Home video

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Home video is pre-recorded video media that is either sold, rented or streamed for home entertainment. It is a type of home media. The term originates from the VHS/Betamax era, when the predominant medium was videotape, but has carried over into optical disc formats like DVD and Blu-ray and, since the 2000s, into methods of digital distribution such as Netflix, Hulu, and Amazon Video.

Video

Video is an electronic medium for the recording, copying, playback, broadcasting, and display of moving visual media. Video was first developed for mechanical television systems, which were quickly replaced by cathode ray tube (CRT) systems which were later replaced by flat panel displays of several types.

Video rental shop physical retail business that rents home videos such as movies, TV shows, video game discs and other content.

A video rental shop/store is a physical retail business that rents home videos such as movies, prerecorded TV shows, video game discs and other content. Typically, a rental shop conducts business with customers under conditions and terms agreed upon in a rental agreement or contract, which may be implied, explicit, or written. Many video rental stores also sell previously-viewed movies and/or new, lots of unopened movies.

VHS Consumer-level analog video tape recording and cassette form factor standard

VHS is a standard for consumer-level analog video recording on tape cassettes. Developed by Victor Company of Japan (JVC) in the early 1970s, it was released in Japan on September 9, 1976 and in the United States on August 23, 1977.

Contents

The home video business distributes films, telemovies and television series in the form of videos in various formats to the public. These are either bought or rented and then watched privately from the comfort of consumers' homes. Most theatrically released films are now released on digital media, both optical (DVD and Blu-ray) and download-based, replacing the largely obsolete VHS (Video Home System) medium. The VCD format remains popular in Asia, although DVDs are gradually gaining popularity.

Film sequence of images that give the impression of movement

Film, also called movie or motion picture, is a medium used to simulate experiences that communicate ideas, stories, perceptions, feelings, beauty or atmosphere by the means of recorded or programmed moving images along with other sensory stimulations. The word "cinema", short for cinematography, is often used to refer to filmmaking and the film industry, and to the art form that is the result of it.

Video CD

Video CD is a home video format and the first format for distributing films on standard 120 mm (4.7 in) optical discs. The format was widely adopted in Southeast Asia and superseded the VHS and Betamax systems in the region until DVD finally became affordable in the region in the late 2000s.

History

Prior to the arrival of home video as a popular medium, most feature films were essentially inaccessible to the public after their original theatrical runs were over. Some very popular films were given occasional theatrical re-releases in urban revival houses and the screening rooms of a handful of archives and museums, and beginning in the 1950s, most could be expected to turn up on television eventually. During this era, it was also the norm that television programs could only be viewed at the time of broadcast. Viewers were accustomed to the fact that there was no normal way to record TV shows at home and watch them whenever desired.

A revival house or repertory cinema is a cinema that specializes in showing classic or notable older films. Such venues may include standard repertory cinemas, multi-function theatres that alternate between old movies and live events, and some first-run theatres that show past favorites alongside current independent films.

Television Telecommunication medium for transmitting and receiving moving images

Television (TV), sometimes shortened to tele or telly, is a telecommunication medium used for transmitting moving images in monochrome, or in colour, and in two or three dimensions and sound. The term can refer to a television set, a television program, or the medium of television transmission. Television is a mass medium for advertising, entertainment and news.

Broadcasting distribution of audio and video content to a dispersed audience via any audio or visual mass communications medium

Broadcasting is the distribution of audio or video content to a dispersed audience via any electronic mass communications medium, but typically one using the electromagnetic spectrum, in a one-to-many model. Broadcasting began with AM radio, which came into popular use around 1920 with the spread of vacuum tube radio transmitters and receivers. Before this, all forms of electronic communication were one-to-one, with the message intended for a single recipient. The term broadcasting evolved from its use as the agricultural method of sowing seeds in a field by casting them broadly about. It was later adopted for describing the widespread distribution of information by printed materials or by telegraph. Examples applying it to "one-to-many" radio transmissions of an individual station to multiple listeners appeared as early as 1898.

It was possible to purchase a 16 mm or 8 mm film projector and rent or buy home-use prints of some cartoons, short comedies and brief "highlights" reels edited from feature films. In the case of the 16 mm format, most of these were available with an optical soundtrack, and even some entire feature films in 16 mm could be rented or bought. 8 mm films almost never ran longer than ten minutes and only a few were available with a magnetic soundtrack late in the life of the format. The Super 8 film format, introduced in 1965, [1] was marketed for making home movies but it also boosted the popularity of show-at-home films. Eventually, longer, edited-down versions of feature films were issued, increasingly with a magnetic soundtrack and in color. But, these were quite expensive and served only a small niche market of very dedicated or affluent film lovers.

16 mm film film gauge

16 mm film is a historically popular and economical gauge of film. 16 mm refers to the width of the film; other common film gauges include 8 and 35 mm. It is generally used for non-theatrical film-making, or for low-budget motion pictures. It also existed as a popular amateur or home movie-making format for several decades, alongside 8 mm film and later Super 8 film. Eastman Kodak released the first 16 mm "outfit" in 1923, consisting of a camera, projector, tripod, screen and splicer, for $335. RCA-Victor introduced a 16 mm sound movie projector in 1932, and developed an optical sound-on-film 16 mm camera, released in 1935.

8 mm film film gauge

8 mm film is a motion picture film format in which the film strip is eight millimeters wide. It exists in two main versions — the original standard 8 mm film, also known as regular 8 mm, and Super 8. Although both standard 8 mm and Super 8 are 8 mm wide, Super 8 has a larger image area because of its smaller and more widely spaced perforations.

A soundtrack, also written sound track, can be recorded music accompanying and synchronized to the images of a motion picture, book, television program, or video game; a commercially released soundtrack album of music as featured in the soundtrack of a film, video, or television presentation; or the physical area of a film that contains the synchronized recorded sound.

The Betamax and VHS home videocassette formats were introduced in 1975 and 1976 [2] respectively, taking several years and reducing in cost before they started to become a widespread household fixture. Film studios and video distributors assumed that consumers would not want to buy prerecorded videocassettes, just rent them. They also felt that virtually all of the sales would be to video rental stores, setting prices appropriate to this as a business model. Eventually it was realized that many people did want to build their own video libraries as well as rent if the price was right, and found that a title which had sold a few hundred copies at $99 might sell tens or even hundreds of thousands of copies at $19.99 or $9.99.

Betamax Consumer-level analog video tape recording and cassette form factor standard

Betamax is a consumer-level analog-recording and cassette format of magnetic tape for video. It was developed by Sony and was released in Japan on May 10, 1975. The first Betamax device introduced in the United States was the LV-1901 console, which included a 19-inch (48 cm) color monitor, and appeared in stores in early November 1975. The cassettes contain 0.50-inch-wide (12.7 mm) videotape in a design similar to that of the earlier, professional 0.75-inch-wide (19 mm), U-matic format. Betamax is obsolete, having lost the videotape format war to VHS. Despite this, Betamax recorders would not be discontinued until 2002, while new Betamax cassettes were available until March 2016, when Sony stopped making and selling them.

Law of demand economics theorem

In microeconomics, the law of demand states that, "conditional on all else being equal, as the price of a good increases (↑), quantity demanded decreases (↓); conversely, as the price of a good decreases (↓), quantity demanded (↑)". In other words, the law of demand describes an inverse relationship between price and quantity demanded of a good. Alternatively, other things being constant, quantity demanded of a commodity is inversely related to the price of the commodity. For example, a consumer may demand 2 kilograms of apples at $70 per kg; he may, however, demand 1 kg if the price rises to $80 per kg. This has been the general human behaviour on relationship between the price of the commodity and the quantity demanded. The factors held constant refer to other determinants of demand, such as the prices of other goods and the consumer's income. There are, however, some possible exceptions to the law of demand, such as Giffen goods and Veblen goods.

The first company to duplicate and distribute home video was Magnetic Video in 1977. Magnetic Video was established in 1968 as an audio and video duplication service for professional audio and television corporations in Farmington Hills, Michigan, United States, although Avco's 1972 Cartrivision system preceded Magnetic Vision's expansion into home video by a few years. [3]

Magnetic Video

Magnetic Video Corporation was a home video/home audio duplication service, that operated between 1968-1982.

Farmington Hills, Michigan City in Michigan, United States

Farmington Hills is the second largest city in Oakland County in the U.S. state of Michigan. Its population was 79,740 at the 2010 census. It is part of the northwestern suburbs of Metropolitan Detroit and is about 30 miles (48 km) northeast of downtown Ann Arbor.

Avco Corporation is a subsidiary of Textron which operates Textron Systems Corporation and Lycoming.

Special-interest video production

Until the mid-1980s feature film theatrical releases such as The Wizard of Oz , Citizen Kane and Casablanca were the mainstay of video marketing and helmed by large studios like Universal, 20th Century Fox and Disney. At that time, not many consumers owned a VCR, and those who did tended to rent rather than buy videos. Toward the end of that decade, a rise of smaller companies began creating special interest videos, also known as "non-theatrical programming" and "alternative programming," and "selling-through" to the consumer.

"Home video is an exciting new area of opportunity for adventuresome publishers willing to produce new programs. Today's limitations within the video marketplace may be gone tomorrow. More people are finding innovative ways to create visually stimulating entertainment and information for the video tape player... Like contemporary book publishing, you can produce and distribute yourself to very narrow markets or seek broad-based distributors for mass-oriented appeal" [4]

Special Interest Video is a huge and steadily increasing venue for products exposing new and old subjects through the medium of camera and tape. It is a new form of publishing, a specialty line of products for vertical "readership" and an exploding territory of subjects, audiences and new uses. Six years ago, dog handling videos, back pain videos and cooking videos were suppositions on a drawing board. Three years ago these took life. Now, along with golf and skiing tapes these S.I. videos are beginning to claim a market share. The wild part of this new video publishing adventure is the wide diversity of support with which each product comes to the market. New technology has changed the territory. [5]

Time gap until home video release

A time period is usually allowed to elapse between the end of theatrical release and the home video release to encourage movie theater patronage and discourage piracy. Home video release dates used to be five or six months after the theatrical release, but now most films have been arriving on video after three or four months. Christmas and other holiday-related movies were generally not released on home video until the following year when that holiday was celebrated again, [6] but this practice ended starting with holiday movies that were released in 2015.

Exceptions to the rule include the Steven Soderbergh film Bubble . It was released in 2006 to theaters, cable TV and DVD only a few days apart. [7]

TV programs

Many television programs are now also available in complete seasons on DVD. It has become popular practice for discontinued TV shows to be released to DVD one season at a time every few months and active shows to be released on DVD after the end of each season. Prior to the television DVDs, most television shows were only viewable in syndication, or on limited 'best of' VHS releases of selected episodes. These copyrighted movies and programs generally have legal restrictions on them preventing them from, among other things, being shown in public venues, shown to other people for money or copied for other than fair use purposes (although such ability is limited by some jurisdictions and media formats: see below).

Pre-Certs

After the passage of the Video Recordings (Labelling) Act of 1985 in the United Kingdom, videotapes and other video recordings without a certification symbol from the British Board of Film Classification (BBFC) on their covers - or on the tapes themselves - were no longer allowed to be sold or displayed by rental shops. [8] These tapes are called "Pre-Certs" (e.g., Pre-certification tapes). Recently these tapes have generated a cult following, due to their collectability.

DVD Awards

Every year since 2004, the film festival Il Cinema Ritrovato holds the DVD Awards, where they award the highest quality DVDs (and later Blu-rays) released by home media companies around the world. [9] [10] [11] [12] [13]

YearBest DVD (later The Peter von Bagh Award)CompanyBest Blu-rayCompany
2004"Pier Paolo Pasolini - Les Années 60" Carlotta Films N/A
2005"Alexandre Medvedkine" Arte N/A
2006 Entuziazm Österreichisches Filmmuseum N/A
2007"Ernst Lubitsch Collection" Transit Film-Murnau Stiftung N/A
2008 L'argent
The Threepenny Opera
Carlotta Films
The Criterion Collection
N/A
2009"Joris Ivens Wereldcineast"European Foundation Joris IvensN/A
2010"By Brakhage: An Anthology, Volume Two"The Criterion Collection La Rosa di Bagdad [Mention] Cinecittà Luce
2011"Segundo de Chomón 1903 – 1912" Filmoteca de Catalunya and Cameo Media s.l."America Lost and Found: The BBS Story" [Mention]The Criterion Collection
2012"The Complete Humphrey Jennings Volume 2: Fires Were Started" British Film Institute "A Hollis Frampton Odyssey"The Criterion Collection
2013 Gli ultimi La Cineteca del Friuli Lonesome The Criterion Collection
2014" Džim Švantė (Sol' Svanetii) & Gvozd' v sapoge "Edition Filmmuseum Underground British Film Institute
2015" The House of Mystery (La Maison du mystère)" Flicker Alley, LLC
The Blackhawk Films Collection
" The Connection : Project Shirley, Volume One"
" Portrait of Jason : Project Shirley, Volume Two"
" Ornette: Made in America : Project Shirley, Volume 3"
Milestone Film & Video
2016"Frederick Wiseman Intégrale Vol. 1" Blaq Out N/A
2017 The Salvation Hunters Edition FilmmuseumN/A
2018"Arne Sucksdorff: Samlade Verk"Studio S EntertainmentN/A

See also

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Related Research Articles

Videotape medium for recording video

Videotape is magnetic tape used for storing video and usually sound in addition. Information stored can be in the form of either an analog signal or digital signal. Videotape is used in both video tape recorders (VTRs) or, more commonly, videocassette recorders (VCRs) and camcorders. Videotapes are also used for storing scientific or medical data, such as the data produced by an electrocardiogram.

A hard disk recorder (HDR) is a system that uses a high-capacity hard disk to record digital audio or digital video. Hard disk recording systems represent an alternative to reel-to-reel audio tape recording and video tape recorders, and provide editing capabilities unavailable to tape recorders. Audio HDR systems, which can be standalone or computer-based, typically include provisions for digital mixing and processing of the audio signal.

Video tape recorder

A video tape recorder (VTR) is a tape recorder designed to record and playback video and audio material on magnetic tape. The early VTRs are open-reel devices which record on individual reels of 2-inch-wide tape. They were used in television studios, serving as a replacement for motion picture film stock and making recording for television applications cheaper and quicker. Beginning in 1963, videotape machines made instant replay during televised sporting events possible. Improved formats, in which the tape was contained inside a videocassette, were introduced around 1969; the machines which play them are called videocassette recorders. Agreement by Japanese manufacturers on a common standard recording format, so cassettes recorded on one manufacturer's machine would play on another's, made a consumer market possible, and the first consumer videocassette recorder was introduced by Sony in 1971.

Videotape format war 1970s and 1980s period of intense competition over videotape formats

The videotape format war was a period of intense competition or "format war" of incompatible models of consumer-level analog video videocassette and video cassette recorders (VCR) in the late 1970s and the 1980s, mainly involving the Betamax and Video Home System (VHS) formats. VHS ultimately emerged as the preeminent format.

8 mm video format family of video recording formats for 8mm magnetic tape

The 8mm video format refers informally to three related videocassette formats for the NTSC and PAL/SECAM television systems. These are the original Video8 format and its improved successor Hi8, as well as a more recent digital recording format known as Digital8.

20th Century Fox Home Entertainment American home video distributor

Twentieth Century Fox Home Entertainment LLC is the home video arm of the 20th Century Fox film studio, now a label only unit of Walt Disney Studios Home Entertainment.

M is the name of a professional analog recording videocassette format developed around 1982 by Matsushita and RCA. It was developed as a competitor to Sony's Betacam format. In the same way Betacam was designed to take advantage of cheap and readily available Betamax videocassettes, M used the same videocassette as VHS.

A re-edited film is a film that has been modified from its original theatrical release. These films are typically preceded by the disclaimer, "This film has been modified from its original version. It has been formatted to fit this screen and edited for content." Reasons for this type of editing may range from the distributor's demands to accommodating different audience groups. Fan-made movie edits are often met with controversy, as they bring up issues of copyright law.

Film distribution is the process of making a movie available for viewing by an audience. This is normally the task of a professional film distributor, who would determine the marketing strategy for the film, the media by which a film is to be exhibited or made available for viewing, and who may set the release date and other matters. The film may be exhibited directly to the public either through a movie theater or television, or personal home viewing. For commercial projects, film distribution is usually accompanied by film promotion.

Universal Pictures Home Entertainment is the home video distribution division of American film studio Universal Pictures, owned by the Universal Filmed Entertainment Group division of NBCUniversal, which is owned by Comcast.

VX was a short-lived and unsuccessful consumer analog recording videocassette format developed by Matsushita and launched in 1975 in Japan. In the United States it was sold using the Quasar brand and marketed under the name "The Great Time Machine" to exhibit its time-shifting capabilities, since VX machines had a companion electro-mechanical clock timer for timed recording of television programs. In Japan, the VX-100 model was launched in 1975, with the VX-2000 following in 1976. The first and only model sold in North America was the Quasar VR-1000, with the VT-100 timer.

Home movies

A home movie is a short amateur film or video typically made just to preserve a visual record of family activities, a vacation, or a special event, and intended for viewing at home by family and friends. Originally, home movies were made on photographic film in formats that usually limited the movie-maker to about three minutes per roll of costly camera film. The vast majority of amateur film formats lacked audio, shooting silent film.

Il Cinema Ritrovato is a festival dedicated to the rediscovery of rare and little-known films with a particular focus on cinema origins and the silent movie period. It is organised every summer by the Cineteca di Bologna, Italy, and is one of the world's major festivals of film restoration. It was founded in 1986 as a three-day event but over time it became bigger, screening 400 films over nine days in 2018.

Videocassette recorder

A videocassette recorder, VCR, or video recorder is an electromechanical device that records analog audio and analog video from broadcast television or other source on a removable, magnetic tape videocassette, and can play back the recording. Use of a VCR to record a television program to play back at a more convenient time is commonly referred to as timeshifting. VCRs can also play back prerecorded tapes. In the 1980s and 1990s, prerecorded videotapes were widely available for purchase and rental, and blank tapes were sold to make recordings.

The Cineteca di Bologna is a film archive in Bologna, Italy. It was founded on 18 May 1962.

Edison Studio is a collective of composers and an electroacoustic music ensemble. It was founded in Rome in 1993 by the composers Mauro Cardi, Luigi Ceccarelli, Fabio Cifariello Ciardi e Alessandro Cipriani.

References

  1. "Super 8mm Film History | Motion Picture Film". motion.kodak.com. Retrieved 7 June 2016.
  2. "50 Years of the Video Cassette Recorder". WIPO . Retrieved 7 June 2016.
  3. "Alternate Magnetic Video Corporation Licensees". Alternate History Discussion. Retrieved 7 June 2016.
  4. "Home Video Publishing: Are You Ready?" by Michael Wiese, PMA Newsletter, July 1987, pp.6-13
  5. "Special Interest Comes of Age," by Bo Lebo, PMA Newsletter, May 1990, p.18
  6. Kerrigan, Finola (4 November 2009). Film Marketing. Routledge. ISBN   9781136440014.
  7. "Bubble May Burst Hollywood". MIT Technology Review . Retrieved 7 June 2016.
  8. "The Video Recordings Act | British Board of Film Classification". www.bbfc.co.uk. Retrieved 7 June 2016.
  9. "Il Cinema Ritrovato - DVD Awards" (PDF). Cineteca di Bologna . Istituzione Cineteca del Comune di Bologna. Retrieved 16 April 2018.
  10. "DVD AWARDS 2015 – XII edition: THE WINNERS". Il Cinema Ritrovato . Cineteca di Bologna. 2015. Retrieved 16 April 2018.
  11. "Il Cinema Ritrovato DVD Awards – XIII edition. The Winners". Il Cinema Ritrovato . Cineteca di Bologna. 2016. Retrieved 16 April 2018.
  12. "Il Cinema Ritrovato Dvd Awards 2017 EDITION XIV". Il Cinema Ritrovato . Cineteca di Bologna. 2017. Retrieved 16 April 2018.
  13. "Il Cinema Ritrovato DVD Awards 2018 XV edition – The winners". Il Cinema Ritrovato . Cineteca di Bologna. 2018. Retrieved 5 July 2018.