Pornography

Last updated

"XXX" is often used to designate pornographic material. XXX P icon.png
"XXX" is often used to designate pornographic material.

Pornography (often shortened to porn or porno) is the portrayal of sexual subject matter for the exclusive purpose of sexual arousal. [1] A distinction could be drawn between uncensored explicit or hardcore erotic art, and pornography. [2] Pornography may be presented in a variety of media, including magazines, animation, writing, film, video, and video games. The term does not include live exhibitions like sex shows and striptease. The primary subjects of present-day pornographic depictions are pornographic models, who pose for still photographs, and pornographic actors who engage in filmed sex acts.

Contents

Various groups within society have considered depictions of a sexual nature immoral, addictive, and noxious, labeling them pornographic, and attempting to have them suppressed under obscenity laws, censored or made illegal. Such grounds, and even the definition of pornography, have differed in various historical, cultural, and national contexts. [3] In the late 19th century, various films by Thomas Edison were denounced as obscene in the United States, whereas Eugene Pirou's Le Coucher de la Mariée became very popular in France. [4] [5] Social attitudes towards the discussion and presentation of sexuality have become more tolerant in Western countries, and legal definitions of obscenity have become more limited, beginning in 1969 with Blue Movie by Andy Warhol, the first adult erotic film depicting explicit sexual intercourse to receive wide theatrical release in the United States. It was followed by the Golden Age of Porn (1969–1984), in which the best quality pornographic films became part of mainstream culture. [6] [7] [8]

Top keywords searched online for pornography. Top Keywords Searched Online in Pornography.png
Top keywords searched online for pornography.

A growing industry for the production and consumption of pornography developed in the latter half of the 20th century. The introduction of home video and the Internet saw a boom in the worldwide porn industry that generates billions of dollars annually. [9] Commercialized pornography accounts for over US$2.5 billion in the United States alone, [10] including the production of various media and associated products and services. The porn industry is between $10–$12 billion in the U.S. [11] In 2006, the world pornography revenue was 97 billion dollars. [12] This industry employs thousands of performers along with support and production staff. It is also followed by dedicated industry publications and trade groups, award shows such as the AVN Awards, as well as the mainstream press, private organizations (watchdog groups), government agencies, and political organizations. [13] Videos involving non-consensual content and cybersex trafficking have been hosted on popular pornography sites in the 21st century. [14] [15] [16] [17]

Etymology

The word pornography was coined from the ancient Greek words πόρνη (pórnē "prostitute" and πορνεία porneía "prostitution" [18] ), and γράφειν (gráphein "to write or to record", derived meaning "illustration", as in "graph"), and the suffix -ία (-ia, meaning "state of", "property of", or "place of"), thus meaning "a written description or illustration of prostitutes or prostitution". No date is known for the first use of the word in Greek; the earliest attested, most related word one could find in Greek, is πορνογράφος , pornográphos, i.e. "someone writing about harlots", in the Deipnosophists of Athenaeus. [19] [20] The Modern Greek word pornographia (πορνογραφία) is a reborrowing of the French pornographie. [21]

"Pornographie" was in use in the French language during the 1800s. The word did not enter the English language as the familiar word until 1857 [22] or as a French import in New Orleans in 1842. [23] The word was originally introduced by classical scholars as "a bookish, and therefore nonoffensive, term for writing about prostitutes", [24] but its meaning was quickly expanded to include all forms of "objectionable or obscene material in art and literature". [24] As early as 1864, Webster's Dictionary defined the word as "a licentious painting", [24] and the Oxford English Dictionary definition is from obscene painting (1842), description of obscene matters, obscene publication (1977 or earlier). [25] The more inclusive word erotica , sometimes used as a synonym for "pornography", is derived from the feminine form of the ancient Greek adjective ἐρωτικός (erōtikós), derived from ἔρως (érōs), which refers to lust and sexual love. [24] In informal language, pornography is often abbreviated to porn or porno.

History

Erotic scene on the rim of an Attic red-figure kylix, c. 510 BC. Erotic scenes Louvre G13 n4.jpg
Erotic scene on the rim of an Attic red-figure kylix, c. 510 BC.

Depictions of a sexual nature have existed since prehistoric times, as seen in the Venus figurines and rock art. [26] A vast number of artifacts have been discovered from ancient Mesopotamia depicting explicit heterosexual sex. [27] [28]

Glyptic art from the Sumerian Early Dynastic Period frequently shows scenes of frontal sex in the missionary position. [27] In Mesopotamian votive plaques from the early second millennium BC, the man is usually shown entering the woman from behind while she bends over, drinking beer through a straw. [27] Middle Assyrian lead votive figurines often represent the man standing and penetrating the woman as she rests on top of an altar. [27] Scholars have traditionally interpreted all these depictions as scenes of ritual sex, [27] but they are more likely to be associated with the cult of Inanna, the goddess of sex and prostitution. [27] Many sexually explicit images were found in the temple of Inanna at Assur, [27] which also contained models of male and female sexual organs. [27]

Depictions of sexual intercourse were not part of the general repertory of ancient Egyptian formal art, [29] but rudimentary sketches of heterosexual intercourse have been found on pottery fragments and in graffiti. [29] The final two thirds of the Turin Erotic Papyrus (Papyrus 55001), an Egyptian papyrus scroll discovered at Deir el-Medina, [30] [29] consist of a series of twelve vignettes showing men and women in various sexual positions. [30] The scroll was probably painted in the Ramesside period (1292–1075 BC) [30] and its high artistic quality indicates that it was produced for a wealthy audience. [30] No other similar scrolls have yet been discovered. [29]

Oil lamp artifact depicting the doggy style sexual position LampArtifactDoggystyle.jpg
Oil lamp artifact depicting the doggy style sexual position

Fanny Hill (1748) is considered "the first original English prose pornography, and the first pornography to use the form of the novel." [31] It is an erotic novel by John Cleland first published in England as Memoirs of a Woman of Pleasure. [32] [33] It is one of the most prosecuted and banned books in history. [34] The authors were charged with "corrupting the King's subjects."

When large-scale excavations of Pompeii were undertaken in the 1860s, much of the erotic art of the Romans came to light, shocking the Victorians who saw themselves as the intellectual heirs of the Roman Empire. They did not know what to do with the frank depictions of sexuality and endeavored to hide them away from everyone but upper-class scholars. The moveable objects were locked away in the Secret Museum in Naples and what could not be removed was covered and cordoned off as to not corrupt the sensibilities of women, children, and the working classes. [35]

After the modern invention of photography, photographic pornography was also born. The Parisian demimonde included Napoleon III's minister, Charles de Morny, who was an early patron that displayed photos at large gatherings. [36]

The world's first law criminalizing pornography was the English Obscene Publications Act 1857 enacted at the urging of the Society for the Suppression of Vice. [37] The Act, which applied to the United Kingdom and Ireland, made the sale of obscene material a statutory offence, giving the courts power to seize and destroy offending material. The American equivalent was the Comstock Act of 1873 [38] [39] which made it illegal to send any "obscene, lewd, and/or lascivious" materials through the mail. The English Act did not apply to Scotland, where the common law continued to apply. However, neither the English nor the United States Act defined what constituted "obscene", leaving this for the courts to determine.

Before the English Act, the publication of obscene material was treated as a common law misdemeanour [40] and effectively prosecuting authors and publishers was difficult even in cases where the material was clearly intended as pornography. Although nineteenth-century legislation eventually outlawed the publication, retail, and trafficking of certain writings and images regarded as pornographic and would order the destruction of shop and warehouse stock meant for sale, the private possession of and viewing of (some forms of) pornography was not made an offence until the twentieth century. [41]

Historians have explored the role of pornography in social history and the history of morality. [42] The Victorian attitude that pornography was for a select few can be seen in the wording of the Hicklin test stemming from a court case in 1868 where it asks, "whether the tendency of the matter charged as obscenity is to deprave and corrupt those whose minds are open to such immoral influences." Although they were suppressed, depictions of erotic imagery were common throughout history. [43]

Pornographic film production commenced almost immediately after the invention of the motion picture in 1895. A pioneer of the motion picture camera, Thomas Edison, released various films which were denounced as obscene in late 19th century America. [44] [45] Two of the earliest pioneers were Eugène Pirou and Albert Kirchner. Kirchner directed the earliest surviving pornographic film for Pirou under the trade name "Léar". The 1896 film Le Coucher de la Mariée showed Louise Willy performing a striptease. Pirou's film inspired a genre of risqué French films showing women disrobing and other filmmakers realised profits could be made from such films. [46] [47]

Marquee at Pilgrim Theatre on Washington Street showing Dr. Sex (1964) Marquee at Pilgrim Theatre on Washington Street (11223444063).jpg
Marquee at Pilgrim Theatre on Washington Street showing Dr. Sex (1964)

Sexually explicit films opened producers and distributors to prosecution. Such films were produced illicitly by amateurs, starting in the 1920s, primarily in France and the United States. Processing the film was risky as was their distribution. Distribution was strictly private. [48] [49] In 1969, Denmark became the first country to abolish censorship, thereby decriminalizing pornography, which led to an explosion in investment and of commercially produced pornography. However, it continued to be banned in other countries, and had to be smuggled in, where it was sold "under the counter" or (sometimes) shown in "members only" cinema clubs. [48] Nonetheless, and also in 1969, Blue Movie by Andy Warhol, was the first adult erotic film depicting explicit sexual intercourse to receive wide theatrical release in the United States. [6] [7] [8] The film was a seminal film in the Golden Age of Porn and, according to Warhol, a major influence in the making of Last Tango in Paris , an internationally controversial erotic drama film, starring Marlon Brando, and released a few years after Blue Movie was made. [7]

A selection of pornographic magazines confiscated by customs authorities in 1969. Aarre-Panula-1969.jpg
A selection of pornographic magazines confiscated by customs authorities in 1969.
Two porn actors preparing to shoot a scene for an adult film. Inkorrektes tournage1.jpg
Two porn actors preparing to shoot a scene for an adult film.

Data from 2015 suggests an increase in pornography viewing over the past few decades, and this has been attributed to the growth of Internet pornography since widespread public access to the World Wide Web in the late 1990s. [50] Through the 2010s, many pornographic production companies and top pornographic websites [51] —such as Pornhub, RedTube and YouPorn—were acquired by MindGeek, which has been described as "a monopoly". [52]

The scholarly study of pornography, notably in cultural studies, is limited, perhaps due to the controversy about the topic in feminism. The first peer-reviewed academic journal about the study of pornography, Porn Studies , was published in 2014. [53]

Classification

Pornography is often distinguished from erotica, which consists of the portrayal of sexuality with high-art aspirations, focusing also on feelings and emotions, while pornography involves the depiction of acts in a sensational manner, with the entire focus on the physical act, so as to arouse quick intense reactions. [1] [54] [55] Pornography is generally classified as either softcore or hardcore. A pornographic work is characterized as hardcore if it has any hardcore content, no matter how small. Both forms of pornography generally contain nudity. Softcore pornography generally contains nudity or partial nudity in sexually suggestive situations, but without explicit sexual activity, sexual penetration or "extreme" fetishism, [56] while hardcore pornography may contain graphic sexual activity and visible penetration, [57] including unsimulated sex scenes.

Subgenres

Pornography encompasses a wide variety of genres. Pornography featuring heterosexual acts composes the bulk of pornography and is "centred and invisible", marking the industry as heteronormative. However, a substantial portion of pornography is not normative, featuring more nonconventional forms of scenarios and sexual activity such as "'fat' porn, amateur porn, disabled porn, porn produced by women, queer porn, BDSM, and body modification." [58]

Pornography can be classified according to the physical characteristics of the participants, fetish, sexual orientation, etc., as well as the types of sexual activity featured. Reality and voyeur pornography, animated videos, and legally prohibited acts also influence the classification of pornography. Pornography may fall into more than one genre. Some examples of pornography genres:

Commercialism

Economics

Revenues of the adult industry in the United States are difficult to determine. In 1970, a Federal study estimated that the total retail value of hardcore pornography in the United States was no more than $10 million. [59] In 1998, Forrester Research published a report on the online "adult content" industry estimating $750 million to $1 billion in annual revenue. Studies in 2001 put the total (including video, pay-per-view, Internet and magazines) between $2.6 billion and $3.9 billion. [10]

As of 2011, pornography is becoming one of the biggest businesses in the United States; billions of dollars are spent annually on the industry's cable and satellite networks, theaters, in-room hotel movies, phone sex, sex magazines, and Internet sites. [60]

As of 2014, the porn industry was believed to bring in more than $13 billion on a yearly basis in the United States. [61] CNBC has estimated that pornography was a $13 billion industry in the US, with $3,075 being spent on porn every second and a new porn video being produced every 39 minutes. [62]

A significant amount of pornographic video is shot in the San Fernando Valley, which has been a pioneering region for producing adult films since the 1970s, and has since become home for various models, actors/actresses, production companies, and other assorted businesses involved in the production and distribution of pornography.

The pornography industry has been considered influential in deciding format wars in media, including being a factor in the VHS vs. Betamax format war (the videotape format war) [63] [64] and in the Blu-ray vs. HD DVD format war (the high-def format war). [63] [64] [65]

Technology

Pornographers have taken advantage of each technological advance in the production and distribution of visual images. Pornography is considered a driving force in the development of technologies from the printing press, through photography (still and motion), to satellite TV, home video, other forms of video, and the Internet. [66]

With commercial availability of tiny cameras and wireless equipment, "voyeur" pornography established an audience. [67] [68] Mobile cameras are used to capture pornographic photos or videos, and forwarded as MMS, a practice known as sexting.

Computer-generated images and manipulations

Digital manipulation requires the use of source photographs, but some pornography is produced without human actors at all. The idea of completely computer-generated pornography was conceived very early as one of the most obvious areas of application for computer graphics and 3D rendering. Further advances in technology have allowed increasingly photorealistic 3D figures to be used in interactive pornography. [69] [70] [71]

Until the late 1990s, digitally manipulated pornography could not be produced cost-effectively. In the early 2000s, it became a growing segment, as the modelling and animation software matured and the rendering capabilities of computers improved. As of 2004, computer-generated pornography depicting situations involving children and sex with fictional characters, such as Lara Croft, is already produced on a limited scale. The October 2004 issue of Playboy featured topless pictures of the title character from the BloodRayne video game. [72]

3D pornography

The first pornographic film shot in 3D was 3D Sex and Zen: Extreme Ecstasy , released on 14 April 2011 in Hong Kong. [73]

Consumption

The vast majority of US men use porn. [74] [75] [76] [77] [78] [ excessive citations ] According to The Huffington Post, 70% of men and 30% of women watch porn. [79] Quite probably, the majority of US population between ages 18 and 35 use porn at least once a week. [80]

According to a study from 2002, the majority of Norwegian population uses pornography. [81]

A survey conducted in 2008 on the use of pornography in 18-26-year-old American men shows that 87% of the participants view pornography at least once a month and nearly half view it at least once a week. [82]

Production and distribution by region

A street stall in Hong Kong selling pornography. Street stall selling porn in Shamshuipo.jpg
A street stall in Hong Kong selling pornography.

The production and distribution of pornography are economic activities of some importance. The exact size of the economy of pornography and the influence that it has in political circles are matters of controversy.

In the United States, the sex film industry is centered in the San Fernando Valley of Los Angeles. An analysis by MetaCert, a company that specializes on internet safety, revealed that the United States was the country that hosted the most porn, accounting for 60 percent of all websites containing pornographic content. [83] [84] In Europe, Budapest is regarded as the industry center. [85] [86] [87]

Piracy, the illegal copying and distribution of material, is of great concern to the porn industry. [88] The industry is the subject of litigation and formalized anti-piracy efforts. [89] [90]

Viewing effects

Research concerning the effects of pornography is concerned with multiple outcomes. [91] Such research includes potential influences on rape, domestic violence, sexual dysfunction, difficulties with sexual relationships, and child sexual abuse. [92] While some literature reviews suggest that pornographic images and films can be addictive, insufficient evidence exists to draw conclusions. [93] [94] [95] [96] While it has not been proven that either porn or masturbation addiction exist, porn or masturbation compulsion probably exist. [97] [98] Several studies conclude the liberalization of porn in society may be associated with decreased rape and sexual violence rates, while others suggest no effect, or are inconclusive. [99] [100] [101] [102] [103] [104] [105] [106] [ excessive citations ]

Laws and regulations

World map of pornography (18+) laws
.mw-parser-output .legend{page-break-inside:avoid;break-inside:avoid-column}.mw-parser-output .legend-color{display:inline-block;min-width:1.25em;height:1.25em;line-height:1.25;margin:1px 0;text-align:center;border:1px solid black;background-color:transparent;color:black}.mw-parser-output .legend-text{}
Pornography legal
Pornography legal, but under some restrictions
Pornography illegal
Data unavailable Pornography laws.svg
World map of pornography (18+) laws
  Pornography legal
  Pornography legal, but under some restrictions
  Pornography illegal
  Data unavailable

The legal status of pornography varies widely from country to country. [107] [108] Regulating hardcore pornography is more common than regulating softcore pornography. [109] Child pornography is illegal in almost all countries, [110] [111] and some countries have restrictions on rape pornography or animal pornography. [111]

Disseminating pornography to a minor is generally illegal. [111] There are various attempts to restrict minors' access to pornography, [111] [112] including protocols for pornographic magazines or stores. [111] One way this may be bypassed by minors is that many online sites only require the user to tell the website they are a certain age, and no other age verification is required. [112] The Child Online Protection Act would have restricted access by minors to any material on the Internet defined as harmful to them, but it did not take effect. [112]

Pornographic entertainment on display in a sex shop window, where there is usually a minimum age to go into pornographic stores Peep Show by David Shankbone.jpg
Pornographic entertainment on display in a sex shop window, where there is usually a minimum age to go into pornographic stores

The adult film industry regulations in California require that all actors and actresses practice safe sex using condoms. It is rare to see condom use in pornography. [113] Since porn does better financially when actors are unprotected, many companies film in other states. Miami is a major area for amateur porn. Twitter plays a big part in an actor's success: because Twitter does not censor content, actors can post freely without having to self-censor, unlike on Instagram and on Facebook. [114]

In the United States, a person receiving unwanted commercial mail he or she deems pornographic (or otherwise offensive) may obtain a Prohibitory Order, [115] either against all mail from a particular sender, or against all sexually explicit mail, by applying to the United States Postal Service.

Some people, including pornography producer Larry Flynt and the writer Salman Rushdie, [116] have argued that pornography is vital to freedom and that a free and civilized society should be judged by its willingness to accept pornography.

The UK government has criminalized possession of what it terms "extreme pornography", following the highly publicized murder of Jane Longhurst.

Pornography can infringe into basic human rights of those involved, especially when sexual consent was not obtained. For example, revenge porn is a phenomenon where disgruntled sexual partners release images or video footage of intimate sexual activity, usually on the internet, without authorization from the other person. [117] Lawmakers have also raised concerns about "upskirt" photos taken of women without their consent. In many countries there has been a demand to make such activities specifically illegal carrying higher punishments than mere breach of privacy or image rights, or circulation of prurient material. [118] [119] As a result, some jurisdictions have enacted specific laws against "revenge porn". [120]

What is not pornography

In the U.S., a July 2014 criminal case decision in Massachusetts, Commonwealth v. Rex, 469 Mass. 36 (2014), [121] made a legal determination of what was not to be considered "pornography" and in this particular case "child pornography". [122] It was determined that photographs of naked children that were from sources such as National Geographic magazine, a sociology textbook, and a nudist catalog were not considered pornography in Massachusetts even while in the possession of a convicted and (at the time) incarcerated sex offender. [122]

Drawing the line depends on time and place; Occidental mainstream culture got increasingly "pornified" (i.e. tainted by pornographic themes and mainstream films got to include unsimulated sexual acts). [123]

In the United States, some courts have applied US copyright protection to pornographic materials. [124] [125]

Some courts have held that copyright protection effectively applies to works, whether they are obscene or not, [126] but not all courts have ruled the same way. [127] The copyright protection rights of pornography in the United States has again been challenged as late as February 2012. [124] [128]

STI prevention and birth control methods

According to the cast of the Netflix documentary "Hot Girls Wanted", most of the actors and actresses get screened for STIs every two weeks. However, it is not required for them to be on birth control. One actress in the film states that after partaking in a "Cream Pie" shot which involves ejaculation in the vagina, she was then instructed to purchase Plan B (emergency contraception pill) to protect herself from pregnancy. These shots pay more, which is why women will take the risk of falling pregnant. [129]

Views

A caricature on "the great epidemic of pornography", 19th-century French illustration La grande Epidemie de PORNOGRAPHIE.jpg
A caricature on "the great epidemic of pornography", 19th-century French illustration

Views and opinions of pornography come in a variety of forms and from a diversity of demographics and societal groups. Opposition of the subject generally, though not exclusively, [130] comes from three main sources: law, feminism and religion.

Feminist views

Many feminists, including Andrea Dworkin and Catharine MacKinnon, argue that all pornography is demeaning to women or that it contributes to violence against women, both in its production and in its consumption. The production of pornography, they argue, entails the physical, psychological, or economic coercion of the women who perform in it, and where they argue that the abuse and exploitation of women is rampant; in its consumption, they charge that pornography eroticizes the domination, humiliation and coercion of women, and reinforces sexual and cultural attitudes that are complicit in rape and sexual harassment. [131] [132] [133]

Sexual exclusionary feminists charge that pornography presents a severely distorted image of sexual relations, and reinforces sex myths; that it always shows women as readily available and desiring to engage in sex at any time, with any man, on men's terms, always responding positively to any advances men make. [134] They argue that because pornography often shows women enjoying and desiring to be violently attacked by men, saying "no" when they actually want sex, fighting back but then ending up enjoying the act—this can affect the public understanding of legal issues such as consent to sexual relations. [135]

Feminists "ranging from Betty Friedan and Kate Millett to Karen DeCrow, Wendy Kaminer and Jamaica Kincaid" supported the right to consume pornography. [136]

In contrast to these objections, other feminist scholars argue that the lesbian feminist movement in the 1980s was good for women in the porn industry. [137] As more women entered the developmental side of the industry, this allowed women to gear porn more towards women because they knew what women wanted, both for actresses and the audience. [137] This is believed to be a good thing because for such a long time, the porn industry has been directed by men for men. [137] This also sparked the arrival of making lesbian porn for lesbians instead of men. [137]

Furthermore, many feminists argue that the advent of VCR, home video, and affordable consumer video cameras allowed for the possibility of feminist pornography. [138] Consumer video made it possible for the distribution and consumption of video pornography to locate women as legitimate consumers of pornography. Tristan Taormino says that feminist porn is "all about creating a fair working environment and empowering everyone involved." [139] Feminist porn directors are interested in challenging representations of men and women, as well as providing sexually-empowering imagery that features many kinds of bodies. [140]

In a 1995 essay for The New Yorker , writer Susan Faludi argued that porn was one of the few industries where women enjoy a power advantage in the workplace. "'Actresses have the power,' Alec Metro, one of the men in line, ruefully noted of the X-rated industry. A former firefighter who claimed to have lost a bid for a job to affirmative action, Metro was already divining that porn might not be the ideal career choice for escaping the forces of what he called 'reverse discrimination.' Female performers can often dictate which male actors they will and will not work with. 'They make more money than us.' Porn—at least, porn produced for a heterosexual audience—is one of the few contemporary occupations where the pay gap operates in women's favor; the average actress makes fifty to a hundred per cent more money than her male counterpart. But then she is the object of desire; he is merely her appendage, the object of the object." [141]

Harry Brod offered a Marxist feminist view: "I would argue that sex seems overrated because men look to sex for fulfillment of nonsexual emotional needs, a quest doomed to failure. Part of the reason for this failure is the priority of quantity over quality of sex which comes with sexuality's commodification." [142]

Religious views

Religious organizations have been important in bringing about political action against pornography. [143] In the United States, religious beliefs affect the formation of political beliefs that concern pornography. [144]

According to Christianity Today, "[...] Protestant men today who attend church regularly are basically the only men in America still resisting the cultural norm of regularized pornography use." [74] A study by The Austin Institute for the Study of Family and Culture in the US found that of Christians that attend church, Protestants had a higher rate of viewing pornography in the last week than Catholics. [145]

Women in the industry

The 2012 study "Why Become a Pornography Actress?" [146] analyzed female pornographic film actresses and their reasons for choosing the occupation, finding that the primary reasons were money (53%), sex (27%), and attention (16%). [147] Respondents also stated the aspects of their work which they disliked. These included industry-associated people, e.g., co-workers, directors, producers, and agents, whose "attitudes, behaviors, and poor hygiene [were] difficult to handle within their work environment" or who were unscrupulous and unprofessional (39%); STD risk (29%); and exploitation within the industry (20%). [148]

See also

Related Research Articles

Erotica Category of sexually stimulating media

Erotica is any literary or artistic work that deals substantively with subject matter that is erotic, sexually stimulating or sexually arousing but is not generally considered to be pornographic. Erotic art may use any artistic form to depict erotic content, including painting, sculpture, drama, film or music. Erotic literature and erotic photography have become genres in their own right.

Radical feminism is a perspective within feminism that calls for a radical re-ordering of society in which male supremacy is eliminated in all social and economic contexts, while recognizing that women's experiences are also affected by other social divisions such as in race, class, and sexual orientation. The ideology and movement emerged in the 1960s.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Annie Sprinkle</span> American pornographic actress and sex educator

Annie M. Sprinkle is an American certified sexologist, performance artist, former sex worker, and advocate for sex work and health care. Sprinkle has worked as a prostitute, sex educator, feminist stripper, pornographic film actress, and sex film producer and director. In 1996, she became the first porn star to get a doctoral degree, earning a PhD in human sexuality from the Institute for Advanced Study of Human Sexuality in San Francisco. Identifying as ecosexual, Sprinkle is best known for her self-help style of pornography, teaching individuals about pleasure, and for her conventional pornographic film Deep Inside Annie Sprinkle (1981). Through the production of content, Sprinkle has contributed to feminist pornography and the larger social movement of feminism; she is also known for contributing to the rise of the post-porn movement and lesbian pornography. Sprinkle, a member of the LGBTQ+ community, married her long-time partner Beth Stephens in Canada on January 14, 2007.

Sex-positive feminism, also known as pro-sex feminism, sex-radical feminism, or sexually liberal feminism, is a feminist movement centering on the idea that sexual freedom is an essential component of women's freedom.

Catharine A. MacKinnon American feminist and legal activist

Catharine Alice MacKinnon is an American radical feminist legal scholar, activist, and author. She is the Elizabeth A. Long Professor of Law at the University of Michigan Law School, where she has been tenured since 1990, and the James Barr Ames Visiting Professor of Law at Harvard Law School. From 2008 to 2012, she was the special gender adviser to the Prosecutor of the International Criminal Court.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Opposition to pornography</span> Overview of the opposition to and protest against pornography

Reasons for opposition to pornography include religious objections and feminist concerns, as well as alleged harmful effects, such as pornography addiction. Pornography addiction is not a condition recognized by the DSM-5, or the ICD-11. Anti-pornography movements have allied disparate social activists in opposition to pornography, from social conservatives to harm reduction advocates. The definition of "pornography" varies between countries and movements, and many make distinctions between pornography, which they oppose, and erotica, which they consider acceptable. Sometimes opposition will deem certain forms of pornography more or less harmful, while others draw no such distinctions.

Rape pornography is a subgenre of pornography involving the description or depiction of rape. Such pornography either involves simulated rape, wherein sexually consenting adults feign rape, or it involves actual rape. Victims of actual rape may be coerced to feign consent such that the pornography produced deceptively appears as simulated rape or non-rape pornography. The depiction of rape in non-pornographic media is not considered rape pornography. Simulated scenes of rape and other forms of sexual violence have appeared in mainstream cinema, including rape and revenge films, almost since its advent.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Lesbian erotica</span> Visual art depiction of female-to-female sexuality

Lesbian erotica deals with depictions in the visual arts of lesbianism, which is the expression of female-on-female sexuality. Lesbianism has been a theme in erotic art since at least the time of ancient Rome, and many regard depictions of lesbianism to be erotic.

<i>Intercourse</i> (book) 1987 book by Andrea Dworkin

Intercourse is the fifth nonfiction book by American radical feminist writer and activist Andrea Dworkin. It was first published in 1987 by Free Press. In Intercourse, Dworkin presents a radical feminist analysis of sexual intercourse in literature and society.

The Antipornography Civil Rights Ordinance is a name for several proposed local ordinances in the United States and that was closely associated with the anti-pornography radical feminists Andrea Dworkin and Catharine MacKinnon. It proposed to treat pornography as a violation of women's civil rights and to allow women harmed by pornography to seek damages through lawsuits in civil courts. The approach was distinguished from traditional obscenity law, which attempts to suppress pornography through the use of prior restraint and criminal penalties.

The feminist sex wars, also known as the lesbian sex wars, or simply the sex wars or porn wars, are terms used to refer to collective debates amongst feminists regarding a number of issues broadly relating to sexuality and sexual activity. Differences of opinion on matters of sexuality deeply polarized the feminist movement, particularly leading feminist thinkers, in the late 1970s and early 1980s and continue to influence debate amongst feminists to this day.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Sex industry</span> Field of business

The sex industry consists of businesses that either directly or indirectly provide sex-related products and services or adult entertainment. The industry includes activities involving direct provision of sex-related services, such as prostitution, strip clubs, host and hostess clubs and sex-related pastimes, such as pornography, sex-oriented men's magazines, sex movies, sex toys and fetish or BDSM paraphernalia. Sex channels for television and pre-paid sex movies for video on demand, are part of the sex industry, as are adult movie theaters, sex shops, peep shows, and strip clubs. The sex industry employs millions of people worldwide, mainly women. These range from the sex worker, also called adult service provider (ASP) or adult sex provider, who provides sexual services, to a multitude of support personnel.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Andrea Dworkin</span> American feminist writer and activist (1946–2005)

Andrea Rita Dworkin was an American radical feminist writer and activist best known for her analysis of pornography. Her feminist writings, beginning in 1974, span 30 years. They are found in a dozen solo works: nine books of non-fiction, two novels, and a collection of short stories. Another three volumes were co-written or co-edited with US Constitutional law professor and feminist activist, Catharine A. MacKinnon.

Feminist views on pornography range from condemnation of all of it as a form of violence against women, to an embracing of some forms as a medium of feminist expression. This debate reflects larger concerns surrounding feminist views on sexuality, and is closely related to those on prostitution, on BDSM, and other issues. Pornography has been one of the most divisive issues in feminism, particularly in anglophone (English-speaking) countries. This deep division was exemplified in the feminist sex wars of the 1980s, which pitted anti-pornography activists against pro-pornography ones.

Feminists Fighting Pornography was a political activist organization against pornography. It advocated for United States Federal legislation to allow lawsuits against the porn industry by women whose attackers were inspired by pornography. FFP was based in New York, N.Y., was founded in 1983 or 1984, and dissolved in 1997.

Feminism has affected culture in many ways, and has famously been theorized in relation to culture by Angela McRobbie, Laura Mulvey and others. Timothy Laurie and Jessica Kean have argued that "one of [feminism's] most important innovations has been to seriously examine the ways women receive popular culture, given that so much pop culture is made by and for men." This is reflected in a variety of forms, including literature, music, film and other screen cultures.

<i>Only Words</i> (book)

Only Words is a 1993 book by Catharine MacKinnon. In this work of feminist legal theory, MacKinnon contends that the U.S. legal system has used a First Amendment basis to protect intimidation, subordination, terrorism, and discrimination as enacted through pornography, violating the equal protection guarantee of the Fourteenth Amendment.

Feminist pornography is a genre of film developed by or for those dedicated to gender equality. It was created for the purpose of encouraging people in their pursuit of freedom through sexuality, equality, and pleasure.

Feminist views on sexuality widely vary. Many feminists, particularly radical feminists, are highly critical of what they see as sexual objectification and sexual exploitation in the media and society. Radical feminists are often opposed to the sex industry, including opposition to prostitution and pornography. Other feminists define themselves as sex-positive feminists and believe that a wide variety of expressions of female sexuality can be empowering to women when they are freely chosen. Some feminists support efforts to reform the sex industry to become less sexist, such as the feminist pornography movement.

The Erotic, as defined and discussed by educator and poet, Audre Lorde, is a profound resource of feminine power housed within the spiritual plane of women's existence. This power, as she describes in her 1978 essay “Uses of the Erotic: The Erotic as Power”, is a sense of deep satisfaction – beyond the sexual deceptively portrayed in the pornographic – elevated by a profound feeling that lives in the joy and fulfillment of a woman's being. This fulfillment becomes, as Lorde describes, the conscious decision in a woman's work, the power that embodies and manifests change in the fight against the oppression of women, especially Black women and women of color. This power of the erotic is a lifestyle, a potentiality that has been recognized as a threat, treated as suspect, and therefore suppressed out of fear, because as Lorde writes, “women so empowered are dangerous”. Lorde demonstrates in redefining and reclaiming the erotic – a profound feeling of knowing, an empowering knowledge, “a lens through which we scrutinize all aspects of our existence” – that the erotic is a critical element in dismantling the social and political hierarchy situated in a white patriarchal power structure that reproduces the erotic as pornographic.

References

  1. 1 2 "What Distinguishes Erotica from Pornography?" – Leon F Seltzer, Psychology Today, 6 April 2011
  2. - Lancet, 11 June 1977, 1241/2
  3. H. Montgomery Hyde (1964), A History of Pornography: 1–26.
  4. Dukore, Bernard F. (6 October 2020). Bernard Shaw and the Censors: Fights and Failures, Stage and Screen - Bernard F. Dukore - Google Books. ISBN   9783030521868 . Retrieved 29 April 2022.
  5. Geltzer, Jeremy (4 January 2016). Dirty Words and Filthy Pictures: Film and the First Amendment - Jeremy Geltzer - Google Books. ISBN   9781477307434 . Retrieved 29 April 2022.
  6. 1 2 Canby, Vincent (22 July 1969). "Movie Review – Blue Movie (1968) Screen: Andy Warhol's 'Blue Movie'". The New York Times . Retrieved 29 December 2015.
  7. 1 2 3 Comenas, Gary (2005). "Blue Movie (1968)". WarholStars.org. Retrieved 29 December 2015.
  8. 1 2 Canby, Vincent (10 August 1969). "Warhol's Red Hot and 'Blue' Movie. D1. Print. (behind paywall)". The New York Times . Retrieved 29 December 2015.
  9. Coopersmith, Jonathan (March 2006). "Does Your Mother Know What YouReallyDo? The Changing Nature and Image of Computer‐Based Pornography". History and Technology. 22 (1): 1–25. doi:10.1080/07341510500508610. ISSN   0734-1512. S2CID   143713545.
  10. 1 2 Ackman, Dan (25 May 2001). "How Big Is Porn?". Forbes. Archived from the original on 9 June 2001. Retrieved 8 November 2007. $2.6 billion to $3.9 billion. Sources: Adams Media Research, Forrester Research, Veronis Suhler Communications Industry Report, IVD
  11. "Things Are Looking Up in America's Porn Industry". NBC News. Retrieved 26 January 2018.
  12. "Best Internet Filter Software of 2019". Archived from the original on 13 October 2011. Retrieved 27 May 2010.[Last Retrieved 12 November 2010]
  13. Staff. "The Truth About California's Adult Entertainment Industry White Paper 1999". Adult Video News. Retrieved 28 April 2014.
  14. "I was raped at 14, and the video ended up on a porn site". British Broadcasting Corporation. 10 February 2020. Retrieved 8 March 2020.
  15. Cole, Samantha; Maiberg, Emanuel (16 July 2019). "How Pornhub Enables Doxing and Harassment". Vice . Retrieved 8 March 2020.
  16. Cole, Samantha (6 February 2020). "How to Remove Non-Consensual Videos From Pornhub". Vice. Retrieved 29 April 2020.
  17. Broster, Alice (27 August 2019). "#NotYourPorn Is The Campaign Fighting To Get Non-Consensual Content Removed From UK Porn Sites". Bustle . Retrieved 8 March 2020.
  18. List of Greek words starting with πορν- (porn-) on Perseus.
  19. πορνογράφος . Liddell, Henry George ; Scott, Robert ; A Greek–English Lexicon at the Perseus Project.
  20. Athenaeus. "Book 13.567b". The Deipnosophists (in Greek). At the Perseus Project.
  21. "πορνογραφία". Dictionary of Modern Greek, Institute of Manolis Triantafyllidis, 1998.
  22. Online Etymology Dictionary. Etymonline.com. Retrieved 21 April 2011.
  23. history of the word pornography | podictionary – for word lovers – dictionary etymology, trivia & history. podictionary (13 March 2009). Retrieved 21 April 2011. Archived from the original on 2011-05-11.
  24. 1 2 3 4 Talvacchia, Bette (2010). "Pornography". In Grafton, Anthony; Most, Glenn W.; Settis, Salvatore (eds.). The Classical Tradition. Cambridge, Mass. and London: The Belknap Press of Harvard University Press. pp. 767–771. ISBN   978-0-674-03572-0.
  25. - OED, 2021
  26. Richard Rudgley (2000). Venus Figurines: Sex Objects or Symbols?. The Lost Civilizations of the Stone Age. Simon and Schuster. pp. 184–200. ISBN   978-0-684-86270-5 . Retrieved 28 September 2017.
  27. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 Black, Jeremy; Green, Anthony (1992). Gods, Demons and Symbols of Ancient Mesopotamia: An Illustrated Dictionary. The British Museum Press. pp. 150–152. ISBN   0-7141-1705-6.
  28. Nemet-Nejat, Karen Rhea (1998). Daily Life in Ancient Mesopotamia. Daily Life. Santa Barbara, California: Greenwood. p.  137. ISBN   978-0313294976.
  29. 1 2 3 4 Robins, Gay (1993). Women in Ancient Egypt . Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard University Press. pp.  189–190. ISBN   0-674-95469-6. Turin erotic papyrus.
  30. 1 2 3 4 O'Connor, David (September–October 2001). "Eros in Egypt". Archaeology Odyssey. Archived from the original on 30 January 2019. Retrieved 5 January 2018.
  31. Foxon, D. F. Libertine Literature in England, 1660–1745, 1965, p. 45.
  32. Wagner, "Introduction", in Cleland, Fanny Hill, 1985, p. 7.
  33. Lane, Obscene Profits: The Entrepreneurs of Pornography in the Cyber Age, 2000, p. 11.
  34. Browne, The Guide to United States Popular Culture, 2001, p. 273, ISBN   0-87972-821-3; Sutherland, Offensive Literature: Decensorship in Britain, 1960–1982, 1983, p. 32, ISBN   0-389-20354-8.
  35. Pornography: A Secret History of Civilisation, World of Wonder, Channel 4 Television Corporation, UK, 1999. Part 1.
  36. Karabell, Zachary (2003). Parting the desert: the creation of the Suez Canal. Alfred A. Knopf. p.  195. ISBN   0-375-40883-5.
  37. Miriam A. Drake (2003). Encyclopedia of Library and Information Science: Abs-Dec. CRC Press. p. 470. ISBN   978-0-8247-2077-3
  38. The Comstock Act17  Stat.   598
  39. Eskridge, William N. (2002). Gaylaw: challenging the apartheid of the closet. Harvard University Press. p. 392.
  40. From the precedent set by R. v. Curl (1729) following the publication of Venus in the Cloister .
  41. H. Montgomery Hyde A History of Pornography. (1969) London, Heinemann; p. 14.
  42. Judith Ann Giesberg, Sex and the Civil War: Soldiers, Pornography, and the Making of American Morality (U of North Carolina Press, 2017).
  43. Beck, Marianna (May 2003). "The Roots of Western Pornography: Victorian Obsessions and Fin-de-Siècle Predilections". Libido, The Journal of Sex and Sensibility. Retrieved 22 August 2006.
  44. Dukore, Bernard F. (6 October 2020). Bernard Shaw and the Censors: Fights and Failures, Stage and Screen - Bernard F. Dukore - Google Books. ISBN   9783030521868 . Retrieved 29 April 2022.
  45. Geltzer, Jeremy (4 January 2016). Dirty Words and Filthy Pictures: Film and the First Amendment - Jeremy Geltzer - Google Books. ISBN   9781477307434 . Retrieved 29 April 2022.
  46. Bottomore, Stephen (1996). Stephen Herbert; Luke McKernan (eds.). "Léar (Albert Kirchner)". Who's Who of Victorian Cinema. British Film Institute. Retrieved 15 October 2006.
  47. Bottomore, Stephen (1996). Stephen Herbert; Luke McKernan (eds.). "Eugène Pirou". Who's Who of Victorian Cinema. British Film Institute. Retrieved 15 October 2006.
  48. 1 2 Chris Rodley, Dev Varma, Kate Williams III (Directors); Marilyn Milgrom, Grant Romer, Rolf Borowczak, Bob Guccione, Dean Kuipers (Cast) (7 March 2006). Pornography: The Secret History of Civilization (DVD). Port Washington, NY: Koch Vision. ISBN   1-4172-2885-7. Archived from the original on 22 August 2010. Retrieved 21 October 2006.
  49. Corliss, Richard (29 March 2005). "That Old Feeling: When Porno Was Chic". Time. Archived from the original on 24 May 2012. Retrieved 16 October 2006.
  50. Jacobs, Tom (28 August 2015). "Pornography Consumption on the Rise". Pacific Standard . The Miller-McCune Center for Research, Media and Public Policy. Retrieved 30 November 2015.
  51. "Bulk Alexa rank checker". BulkSeoTools.com Bulk Alexa Rank Checker. 27 April 2016. Retrieved 27 April 2016.
  52. Auerbach, David (23 October 2014). "Vampire Porn". Slate. Archived from the original on 19 December 2014. Retrieved 19 December 2014.
  53. Dugdale, John (2 May 2013). "Porn studies is the new discipline for academics". The Guardian . Retrieved 2 May 2013.
  54. William J. Gehrke (10 December 1996). "Erotica is Not Pornography". The Tech.
  55. "h2g2 – What is Erotic and What is Pornographic?". BBC. 29 March 2004. Retrieved 14 January 2012.
  56. Martin Amis (17 March 2001). "A rough trade". The Guardian . Retrieved 29 February 2012.
  57. "P20th Century Nudes in Art". The Art History Archive. Retrieved 29 February 2012.
  58. Mulholland, Monique (March 2011). "When Porno Meets Hetero". Australian Feminist Studies. Taylor & Francis. 26 (67): 119–135. doi:10.1080/08164649.2011.546332. S2CID   142218966. The pornographic genre is immense, and includes an enormous variety of styles catering to an equally vast range of tastes and fetishes. Certainly, mainstream heteroporn makes up the main bulk of the genre, and is most easily accessible. As stated above, this style of porn includes highly formulaic displays of paired or group sex, enacted by bodies exhibiting a conventional gendered aesthetic, moving through various sexual positions and penetrations. Nonetheless, some forms of porn are more normative than others, and indeed not all forms of heteroporn are normative, such as 'rimming', girl on boy strap-on anal sex, and hard-core BDSM. Pornography also includes an endless array of different kinds of fetish, 'fat' porn, amateur porn, disabled porn, porn produced by women, queer porn, BDSM and body modification. The list of non- mainstream porn is endless and displays bodies, gender scenarios and sexual activity differently to heteronormative formulations of mainstream heteroporn.
  59. President's Commission on Obscenity and Pornography. Report of The Commission on Obscenity and Pornography 1970, Washington, D.C.: U. S. Government Printing Office.
  60. D'Orlando, Fabio (1 March 2011). "The Demand for Pornography". Journal of Happiness Studies. 12 (1): 51–75. doi:10.1007/s10902-009-9175-0. ISSN   1573-7780. S2CID   145125342.
  61. Szymanski, Dawn M.; Stewart-Richardson, Destin N. (January 2014). "Psychological, relational, and sexual correlates of pornography use on young adult heterosexual men in romantic relationships". The Journal of Men's Studies . Sage. 22 (1): 64–82. doi:10.3149/jms.2201.64. S2CID   146523196.
  62. Josh Lipton (28 January 2010). "Coming Soon: XXX In 3D". Minyanville. Archived from the original on 16 January 2016. Retrieved 9 October 2015.
  63. 1 2 Mearian, Lucas (2 May 2006). "Porn industry may be decider in Blu-ray, HD-DVD battle". MacWorld. Archived from the original on 12 July 2006. Retrieved 8 November 2007. Ron Wagner, Director of IT at a California porn studio: "If you look at the VHS vs. Beta standards, you see the much higher-quality standard dying because of [the porn industry's support of VHS] ... The mass volume of tapes in the porn market at the time went out on VHS."
  64. 1 2 Lynch, Martin (17 January 2007). "Blu-ray loves porn after all". The Inquirer. Incisive Media Investments. Archived from the original on 21 June 2007. Retrieved 8 November 2007. By many accounts VHS would not have won its titanic struggle against Sony's Betamax video tape format if it had not been for porn. This might be over-stating its importance but it was an important factor ... There is no way that Sony can ignore the boost that porn can give the Blu-ray format.{{cite web}}: CS1 maint: unfit URL (link)
  65. Gardiner, Bryan (22 January 2007). "Porn Industry May Decide DVD Format War". FOXNews.com – Technology News. Archived from the original on 10 February 2007. Retrieved 8 November 2007. As was expected, the 2007 Consumer Electronics Show saw even more posturing and politics between the Blu-ray Disc and HD DVD camps, with each side announcing a new set of alliances and predicting that the end of the war was imminent.
  66. Monaco, James. (1999). The dictionary of new media : the new digital world: video, audio, print, film, television, DVD, home theatre, satellite, digital photography, wireless, super CD, internet. Harbor Electronic. ISBN   0-9669744-0-9. OCLC   301650106.
  67. Staff. "Magnet Media Holds Porn/Tech Event in NYC This Tuesday". Adult Video News. Retrieved 11 March 2014.
  68. Staff. "How Porn Drives Mainstream Internet Technology Adoption Tuesday, Mar 11, 12:30 pm @ Rose Auditorium". Garys Guide. Retrieved 11 March 2014.
  69. Samantha Cole and Emanuel Maiberg (20 November 2019). "'They Can't Stop Us:' People Are Having Sex With 3D Avatars of Their Exes and Celebrities". Vice.
  70. Alyson Krueger (28 October 2017). "Virtual Reality Gets Naughty". New York Times .
  71. Andrew Griffin (9 November 2017). "VIRTUAL REALITY PORNOGRAPHY IS ALLOWING FOR MORE 'INTIMATE' AND 'PERSONAL' EXPERIENCES BUT COULD BRING HORRORS, WARN EXPERTS". The Independent .
  72. "Playboy undressed video game women – Aug. 25, 2004". CNN. 25 August 2004. Retrieved 26 August 2006.
  73. "Hong Kong filmmakers shoot 'first' 3D porn film". Asian Sex Gazette. 17 January 2012. Retrieved 17 August 2010.
  74. 1 2 Stone, Lyman (26 June 2019). "Conservative Protestant Men Are Still Resisting Porn". Christianity Today . Carol Stream, Illinois. ISSN   0009-5753. Archived from the original on 27 June 2019. Retrieved 31 July 2021.
  75. Brenner, Grant Hilary (19 February 2018). "When Is Porn Use a Problem?". Psychology Today. Retrieved 18 September 2021.
  76. Ritzenhoff, Karen A.; Hermes, Katherine A. (2009). Sex and Sexuality in a Feminist World. EBSCO ebook academic collection. Cambridge Scholars. p. 102. ISBN   978-1-4438-0426-4.
  77. Grubbs, Joshua B.; Perry, Samuel L.; Grant Weinandy, Jennifer T.; Kraus, Shane W. (19 July 2021). "Porndemic? A Longitudinal Study of Pornography Use Before and During the COVID-19 Pandemic in a Nationally Representative Sample of Americans". Archives of Sexual Behavior. Springer Science and Business Media LLC. 51 (1): 123–137. doi:10.1007/s10508-021-02077-7. ISSN   0004-0002. PMC   8288831 . PMID   34282505. At baseline, 43.4% of participants reported not having viewed pornography in the past year and 38% of participants reported using pornography, on average, at least once per month (59% of men and 21% of women).
  78. Regnerus, Mark; Gordon, David; Price, Joseph (18 December 2015). "Documenting Pornography Use in America: A Comparative Analysis of Methodological Approaches". The Journal of Sex Research. Informa UK Limited. 53 (7): 873–881. doi:10.1080/00224499.2015.1096886. ISSN   0022-4499. PMID   26683998. S2CID   24115571. If estimates generated from the RIA or NFSS are more valid, then pornography use is—or perhaps has become—a common and frequent experience among men, with just under half of all men using pornography in an average week. It is also not an uncommon or infrequent occurrence for women, with nearly one in five reporting pornography use in the past week.
  79. Kleinman, Alexis (4 May 2013). "Porn Sites Get More Visitors Than Netflix, Amazon And Twitter Combined". HuffPost. Retrieved 18 September 2021. Sources:
    1. Carroll, Jason S.; Padilla-Walker, Laura M.; Nelson, Larry J.; Olson, Chad D.; McNamara Barry, Carolyn; Madsen, Stephanie D. (2008). "Generation XXX". Journal of Adolescent Research. SAGE Publications. 23 (1): 6–30. doi:10.1177/0743558407306348. ISSN   0743-5584. S2CID   145395436.
      Blue, Violet (24 July 2009). "Are more women OK with watching porn?". CNN.com. Retrieved 13 July 2022.
      "One in three women watch porn - study - The Courier-Mail". news.com.au. 10 February 2010. Archived from the original on 14 February 2010. Retrieved 13 July 2022.
    2. Edelman, Benjamin (1 January 2009). "Markets: Red Light States: Who Buys Online Adult Entertainment?" (PDF). Journal of Economic Perspectives. American Economic Association. 23 (1): 209–220. doi:10.1257/jep.23.1.209. ISSN   0895-3309. Archived from the original (PDF) on 6 November 2013.
      "Are the effects of pornography negligible? - UdeMNouvelles". nouvelles.umontreal.ca (in French). 1 December 2009. Archived from the original on 31 January 2013. Retrieved 13 July 2022.
    3. https://web.archive.org/web/20130116164054/https://www.google.com/adplanner/static/top1000/
    4. Hotsheet, Political (25 June 2010). "29% Accessed Porn on Work Computers Last Month - CBS News". Wayback Machine. Archived from the original on 25 June 2010. Retrieved 13 July 2022.
      Leahy, Michael (2009). Porn @ Work: Exposing the Office's #1 Addiction. Moody Publishers. ISBN   978-1-57567-332-5.
    5. Anthony, Sebastian (4 April 2012). "Just how big are porn sites?". ExtremeTech. Retrieved 13 July 2022.
  80. Buchholz, Katharina (11 February 2019). "Infographic: How Much of the Internet Consists of Porn?". Statista Infographics. Retrieved 11 August 2022.
  81. Træen, Bente; Spitznogle, Kristin; Beverfjord, Alexandra (May 2004). "Attitudes and Use of Pornography in the Norwegian Population 2002". The Journal of Sex Research. Taylor & Francis, Ltd. 41 (2): 193–200. doi:10.1080/00224490409552227. ISSN   0022-4499. JSTOR   3813653. PMID   15326544. S2CID   28598514.
  82. Carroll, Jason S.; Padilla-Walker, Laura M.; Nelson, Larry J.; Olson, Chad D.; McNamara Barry, Carolyn; Madsen, Stephanie D. (January 2008). "Generation XXX: Pornography Acceptance and Use Among Emerging Adults". Journal of Adolescent Research. 23 (1): 6–30. doi:10.1177/0743558407306348. ISSN   0743-5584. S2CID   145395436.
  83. "Infographic: 60% of Porn Websites Are Hosted in the United States".
  84. "World Porn League Table: UK Sits Not so Proudly in Third Place". 13 August 2013.
  85. "Strange and wonderful" Budapest – Where the living is increasingly pleasant ... and still very cheap Archived 23 February 2010 at the Wayback Machine . Escapeartist.com (11 September 1989). Retrieved 21 April 2011.
  86. Sex trade moguls thrive by the Blue Danube – World, News. The Independent (21 July 1996). Retrieved 21 April 2011.
  87. The Art and Politics of Netporn » Abstract. Networkcultures.org. Retrieved 21 April 2011.
  88. Hymes, Tom. "Adult Tube Sites Now Spamming Through Google News". AVN.com. Retrieved 20 August 2014.
  89. Kernes, Mark. "Nightline Takes a Look at Porn Piracy, and Targets MindGeek". AVN.com. Retrieved 20 August 2014.
  90. Staff. "Takedown Piracy Celebrates Fifth Anniversary". AVN.com. Retrieved 20 August 2014.
  91. Segal, David (28 March 2014). "Does porn hurt children?". The New York Times . Retrieved 30 March 2014.
  92. "Is porn harmful?". BBC. 26 September 2017. Retrieved 27 September 2017.
  93. Kraus, Shane W; Voon, Valerie; Potenza, Marc N (22 September 2015). "Neurobiology of Compulsive Sexual Behavior: Emerging Science". Neuropsychopharmacology. 41 (1): 385–386. doi:10.1038/npp.2015.300. ISSN   0893-133X. PMC   4677151 . PMID   26657963.
  94. Kraus, Shane W.; Voon, Valerie; Potenza, Marc N. (19 February 2016). "Should compulsive sexual behavior be considered an addiction?". Addiction. 111 (12): 2097–2106. doi:10.1111/add.13297. PMC   4990495 . PMID   26893127.
  95. Kühn, S; Gallinat, J (2016). Neurobiological Basis of Hypersexuality. International Review of Neurobiology. Vol. 129. pp. 67–83. doi:10.1016/bs.irn.2016.04.002. ISBN   978-0128039144. PMID   27503448.
  96. Brand, Matthias; Young, Kimberly; Laier, Christian; Wölfling, Klaus; Potenza, Marc N. (2016). "Integrating psychological and neurobiological considerations regarding the development and maintenance of specific Internet-use disorders: An Interaction of Person-Affect-Cognition-Execution (I-PACE) model". Neuroscience & Biobehavioral Reviews. 71: 252–266. doi: 10.1016/j.neubiorev.2016.08.033 . PMID   27590829.
  97. Pietrangelo, Ann (30 January 2019). Legg, Timothy J. (ed.). "How to Identify and Treat a Pornography Addiction". Healthline. Retrieved 11 June 2021.
  98. Ferguson, Sian (27 January 2020). Litner, Jennifer (ed.). "Is 'Masturbation Addiction' Possible?". Healthline. Retrieved 11 June 2021.
  99. "Pdf" (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on 26 November 2013.
  100. Kutchinsky, Berl (Summer 1973). "The effect of easy availability of pornography on the incidence of sex crimes: the Danish experience". Journal of Social Issues . 29 (3): 163–181. doi:10.1111/j.1540-4560.1973.tb00094.x.
  101. Diamond, Milton (September–October 2009). "Pornography, public acceptance and sex related crime: A review". International Journal of Law and Psychiatry. 32 (5): 304–314. doi:10.1016/j.ijlp.2009.06.004. PMID   19665229.
  102. Slade, Joseph (2001). Pornography and sexual representation: a reference guide, volume 3. Westport, Conn: Greenwood Press. ISBN   978-0313275685.
  103. Kutchinsky, Berl (1970). Studies on pornography and sex crimes in Denmark. New social science monographs. United States: Nyt fra Samfundsvidenskaberne, eksp. OCLC   155896. Online. Archived 30 October 2007 at the Wayback Machine
  104. Kendall, Todd D. (19–20 January 2007). Pornography, rape, and the internet (doc). Fourth bi-annual Conference on the Economics of the Software and Internet Industries. Toulouse, France. Retrieved 30 March 2014. Pdf.
  105. D'Amato, Anthony (23 June 2006). "Porn up, rape down". Northwestern Public Law (Research Paper No. 913013). doi:10.2139/ssrn.913013. SSRN   913013.
  106. Diamond, Milton (1999). "The Effects of Pornography: An International Perspective". In Elias, James; Bullough, Vern L.; Elias, Veronica Diehl; Brewer, Gwen; Douglas, Jeffrey J.; Jarvis, Will (eds.). Porn 101: Eroticism, Pornography, and the First Amendment. G - Reference,Information and Interdisciplinary Subjects Series. Prometheus Books. ISBN   978-1-57392-750-5 . Retrieved 5 September 2022.
  107. Desmond, Kathleen K. (2011). Ideas About Art. John Wiley & Sons. p. 94. ISBN   978-1444396003.
  108. Joseph Behun, Richard; Owens, Eric W. (2019). Youth and Internet Pornography: The impact and influence on adolescent development. Routledge. p. 102. ISBN   978-0429751097.
  109. Kaliski, Burton S. (2007). Encyclopedia of Business and Finance: A-I. Macmillan Reference USA. p. 271. ISBN   978-0028660622.
  110. Rodriguez, Junius P. (2011). Slavery in the Modern World: A History of Political, Social, and Economic Oppression [2 volumes]: A History of Political, Social, and Economic Oppression. ABC-CLIO. p. 458. ISBN   978-1851097883.
  111. 1 2 3 4 5 Clingbine, Graham Clingbine (2016). What You Need to Know About Human Sex. Troubador Publishing Ltd. p. 92. ISBN   978-1785893735.
  112. 1 2 3 J Ferguson, Christopher (2013). Adolescents, Crime, and the Media: A Critical Analysis. Springer Science & Business Media. p. 148. ISBN   978-1461467410.
  113. "Safety in the Adult Film Industry". www.dir.ca.gov. Retrieved 17 April 2020.
  114. "Hot Girls Wanted | Netflix Official Site". www.netflix.com. Retrieved 17 April 2020.
  115. Annual Institute on Telecommunications Policy and Regulation, Volume 22. Practising Law Institute. 2004. p. 152.
  116. Baxter, Sarah; Brooks, Richard (8 August 2004). "Porn is vital to freedom, says Rushdie". The Times. London. Archived from the original on 12 October 2008. Retrieved 8 November 2007. Pornography exists everywhere, of course, but when it comes into societies in which it's difficult for young men and women to get together and do what young men and women often like doing, it satisfies a more general need ... While doing so, it sometimes becomes a kind of standard-bearer for freedom, even civilisation.
  117. Salter, Michael (2013). "Responding to revenge porn: Gender, justice and online legal impunity". Presented at "whose Justice? Contested Approaches to Crime and Conflict", University of Western Sydney, Sydney, Australia. Retrieved 3 January 2016.
  118. Levendowski, Amanda M. (2014). "Using Copyright to Combat Revenge Porn". NYU Journal of Intellectual Property & Entertainment Law. Social Science Research Network. 3. SSRN   2374119.
  119. Bhasin, Puneet (29 November 2014). "Online Revenge Porn-Recourse for Victims under Cyber Laws". India: iPleaders. Retrieved 29 January 2016.
  120. "'Revenge porn' Facebook post leads to jail sentence". BBC News. 3 December 2014. Retrieved 9 October 2015.
  121. Staff. "Supreme Judicial Court of Massachusetts, Norfolk. COMMONWEALTH v. John REX. No. SJC–11480. Decided: July 9, 2014". findlaw.com. Retrieved 18 July 2014.
  122. 1 2 Kernes, Mark. "MA Supremes Rule National Geographic Photos Not Kid Porn". AVN.com. Retrieved 18 July 2014.
  123. Aucoin, Don (24 January 2006). "The pornification of America". The Boston Globe. Archived from the original on 10 November 2018. Retrieved 10 November 2018.
  124. 1 2 Goussé, Caroline (16 February 2012). "No Copyright Protection for Pornography: A Daring Response to File-Sharing Litigation". Intellectual Property Brief. Retrieved 1 March 2012.
  125. Masnick, Mike (4 November 2011). "Court Wonders If Porn Can Even Be Covered By Copyright". Tech Dirt. Retrieved 1 March 2012.
  126. Mitchell Bros. Film Group v. Cinema Adult Theater, 604 F.2d 852 (5th Cir.1979) and Jartech v. Clancy, 666 F.2d 403 (9th Cir.1982) held that obscenity could not be a defense to copyright claims.
  127. Devils Films, Inc. v. Nectar Video Under, 29 F.Supp.2d 174, 175 (S.D.N.Y. 1998) refused to follow the Mitchell ruling and relied on the doctrine of "clean hands" to deny copyright protection to works seen as obscene.
  128. "You Can't Copyright Porn, Harassed BitTorrent Defendant Insists", TorrentFreak , 6 February 2012. Retrieved 9 August 2012.
  129. "Netflix". Netflix .
  130. "2 male porn performers test positive for HIV" . Retrieved 31 December 2014.
  131. Shrage, Laurie (Fall 2015), "Feminist perspectives on sex markets: pornography", Zalta, Edward N. (ed.). Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy.
  132. MacKinnon, Catharine A. (1983). "Not a moral issue". Yale Law & Policy Review . 2 (2): 321–345. JSTOR   40239168. Sex forced on real women so that it can be sold at a profit to be forced on other real women; women's bodies trussed and maimed and raped and made into things to be hurt and obtained and accessed, and this presented as the nature of women; the coercion that is visible and the coercion that has become invisible—this and more grounds the feminist concern with pornography Pdf.
  133. "A Conversation With Catherine MacKinnon (transcript)". Think Tank . 1995. PBS. Retrieved 1 September 2009.
  134. Jeffries, Stuart (12 April 2006). "Are women human? (Interview with Catharine MacKinnon)". The Guardian . London.
  135. Jeffries, Stuart (12 April 2006). "Are women human? (Interview with Catharine MacKinnon)". The Guardian . London. Catharine MacKinnon argues that: "Pornography affects people's belief in rape myths. So for example if a woman says 'I didn't consent' and people have been viewing pornography, they believe rape myths and believe the woman did consent no matter what she said. That when she said no, she meant yes. When she said she didn't want to, that meant more beer. When she said she would prefer to go home, that means she's a lesbian who needs to be given a good corrective experience. Pornography promotes these rape myths and desensitises people to violence against women so that you need more violence to become sexually aroused if you're a pornography consumer. This is very well documented."
  136. Carol, Avedon. "The Harm of Porn: Just Another Excuse to Censor". The Law. London (June–July–August 1995). ISSN   1360-807X. Archived from the original on 9 July 2015.
  137. 1 2 3 4 Ziv, Amalia (October 2014). "Girl meets boy: cross-gender queer and the promise of pornography". Sexualities . 17 (7): 885–905. doi:10.1177/1363460714532937. S2CID   145460606.
  138. Commella, Lynn (2013), "From text to context", in Taormino, Tristan; Parreñas Shimizu, Celine; Penley, Constance; Miller-Young, Mireille (eds.), The feminist porn book: the politics of producing pleasure, New York City: Feminist Press at the City University of New York, pp. 79–96, ISBN   978-1558618190.
  139. Vogels, Josey (21 April 2009). "Female-friendly porn". Metro News . Canada: Metro International. Archived from the original on 16 January 2016. Retrieved 9 December 2015.
  140. Erickson, Loree (2013), "Out of line: the sexy femmegimp politics of flaunting it!", in Taormino, Tristan; Parreñas Shimizu, Celine; Penley, Constance; Miller-Young, Mireille (eds.), The feminist porn book: the politics of producing pleasure, New York City: Feminist Press at the City University of New York, pp. 320–328, ISBN   978-1558618190.
  141. Fauldi, Susan (30 October 1995). "The Money Shot". The New Yorker . pp. 65–66. (Emphasis in original).
  142. Brod, Harry (1996). "Pornography and the alienation of male sexuality". In May, Larry; Strikwerda, Robert; Hopkins, Patrick D. (eds.). Rethinking masculinity: philosophical explorations in light of feminism (2nd ed.). Lanham, Maryland: Rowman & Littlefield. p. 242. ISBN   978-0847682577.
  143. Sherkat, Darren E.; Ellison, Christopher G. (March 1997). "The cognitive structure of a moral crusade: conservative protestantism and opposition to pornography". Social Forces . 75 (3): 958. doi:10.1093/sf/75.3.957. JSTOR   2580526.
  144. Sherkat, Darren E.; Ellison, Christopher G. (August 1999). "Recent developments and current controversies in the sociology of religion". Annual Review of Sociology . 25: 370. doi:10.1146/annurev.soc.25.1.363. JSTOR   223509. Pdf.
  145. "How much pornography are Americans consuming? | Relationships in America".
  146. Griffith, James D.; Adams, Lea T.; Hart, Christian L.; Mitchell, Sharon (July 2012). "Why become a pornography actress?". International Journal of Sexual Health . 24 (3): 165–180. doi:10.1080/19317611.2012.666514. S2CID   143232567.
  147. Griffith et al. 2012, pp. 170.
  148. Griffith et al. 2012, pp. 173.

Further reading

Advocacy

Review of Strossen's book: Blumen, Jonathan (November 1995). "Nadine Strossen: pornography must be tolerated". The Ethical Spectacle. 1 (11).
Also as: Williams, Linda (1999). Hard core: power, pleasure, and the "frenzy of the visible" (Expanded paperback ed.). Berkeley: University of California Press. ISBN   978-0520219434.

Opposition

See also: Parent, W. A. (April 1990). "A second look at pornography and the subordination of women". The Journal of Philosophy . 87 (4): 205–211. doi:10.2307/2026681. JSTOR   2026681. A criticism of Vadas' paper.
  • Vadas, Melinda (August 1992). "The Pornography/Civil Rights Ordinance v. The BOG: and the winner is…?". Hypatia: A Journal of Feminist Philosophy . 7 (3): 94–109. doi:10.1111/j.1527-2001.1992.tb00906.x. JSTOR   3809874. S2CID   144631352. An argument that pornography increases women's vulnerability to rape.
  • Various (1988). Pornography and sexual violence: evidence of the links. The complete transcript of Public Hearings on Ordinances to Add Pornography as Discrimination Against Women: Minneapolis City Council, Government Operations Committee, 12 and 13 December 1983. London: Everywoman. ISBN   978-1870868006. A representation of the causal connections between pornography and violence towards women.
  • Whisnant, Rebecca (2015), "Not your father's Playboy, not your mother's feminist movement: feminism in porn", in Kiraly, Miranda; Tyler, Meagan (eds.), Freedom fallacy: the limits of liberal feminism, Ballarat, Victoria: Connor Court Publishing, ISBN   978-1925138542.

Neutral or mixed

  • Vance, Carole, ed. (1984). Pleasure and danger: exploring female sexuality. Boston: Routledge & K. Paul. ISBN   978-0710202482. Collection of papers from 1982 conference; visible and divisive split between anti-pornography activists and lesbian S&M theorists.
  • Real Your Brain on Porn. Retrieved 2019-04-14.

Commentary

Economics

Government

History

Law

Sociology

Technology