
Dancer
Prancer
Vixen
Comet
Cupid
Donner
Blitzen
Mrs. Claus
Sam
Hermey
ClariceSilent cameo
Yukon Cornelius
King MoonracerStan Francis
Charlie-in-the-Box
Father Time Red Skelton Picture cameo
Big Ben Harold Peary
Frosty the Snowman
Crystal
Jack FrostPaul Frees
Winterbolt
Mr. Cuddles the Toy Taker
Nestor
Robbie
Old Jingle

Homages in media

Film

Games

Also a video game by High Voltage Software

Music

Television and webisodes

Relatives in different adaptations

Parents

Offspring

Three BBC animations carry on the legend by introducing Rudolph's son, Robbie the Reindeer. However, Rudolph is never directly mentioned by name (references are replaced by the first and second films' villain Blitzen interrupting with the phrase, "Don't say that name!", or something similar, presumably for copyright reasons.)

Siblings

Rudolph is also given a younger brother, Rusty Reindeer, in the American special, Holidaze: The Christmas That Almost Didn't Happen (2006). Like in the "Robbie the Reindeer" cartoons, Rudolph's name is not said in the film nor does he make a physical appearance. However, he does appear on a poster and one scene in the film shows a cardboard cutout and toys of Rudolph. Unlike previous versions of the character, this Rudolph has a black nose, which is only red when lit up.

Michael Fry and T. Lewis have given Rudolph another brother in a series of Over the Hedge comic strips: an overweight, emotionally damaged reindeer named Ralph, the Infra-Red nosed Reindeer, who is referred to as Rudolph's older brother. Ralph's red nose is good for defrosting Santa's sleigh and warming up toast and waffles; he enviously complains about his brother Rudolph's publicity and his own anonymity.

Aunts, uncles, and cousins

See also

Related Research Articles

Rankin/Bass Productions former production company known mainly for animated holiday specials

Rankin/Bass Productions, Inc. was an American production company, known for its seasonal television specials, particularly its work in stop motion animation. Rankin/Bass's stop-motion features are recognizable by their visual style of doll-like characters with spheroid body parts, and ubiquitous powdery snow using an animation technique called "Animagic". Often, traditional cel animation scenes of falling snow would be projected over the action to create the effect of a snowfall.

"Frosty the Snowman" is a popular Christmas song written by Walter "Jack" Rollins and Steve Nelson, and first recorded by Gene Autry and the Cass County Boys in 1950 and later recorded by Jimmy Durante, releasing it as a single. It was written after the success of Autry's recording of "Rudolph the Red-Nosed Reindeer" the previous year; Rollins and Nelson shipped the new song to Autry, who recorded "Frosty" in search of another seasonal hit. Like "Rudolph", "Frosty" was subsequently adapted to other media including a popular television special by Rankin/Bass Productions, Frosty the Snowman. The ancillary rights to Frosty are owned by Warner Bros., but due to the prominence of the Rankin/Bass TV special itself, merchandising of the character is generally licensed in tandem with that special's current owners, DreamWorks Classics.

Mrs. Claus wife of Santa Claus

Mrs. Claus is the wife of Santa Claus, the Christmas gift-bringer in American and European Christmas tradition. She is known for making cookies with the elves, caring for the reindeer, and preparing toys with her husband.

<i>Rudolphs Shiny New Year</i>

Rudolph's Shiny New Year is a American-Japanese 1976 Christmas/New Year's stop motion animated television special and a sequel to the 1964 special Rudolph the Red-Nosed Reindeer produced by Rankin/Bass Productions. The special premiered on ABC on December 10, 1976. Three years later, it was also aired on TV Asahi in Japan on December 24, 1979 under the Japanese dub title 赤鼻のトナカイ ルドルフ物語.

<i>The Life and Adventures of Santa Claus</i> 1902 childrens book

The Life and Adventures of Santa Claus is a 1902 children's book, written by L. Frank Baum and illustrated by Mary Cowles Clark.

Billie Mae Richards Canadian voice actress

Billie Mae Richards was a Canadian voice actress, who also appeared onstage and on television. She was the voice of Rankin/Bass' version of the character Rudolph the Red-Nosed Reindeer from 1964 to 1979, and of the Kid in the radio series Jake and the Kid.

Romeo Muller American screenwriter

Romeo Earl Muller, Jr. was an American screenwriter and actor most remembered for his screenplays for the Rankin/Bass holiday specials including Rudolph the Red-Nosed Reindeer, Frosty the Snowman, Santa Claus is Coming to Town, and The Little Drummer Boy.

<i>Santa Claus Is Comin to Town</i> (film) 1970 film by Jules Bass

Santa Claus is Comin' to Town is a 1970 stop motion Christmas television special produced by Rankin/Bass Productions. The film stars Fred Astaire as the narrator S.D. Kluger, Mickey Rooney as Kris Kringle / Santa Claus, Keenan Wynn as the Winter Warlock, and Paul Frees in various roles. The film tells the story of how Santa Claus and several Claus-related Christmas traditions came to be. It is based on the hit Christmas song "Santa Claus Is Comin' to Town", which was introduced on radio by Eddie Cantor in 1934, and the story of Saint Nicholas.

<i>Rudolph the Red-Nosed Reindeer and the Island of Misfit Toys</i> 2001 animated film

Rudolph the Red-Nosed Reindeer and the Island of Misfit Toys is a 2001 American-Canadian Christmas computer-animated adventure musical film directed by Bill Kowalchuk for GoodTimes Entertainment. It was released on video and DVD on October 30, 2001. The film takes place several years after the events of that special. The film thus revisits classic characters like Hermey the Elf and Rudolph, who is now famous in the Arctic tundra.

<i>Frosty the Snowman</i> (film) 1969 film directed by Jules Bass

Frosty the Snowman is a 1969 animated Christmas television special produced by Rankin/Bass Productions and currently distributed by Universal Television. It is the first television special featuring the character Frosty the Snowman. The special first aired on December 7, 1969 on the CBS television network in the United States; it has aired annually for the network's Christmas and holiday season every year since, with Freeform sharing the rights to the special with CBS beginning in 2019. The special was based on the Walter E. Rollins and Steve Nelson song of the same name. It featured the voices of comedians Jimmy Durante as the film's narrator, Billy De Wolfe as Professor Hinkle the Magician, and Jackie Vernon as Frosty.

<i>Rudolph and Frostys Christmas in July</i> 1979 film

Rudolph and Frosty's Christmas in July is an American Christmas/Independence Day television special produced by Rankin/Bass, featuring characters from the company's holiday specials Rudolph the Red-Nosed Reindeer and Frosty the Snowman, among others. It is the third television special to feature the Rudolph the Red-Nosed Reindeer and Frosty the Snowman characters, respectively. It was filmed in Japan using the company's trademark "Animagic" stop-motion animation style. The film premiered in the US on November 25, 1979 on ABC.

The Year Without a Santa Claus is a 2006 made-for-television film, a live-action remake of the Rankin-Bass television special The Year Without a Santa Claus which premiered on NBC December 11, 2006. A widescreen DVD was released on December 12, 2006.

Secular Christmas stories

There exists a wide range of secular Christmas stories, told in popular music, on television, and in the cinema, that are told about the Christian holiday of Christmas, that may be based on or allegorize the biblical Christian mythology of Christmas, as the birth of Jesus, but not necessarily. The stories may also have newer interpretations and introduce new characters. These secular Christmas stories could be classified as mythopoeia, or Christian allegories.

Christmas elf

In American, Canadian, Irish, and British cultures, a Christmas elf is a diminutive elf that lives with Santa Claus at the North Pole and acts as his helper. Christmas elves are often depicted as green or red clad with large, pointy ears and pointy hats. Santa's elves are often said to make the toys in Santa's workshop and take care of his reindeer, among other tasks.

<i>Rudolph the Red-Nosed Reindeer: The Movie</i> 1998 animated film

Rudolph the Red-Nosed Reindeer: The Movie is a 1998 American Christmas animated adventure musical film about the character of the same name, who first appeared in a 1939 story by Robert L. May. The film was the first theatrical feature from GoodTimes Entertainment, long known as a home video company. It stars Kathleen Barr as the voice of the titular Rudolph, and also features celebrity talents including John Goodman, Eric Idle, Cathy Weseluck, Whoopi Goldberg, Debbie Reynolds, Richard Simmons and Bob Newhart. The film disappointed at the box-office, recouping only $113,484 of its $10 million budget from its theatrical release.

<i>The Life and Adventures of Santa Claus</i> (1985 film) 1985 Christmas stop motion animated television special

The Life and Adventures of Santa Claus is a 1985 Christmas stop motion animated television special produced by Rankin/Bass Productions and based on the 1902 children's book The Life and Adventures of Santa Claus by L. Frank Baum, the writer of The Wonderful Wizard of Oz. The special first aired December 17, 1985 on CBS in the United States, and December 24, 1986 on TV Asahi in Japan under the title Santa's Secret and Great Adventure. This was Rankin/Bass' final "Animagic" stop motion production filmed in Japan; later productions would be traditionally animated.

<i>Rudolph the Red-Nosed Reindeer</i> (soundtrack) 1964 soundtrack album by cast

Rudolph the Red-Nosed Reindeer is a soundtrack album to the 1964 Rankin/Bass television special of the same name. The original cast recordings from the TV special are supplemented with instrumental versions recorded by the Decca Concert Orchestra. All songs used in the television special were written by Johnny Marks.

References

  1. Mikkelson, Barbara; Mikkelson, David P. (December 19, 2010). "Rudolph the Red-Nosed Reindeer". Urban Legends Reference Pages. Snopes.com. Archived from the original on July 8, 2009. Retrieved December 2, 2011.
  2. Ramer, Holly; Talbot, Toby (photo) (December 23, 2011). "Scrapbook tells how Rudolph went down in history". Hanover, NH. Associated Press. Retrieved December 23, 2011.
  3. Kim, Wook (December 17, 2012). "Yule Laugh, Yule Cry: 10 Things You Didn't Know About Beloved Holiday Songs". Time . Archived from the original on December 21, 2014.
  4. Whipp, Deborah. "The History of Rudolph the Red-Nosed Reindeer". Altogether Christmas.
  5. Parrella, Andrew (December 18, 2014). "From The Archives: Rudolph Turns 75". New Hampshire Public Radio. Archived from the original on December 24, 2014.
  6. "Rudolph the Red-Nosed Reindeer celebrates 50th anniversary". CBS News . December 9, 2014. Archived from the original on December 10, 2014.
  7. "Rudolph all red-nosed over stamp of approval". United States Postal Service. November 6, 2014. Archived from the original on December 24, 2014. Rudolph the Red-Nosed Reindeer, the nation’s longest-running and highest-rated Christmas television special 'went down in history' to receive its stamp of approval today. The set of four Limited Edition Forever stamps depicting Rudolph, Hermey, Santa and Bumble were created from still television frames from the special which premiered 50 years ago in 1964.
  8. Historical Society]]|network=Wisconsin Public Television|airdate=December 12, 2010|minutes= 0:28}}
  9. Lippert, Barbara (December 18, 2017). "Like a Light Bulb!". Advertising Age . p. 32.
  10. Moreau, Jennifer (December 24, 2010). "Rudolph's Burnaby roots". Burnaby Now . p. A11.
  11. Powell, J. Mark. "The Jewish man who created a Christmas classic". Washington Examiner. Retrieved December 20, 2017.
  12. Chow, Wanda (December 2010). "How Rudolph the reindeer came to be". Burnaby Now. p. A3.
  13. "Rudolph's Second Christmas by May, Robert Lewis: Applewood Books, Old Saybrook 9781557091925 Hardcover, First Edition, First Printing. - primeeditions". Abebooks.com. January 22, 2003. Retrieved January 14, 2019.
  14. 1 2 "Library of Congress Unveils Rudolph the Red-Nosed Reindeer Restoration". Animation World Network. December 18, 2014. Retrieved December 11, 2015.
  15. Jackson, Kenneth T. Jackson; Markoe, Karen; Markoe, Arnie (1998). The Scribner Encyclopedia of American Lives. Simon and Schuster. p. 28.
  16. Irvine, Alex (2010). "1950s". In Dolan, Hannah (ed.). DC Comics Year By Year A Visual Chronicle. London, United Kingdom: Dorling Kindersley. p. 65. ISBN   978-0-7566-6742-9. DC began an annual tradition of producing a Rudolph the Red-Nosed Reindeer Christmas special. Following the success of the famous song (released in 1949), DC licensed the character and put Rudolph at the center of a series of lighthearted adventures...The Christmas Special would continue until 1962, and then return from 1972–1977.
  17. Rudolph the Red-Nosed Reindeer at the Grand Comics Database and Rudolph the Red-Nosed Reindeer Annual at the Grand Comics Database
  18. Markstein, Don. "Rudolph the Red-Nosed Reindeer". Don Markstein's Toonopedia . Archived from the original on September 12, 2012. Retrieved December 4, 2011.
  19. Limited Collectors' Edition #C-20, #C-24, #C-33, #C-42, and #C-50 at the Grand Comics Database
  20. All-New Collectors' Edition #C-53 and #C-60 at the Grand Comics Database
  21. "The Best of DC #4 (March–April 1980)". Grand Comics Database.
  22. Markstein, Don (2006). "Sheldon Mayer". Don Markstein's Toonopedia . Archived from the original on December 3, 2011. Retrieved December 3, 2011. [Mayer] also worked on several tabloid-formatted comic books for DC in the mid-1970s, including the company's first use of Rudolph the Red-Nosed Reindeer since the early 60s.
  23. Arnold, Mark (December 2012). "You Know Dasher and Dancer: Rudolph The Red-Nosed Reindeer". Back Issue! . TwoMorrows Publishing (61): 7–10.
  24. Hazen, Barbara Shook; May, Robert L. (1972). Rudolph The Red-nosed Reindeer - A Golden Book. Richard Scarry (9th ed.). Golden Press.
  25. "Doctor Who". BBC. December 12, 2014. Archived from the original on December 21, 2014. Retrieved December 16, 2014. In the North Pole the Doctor and Clara are joined by a familiar figure… and his reindeer!
  26. Ramer, Holly (December 22, 2015). "Rudolph's shiny red nose may be tied to eyes that glow blue". Associated Press. Retrieved December 22, 2015.
  27. ""Little Saint Nick" Lyrics". Lyricsfreak.com. n.d. Archived from the original on December 10, 2014.