Last updated

Direct-to-video or straight-to-video refers to the release of a film, television series, short or special to the public immediately on home video formats rather than an initial theatrical release [1] or television premiere. This distribution strategy was prevalent before streaming platforms came to dominate the TV and movie distribution markets.


Because inferior sequels or prequels of larger-budget films may be released direct-to-video, review references to direct-to-video releases are often pejorative. [2] Direct-to-video release has also become profitable for independent filmmakers and smaller companies. [3] Some direct-to-video genre films (with a high-profile star) can generate well in excess of $50 million revenue worldwide. [4]

Reasons for releasing direct to video

A production studio may decide not to generally release a TV show or film for several possible reasons: a low budget, a lack of support from a TV network, negative reviews, its controversial nature, that it may appeal to a small niche market, or a simple lack of general public interest. Studios, limited in the annual number of films to which they grant cinematic releases, may choose to pull the completed film from the theaters, or never exhibit it in theaters at all. Studios then generate revenue through video sales and rentals. [5] Direct-to-video films are marketed mostly through colorful box covers, instead of advertising, and are not covered by publications like Leonard Maltin's Movie Guide . [6]

The first direct-to-video release to go into production was E. Nick: A Legend in His Own Mind in 1984 produced by CineTel Films. [7] [8]

Direct-to-video releases have historically carried a stigma of lower technical or artistic quality than theatrical releases. [9] Some films released direct-to-video are films which have been completed but were never released in movie theaters. This delay often occurs when a studio doubts a film's commercial prospects to justify a full cinema release or because its release window has closed. In film industry slang, such films are referred to as having been "vaulted". [10] Like B-movies shown in drive-in theaters in the mid-20th century, direct-to-video films employ both former stars and young actors who may become stars later. [6]

Direct-to-video releases can be done for films which cannot be shown theatrically due to controversial content, or because the cost involved in a theatrical release is beyond the releasing company. [11]

Animated sequels and feature-length episodes of animated series are also often released in this fashion. The first feature length animated film to be released direct-to-video in the United States was Tiny Toon Adventures: How I Spent My Vacation in 1992. [12] The practice of creating and releasing regular fiction specifically for video did not really take off until 1994, with Disney's The Return of Jafar and Universal's The Land Before Time II: The Great Valley Adventure , neither of which was intended to hit theaters at any point in its production. [11]

By 1994, an average of six new direct-to-video films appeared each week. Erotic thrillers and R-rated action films were the two most successful genres. [6] Family films became more important than such genres later in the 1990s, as retailers stocked more copies of blockbuster films instead of more titles. According to the Los Angeles Times : [13]

Often, the downfall of live-action family films at the box office is their strength on video. Their appeal is to families with young children, who may go to only a couple of movies per year but who will watch many videos multiple times. The teens and young adults who drive blockbuster box office statistics stay away from family movies.

Some horror films that are unsuccessful in theaters, like Witchcraft , begin successful direct-to-video series. [6] Studios may also release sequels or spin-offs to a successful live action film straight to DVD, due to a lack of budget in comparison to the original.


During the Golden Age of Porn in the 1970s, many pornographic films were released in theatres, some of which became some of the highest-grossing films in their release years, and in the pornography industry altogether. Toward the 1980s, porn began to shift to video release, because video allowed the producers to work on extremely low budgets and dispense with some film production elements, like scripts, and the increased privacy and convenience of the format change were preferred by the target market. During the late 1990s and onward, pornographers began releasing content on the Internet.

Physical format releases

Direct-to-video films screened theatrically

Occasionally, a studio that makes a movie that was prepared as a direct-to-video film will release it theatrically at the last minute due to the success of another film with a similar subject matter or an ultimate studio decision. Batman: Mask of the Phantasm is an example of this. However, despite the movie's critically acclaimed success, its box-office performance was very poor, which has been attributed to the last minute nature of its theatrical release. The film had much better commercial success in its subsequent home video releases.

Other times, a direct-to-video movie may get a limited theatrical screening in order to build excitement for the actual release of the video such as was done for 2010's Justice League: Crisis on Two Earths , and Planet Hulk , 2016's Batman: The Killing Joke [14] or 2013's Sharknado . In some cases, other direct-to-video films can also be theatrically released in other countries.

Direct-to-disc or DVD premiere

As DVDs gradually replaced VHS videocassettes, the term "direct-to-DVD" replaced "direct-to-video" in some instances. [15] However, the word "video" does not necessarily refer to videocassettes. Many publications continue to use the term "direct-to-video" for DVDs or Blu-rays. Both disc-based release types may also be referred to as "direct-to-disc". A new term sometimes used is "DVD premiere" (DVDP). [16] Such films can cost as little as $20 million, [4] about a third of the average cost of a Hollywood release. [17] According to Variety, American Pie: Band Camp sold a million copies in one week, despite retaining only two actors from the original trilogy. [18]

Some direct-to-DVD releases recently have tended to feature actors who were formerly bankable stars. In 2005, salaries for some of these direct-to-DVD actors in the multimillion-dollar range from $2 to $4 million (Jean-Claude Van Damme) and $4.5 to $10 million (Steven Seagal), in some cases exceeding the actors' theatrical rates. [4]

Digital releases

With the increasing prominence of digital distribution platforms in the 2000s and 2010s, direct-to-digital releases began to emerge alongside, or in lieu of home video. In November 2007, Ed Burns' Purple Violets became the first film to "premiere" exclusively for sale on iTunes Store, being exclusive to the platform for a month exclusively. It had premiered at the Tribeca Film Festival in April, where it was reviewed positively, but only received modest distribution offers. [19] [20] At the time, it was not very common for consumers to make digital movie purchases. [21]

As part of a push by the service towards original content, the subscription video on demand service Netflix began to acquire feature films for distribution on its service in the 2010s, including the 2013 documentary The Square , [22] and its first feature film in 2015 — Beasts of No Nation . [23] Netflix pursued a simultaneous release strategy for its films, partnering with a distributor for a limited theatrical release (in order to maintain eligibility for awards requiring theatrical release, such as the Academy Awards) simultaneous with their availability to subscribers. As this practice violates the traditional release windows mandated by the cinema industry, major chains have typically declined to screen the films. [24] [25] Since 2018, Netflix has partially backpedaled from this strategy, giving its films a one-month theatrical run before their premiere on the Netflix service. [26] [27]

Unique circumstances have also resulted in direct-to-digital releases, sometimes alongside a limited theatrical release; the 2014 film The Interview was released simultaneously on digital and at selected cinemas, after major chains dropped the film due to terrorist threats by a hacking group believed to have ties to North Korea (whose regime is satirized in the film). The group had also leaked confidential data from the internal servers of the film's distributor, Sony Pictures. [28] [29]

The COVID-19 pandemic resulted in worldwide closures of cinemas due to economic restrictions and guidance against public gatherings, which prompted direct-to-digital releases for several major films; the Chinese film Lost in Russia was acquired by ByteDance for 630 million yuan (almost 100 million in US dollars) and streamed on its platforms (including TikTok) for free in lieu of a theatrical release, as part of a larger relationship with the company and the film's distributor Huanxi Media. [30] A number of U.S. films were shifted directly to video-on-demand rentals in lieu of a theatrical release, [31] [32] [33] while some have been sold directly to subscription services, including Disney+, [34] Max, [35] Netflix, [36] and Amazon Prime Video. [37]

OVA and V-Cinema in Japan

OV ("original video") are movies made for direct-to-video release in the Japanese market. OVA ("original video animation") [38] is distinguished from OVM ("original video movies") or V-Cinema, which usually refer to non-animated works. Different production studios may use other labels like "V drama".

The OVA market developed in the mid-1980s. [39] The lax restrictions and censorship in comparison to broadcast television appealed to filmmakers, allowing them to include more controversial content, as the films did not need to rely on sponsored advertisements for financial support. The result was animated films with greater sexual, violent, or political content. [39] The market continued to expand during the Japanese asset price bubble and began to decline with the collapse of the bubble in the late 1980s and early 1990s. [38]

With the rise of VHS home video and the decline of the Japanese economy in the late 1980s, film studios struggled to recoup investments on big-budget films.[ citation needed ] Inspired by the success of OVAs, Toei released its first V-Cinema, Crime Hunter , in March 1989. Following Toei's success, other studios began to release a slew of direct-to-video movies. Relaxed censorship in V-Cinema gave way to the premier and rise of expressive auteur directors such as Takashi Miike, Hideo Nakata, Shinji Aoyama, and Kiyoshi Kurosawa. [40] [41] As the release of these titles were outside of usual distribution, studios and directors worked quickly to capitalize on niche markets or upcoming and current trends to increase financial returns. [42] This period of history in Japanese cinema has been described by film journalist Tom Mes as "a far more diverse and vibrant film scene [than previous eras]". [41] By 1995, the V-cinema industry was in decline, [40] but the explosion in quantity and variety of such movies established and cemented genres like J-horror and yakuza films. [42]

The success of OVAs and V-Cinema has resulted in less stigma regarding direct-to-video releases in Japan than in western markets. [2] While there are still OVA and V-Cinema releases, the market is considerably smaller than it was in the 1980s and 1990s.[ citation needed ]

"Online Big Movies" in China

In the mid-to-late 2010s, low-budget B-movies that are made exclusively for digital streaming became a trend in China; these films are called "Online Big Movies" ("OBM"; 网络大电影 in Chinese, or simply 网大). [43] The word "Big" in the name was meant to be sardonic, as most of these films are often made on a very low budget [44] and featuring mostly unknown cast members and sometimes nonprofessional actors. [43] However, increasingly, the budget for these films have been slowly climbing up, due to the success of these films on digital distribution platforms; [45] [46] the budget for these films can now range from less than 1 million yuan to upwards of 10 or 20 million yuan. Although these "Online Big Movies" rarely feature well-known actors, in recent years, many "Online Big Movies" have hired veteran actors from Hong Kong action cinema and Taiwanese cinema to join its cast. [47] These movies are also to be differentiated from films that are made for theatrical release but were later acquired by digital streaming services, in that these "Online Big Movies" are produced by internet companies with the sole intent of digital release.

In additional to the digital distribution of these films in China, many of the "Online Big Movies" have also been released on digital platforms outside of China, such as on YouTube. Several YouTube channels, such as Q1Q2 Movie Channel Official [48] and YOUKU MOVIE [49] are popular channels that distributes these "Online Big Movies".

See also

Related Research Articles

A television film, alternatively known as a television movie, made-for-TV film/movie, telefilm, telemovie or TV film/movie, is a feature-length film that is produced and originally distributed by or to a television network, in contrast to theatrical films made for initial showing in movie theaters, and direct-to-video films made for initial release on home video formats. In certain cases, such films may also be referred to and shown as a miniseries, which typically indicates a film that has been divided into multiple parts or a series that contains a predetermined, limited number of episodes.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Independent film</span> Film done outside of the major film studio system

An independent film, independent movie, indie film, or indie movie is a feature film or short film that is produced outside the major film studio system in addition to being produced and distributed by independent entertainment companies. Independent films are sometimes distinguishable by their content and style and how the filmmakers' artistic vision is realized. Sometimes, independent films are made with considerably lower budgets than major studio films.

A box-office bomb, box-office flop, box-office failure, or box-office disaster is a film that is unprofitable or considered highly unsuccessful during its theatrical run. Although any film for which the production budget, marketing, and distribution costs combined exceed the revenue after release has technically "bombed", the term is more frequently used for major studio releases which were highly anticipated, extensively marketed, and expensive to produce, and ultimately failed commercially.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">2929 Entertainment</span> American mass media company

2929 Entertainment, LLC. is an American integrated media and entertainment company co-founded by billionaire entrepreneurs Todd Wagner and Mark Cuban. 2929 maintains companies and interests across several industries including entertainment development and packaging, film and television production and distribution, digital and broadcast syndication, theatrical exhibition, and home entertainment.

Nickelodeon Movies is an American film production company owned by Paramount Global. Originally founded in 1995, it serves as both the film production arm of the American children's network Nickelodeon and the family film distribution label of Paramount Pictures, operating under its Paramount Players division.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">20th Century Home Entertainment</span> American home video distributor

20th Century Home Entertainment is a home video brand label of Walt Disney Studios Home Entertainment that distributes films produced by 20th Century Studios, Searchlight Pictures, and 20th Century Animation, and television series by 20th Television, Searchlight Television, 20th Television Animation, and FX Productions in home entertainment formats.

The Asylum is an American independent film production and distribution company that focuses on low-budget, direct-to-video films. It is notorious for producing titles that capitalize on productions by major studios, often using film titles and scripts very similar to those of current blockbusters in order to lure customers. These titles have been dubbed "mockbusters" by the press. Its titles are distributed by Echo Bridge Home Entertainment, GT Media, and as of 2015, Cineverse.

Film distribution, also called film exhibition or film distribution and exhibition, is the process of making a movie available for viewing to an audience. This is normally the task of a professional film distributor, who would determine the marketing and release strategy for the film, the media by which a film is to be exhibited or made available for viewing and other matters. The film may be exhibited directly to the public either through a movie theater or television, or personal home viewing. For commercial projects, film distribution is usually accompanied by film promotion.

Pirated movie release types are the different types of pirated movies and television series that are shared on the Internet. The quality and popularity of pirated movie release types vary widely, due to the different sources and methods used for acquiring the video content, the development and adoption of encoding formats, and differing preferences on the part of suppliers and end users as to quality and size-efficiency.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Freestyle Releasing</span> American independent film distributor

Freestyle Releasing, LLC is an American independent film distribution company based in Los Angeles, California, founded in 2004, specializing in releasing low budget films theatrically. Unlike most distributors, Freestyle Releasing does not put up any prints and advertising money for its releases, leaving advertising costs to production companies.

Lionsgate Films is a Canadian-American film production and film distribution studio founded in Canada, now a division of Lionsgate Entertainment headquartered in Santa Monica. It is the largest and most successful mini-major film studio in North America.

A simultaneous release, also known as a day-and-date release, is the release of a film on multiple platforms—most commonly theatrical and home video—on the exact same day, or in very close proximity to each other. This is in contrast to the industry standard of having a window of exclusivity between the theatrical and home video releases.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">B movies since the 1980s</span>

Cinematic exhibition of the B movie, defined as a relatively low-cost genre film, has declined substantially from the early 1980s to the present. Spurred by the historic success of several big-budget movies with B-style themes beginning in the mid-1970s, the major Hollywood studios moved progressively into the production of A-grade films in genres that had long been low-budget territory. With the majors also adopting exploitation-derived methods of booking and marketing, B movies began to be squeezed out of the commercial arena. The advent of digital cinema in the new millennium appeared to open up new opportunities for the distribution of inexpensive genre movies.

Disneynature is an independent film studio that specializes in the production of nature documentary films for Walt Disney Studios, a division of Disney Entertainment, which is owned by The Walt Disney Company. The production company was founded on April 21, 2008, and is headquartered in Paris, France.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Home video</span> Prerecorded video media that are either sold, rented, or streamed for home entertainment

Home video is recorded media sold or rented for home viewing. The term originates from the VHS and Betamax era, when the predominant medium was videotapes, but has carried over to optical disc formats such as DVD and Blu-ray. In a different usage, "home video" refers to amateur video recordings, also known as home movies. Another format Laserdisc is also a home video format released in 1978 which never caught on market due to high cost of the players and their inability to record TV programs unlike the VHS but it gained interests from movie collectors.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Paramount Animation</span> Animated media production division of Paramount Pictures

Paramount Animation is an American animation studio, serving as the animation division and label of Paramount Pictures, a subsidiary of Paramount Global. The division was founded on July 6, 2011, following the box office success of Paramount's own Rango and the end of their distribution deal with DreamWorks Animation in 2012.

<i>The Irishman</i> 2019 film by Martin Scorsese

The Irishman is a 2019 American epic gangster film directed and produced by Martin Scorsese from a screenplay by Steven Zaillian, based on the 2004 book I Heard You Paint Houses by Charles Brandt. It stars Robert De Niro, Al Pacino, and Joe Pesci, with Ray Romano, Bobby Cannavale, Anna Paquin, Stephen Graham, Stephanie Kurtzuba, Jesse Plemons, and Harvey Keitel in supporting roles. The film follows Frank Sheeran, a truck driver who becomes a hitman involved with mobster Russell Bufalino (Pesci) and his crime family before later working for the powerful Teamster Jimmy Hoffa (Pacino). The film marked the ninth collaboration between Scorsese and De Niro, in addition to Scorsese's fourth collaboration with Joe Pesci; his first with Al Pacino; the fourth collaboration between Pacino and De Niro; and the first collaboration between Pacino and Pesci altogether.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on cinema</span> Impact of COVID-19 on cinematic industry

The COVID-19 pandemic had a negative effect on certain films in the early 2020s, mirroring its impacts across all arts sectors. Across the world, and to varying degrees, cinemas and movie theaters were closed, festivals were cancelled or postponed, and film releases were moved to future dates or delayed indefinitely. Due to cinemas and movie theaters closing, the global box office dropped by billions of dollars, streaming saw a significant increase in popularity, and the stock of film exhibitors dropped dramatically. Many blockbusters originally scheduled to be released by mid-March 2020 were postponed or canceled around the world, with film productions also being halted. This in turn created openings for independent cinema productions to receive wider exposure.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Giant Pictures</span> American film distribution company

Giant Pictures is an American independent film distribution company founded by Nick Savva and Jeff Stabenau with offices in New York City and Los Angeles. The company releases feature films, documentaries and series on streaming platforms, with an emphasis on flexibility and customization for filmmakers. Giant Pictures owns and operates specialty theatrical label, Drafthouse Films. Giant is the distribution and technology partner of the Tribeca Festival.


  1. Alvarez, Max J (30 December 1994). "Big Names Look For Bright Lights In Videoland". Chicago Tribune . Retrieved 7 December 2010.
  2. 1 2 Clements, Jonathan; McCarthy, Helen (9 February 2015). The Anime Encyclopedia, 3rd Revised Edition: A Century of Japanese Animation (Third ed.). Stone Bridge Press. pp. 195–196. ISBN   978-1-61172-018-1.
  3. Lerman, Laurence (17 September 2001). "Independents' 'Bread and Butter'". Video Business. 21 (38). Section: Video Premieres.
  4. 1 2 3 DVD Exclusive Online. "Stars, Money Migrate To DVDP (archived)". Archived from the original on 15 May 2006. Retrieved 13 January 2007.
  5. Barlow, Aaron (2005). The DVD Revolution: Movies, Culture, and Technology. Praeger/Greenwood. pp.  19. ISBN   0-275-98387-0. Films that flop in theaters or which are never theatrically released can prove profitable through longer-term video and DVD sales.
  6. 1 2 3 4 Alvarez, Max J. (30 December 1994). "Big Names Look For Bright Lights In Videoland". Chicago Tribune . Retrieved 22 July 2018.
  7. Kleiman, Rena (28 November 1983). "Premiere made-for-home-video feature firmed for production". The Hollywood Reporter . p. 1.
  8. "E. Nick". IMDb. Retrieved 30 January 2024.
  9. Goodale, Gloria (23 October 1998). "'Straight to Video' Picks up Steam". Christian Science Monitor .
  10. Bernstein, Adam (12 December 2004). "Silent Films Speak Loudly for Hughes". The Washington Post . TVWeek p. Y06.
  11. 1 2 "More Films Jump Straight to DVD". USA Today . 6 August 2003. Section: Life, p. 03d.
  12. Connors, Martin; Jim Craddock (2000), "Tiny Toon Adventures: How I Spent My Vacation", VideoHound's Golden Movie Retriever 2000, Farmington Hills: Thomson Gale, p.  923, ISBN   978-1-57859-042-1
  13. Matzer, Marla (16 April 1997). "Direct-to-Video Family Films Are Hitting Home". Los Angeles Times . Retrieved 4 June 2011.
  14. Justice League: Crisis on Two Earths gets big-screen Premieres on Two Coasts – – February 5, 2010
  15. Berardinelli, James. "DVD's Scarlet Letter" . Retrieved 13 January 2007.
  16. For one example of the term "DVDP" in use, see "Paramount grows DVDP slate". Archived from the original on 14 May 2006. Retrieved 13 January 2007.
  17. Mueller, Anne (23 June 2011). "Why Movies Cost So Much to Make". Investopedia US. IAC. Retrieved 24 July 2014.. As of 2007, the average production cost was $65 million, and distribution and marketing added about another $35 million, for a total of around $100 million
  18. Hettrick, Scott (2 January 2005). "Spending on DVDs up 10%". Variety . Archived from the original on 5 November 2012. Retrieved 13 January 2007.
  19. Halbfinger, David M. (23 October 2007). "Facing Competition, iTunes Revs Up Its Film Section". The New York Times . Retrieved 25 August 2011.
  20. Graser, Marc (25 October 2007). "Ed Burns offers 'Violets' on iTunes: Feature to skip theatrical release". Variety . Archived from the original on 16 May 2012. Retrieved 25 August 2011.
  21. Kirsner, Scott (2 November 2007). "Studio's Digital Dilemma: Apple Calling Shots as Biz Tries To Control Market". Variety . Archived from the original on 11 November 2010. Retrieved 26 August 2011.
  22. Tibken, Shara. "Netflix gets its first Oscars nod with 'The Square'". CNET. Retrieved 6 May 2020.
  23. McNary, Dave (2 March 2015). "Netflix Makes Another Bigscreen Splash With 'Beasts of No Nation'". Variety. Retrieved 3 March 2015.
  24. Fleming, Mike Jr. (7 July 2015). "Netflix Dates First Feature Film Slate With Idris Elba, Cary Fukunaga, Adam Sandler, Harvey Weinstein, Paul Reubens & Judd Apatow". Deadline. Retrieved 17 March 2020.
  25. "Movie Chains Balk At Netflix's Plan For Simultaneous Release". Retrieved 17 March 2020.
  26. Lee, Dami (27 August 2019). "Netflix will release 10 fall films in theaters before they stream". The Verge. Retrieved 18 March 2020.
  27. Lang, Brent (4 March 2019). "Netflix Responds to Steven Spielberg's Push to Bar It From Oscars". Variety. Retrieved 3 April 2019.
  28. Wallenstein, Andrew (24 December 2014). "What is Kernel? The Stealth Startup Sony Tapped to Stream 'The Interview' (Exclusive)". Variety. Retrieved 17 March 2020.
  29. "'The Interview' Release Back On For Christmas Day – Update". Deadline Hollywood. December 23, 2014. Archived from the original on December 23, 2014. Retrieved December 23, 2014.
  30. Frater, Patrick (24 January 2020). "China's 'Lost in Russia' Switches to Unprecedented Online Release in Response to Coronavirus Outbreak". Variety. Retrieved 6 May 2020.
  31. D'Alessandro, Anthony (14 April 2020). "'Trolls World Tour': Drive-In Theaters Deliver What They Can During COVID-19 Exhibition Shutdown – Easter Weekend 2020 Box Office". Deadline. Retrieved 14 April 2020.
  32. D'Alessandro, Anthony (21 April 2020). "'Scoob!' To Skip Theaters & Head Into Homes; How Director Tony Cervone Got Animated Pic Across The Finish Line In COVID-19 Climate". Deadline Hollywood. Retrieved 21 April 2020.
  33. N'Dukao, Amanda (4 May 2020). "Focus Features Sets Digital Release For 'The High Note' Starring Tracee Ellis Ross & Dakota Johnson". Deadline Hollywood. Retrieved 5 May 2020.
  34. Spangler, Todd (17 April 2020). "'Artemis Fowl' Premiere Date on Disney Plus Set as Movie Goes Direct-to-Streaming". Variety. Retrieved 6 May 2020.
  35. D'Alessandro, Anthony (27 April 2020). "Seth Rogen Comedy 'An American Pickle' Jumps From Sony To HBO Max". Deadline Hollywood. Retrieved 27 April 2020.
  36. D'Alessandro, Anthony (20 March 2020). "Kumail Nanjiani & Issa Rae Comedy 'The Lovebirds' To Nest At Netflix". Deadline. Retrieved 6 May 2020.
  37. D'Alessandro, Anthony (8 April 2020). "'My Spy': STX Dave Bautista Action Comedy Acquired By Amazon Studios For Streaming". Deadline. Retrieved 6 May 2020.
  38. 1 2 DustinKop (12 February 2016). "A Look at the 1980's Anime OVA Legacy". The Artifice. Archived from the original on 30 September 2020. Retrieved 10 February 2021.
  39. 1 2 Sevakis, Justin. "Why Did So Many OVA Series End Prematurely?". Anime News Network. Retrieved 10 February 2021.
  40. 1 2 Balmont, James. "How V-Cinema sparked a Japanese filmmaking revolution". Little White Lies . Retrieved 10 February 2021.
  41. 1 2 Mes, Tom. "The V-Cinema Notebook, Part 1". Midnight Eye . Retrieved 10 February 2021.
  42. 1 2 Macias, Patrick (15 November 2019). "The Harajuku Line: Forgotten Fashion Monsters of Japanese V-Cinema". Medium . Retrieved 10 February 2021.
  43. 1 2 "你可能没注意到的网络大电影正在崛起".
  44. "低成本网络大电影的制作秘籍". Archived from the original on 14 April 2021. Retrieved 14 April 2021.
  45. "预算占比30%,投入近百万:网络大电影进入"营销时代"".
  46. "网络大电影"爆发" 市场规模有望达10亿". Sohu .
  47. "他们曾经都大红大紫过,如今沦落到拍网络电影令人唏嘘". Sohu .
  48. "Q1Q2 Movie Channel Official". YouTube .
  49. "YOUKU MOVIE". YouTube .

Further reading