Sex tourism

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Soi Cowboy, a red light district in Bangkok Soi Cowboy - Bangkok.jpg
Soi Cowboy, a red light district in Bangkok

Sex tourism is travel to a different locale for the sake of sexual activity, particularly with prostitutes. The World Tourism Organization, a specialized agency of the United Nations, defines sex tourism as "trips organized from within the tourism sector, or from outside this sector but using its structures and networks, with the primary purpose of effecting a commercial sexual relationship by the tourist with residents at the destination". [1]

Contents

General

Overview

Generally, people who travel to engage in sexual activity, including with a prostitute, are subject to prostitution laws of the destination jurisdiction. When the sexual activity involves children, is non-consensual or involves sex trafficking, it is often illegal, both in the destination country and in the individual's home country.

Domestic sex tourism involves travel within the same country, while trans-national sex tourism involves travel across national borders. Sex tourism is a multibillion-dollar industry that globally supports a workforce estimated in the millions, [2] that also benefits service industries such as the airline, taxi, restaurant and hotel industries. [3]

A number of countries have become popular destinations for sex tourism, including Brazil, [4] [5] Costa Rica, [6] [7] [8] the Dominican Republic, [9] the Netherlands (particularly Amsterdam), [10] [11] Kenya, [12] Colombia, Thailand, [13] the Philippines, Cambodia, Cuba, [14] and Indonesia (particularly Bali). [15] [16] The countries popular for female sex tourism include Southern Europe (mainly in Greece, Italy, Cyprus, Spain and Portugal); the Caribbean (led by Jamaica, Barbados and the Dominican Republic); Brazil, Egypt, Turkey, and Phuket in Thailand); and the Gambia, Senegal and Kenya in Africa. [17] Other popular destinations include Bulgaria, Tunisia, Lebanon, Morocco, Jordan, Fiji, Colombia and Costa Rica. [18]

Motivations

According to The Ethics of Tourism: Critical and Applied Perspectives by Lovelock and Lovelock, romance (in general) and sexual encounters (more specifically) are a key factor in world travel. [19] Tourist markets have exploited this motivation for travel through prostitution. [19] This industry of sex work is extremely profitable, and the tourist market's role in sex tourism raises questions about its moral and legal standing. [19] Key factors in the issue of sex tourism are child sex tourism and the trafficking of women and girls for use as prostitutes. [20]

Sex tourism can be formally or informally arranged, and local sex workers in the tourist destination are often migrants. [19] These migrants can be either voluntary migrants, or trafficked sex workers. [19] Sex tourism is characterized by a disparity between the motivations of the tourist and the sex worker—the tourist has disposable capital which can be used to pay for sexual services as well as a number of other experiences associated with travel and tourism (leisure, recreation, sightseeing, etc.); conversely, the sex worker is usually living in poverty and providing sexual services because it is the best option available to them. [19]

Demographics

The most common type of sex tourism is of men seeking women. Less common forms include female sex tourism (women seeking men), men seeking men, and adults seeking children. [19] Sex tourists generally come from developed nations in Europe as well as the United States. Asian countries, especially Thailand, the Philippines, Cambodia, and Nepal are common destinations for sex tourists, as well as countries in Central and South America. [21]

A study conducted by ProCon (a nonprofit, nonpartisan public charity which provides different opinions on controversial issues) estimated the percentage of men who had paid for sex at least once in their lives, and found the highest rates in Cambodia (between 59 and 80% of men had paid for sex at least once) and Thailand (an estimated 75%), followed by Italy (16.7–45%), Spain (27–39%), Japan (37%), the Netherlands (13.5–21.6%), and the United States (15.0–20.0%). [22] Studies indicate that the percentage of men engaging in commercial sex in the United States has declined significantly in recent decades: in 1964, an estimated 69–80% of men had paid for sex at least once. [22] This indicates growing stigma against prostitution in the United States. Nations with higher rates of prostitution clients, or "johns", display much more positive attitudes towards commercial sex. [22] In some countries, such as Cambodia and Thailand, sex with prostitutes is considered commonplace and men who do not engage in commercial sex may be considered unusual by their peers. [22]

Cultural attitudes

According to Female Sex Trafficking in Asia: The Resilience of Patriarchy in a Changing World by Samarasinghe, cultural attitudes towards sex tourism in Asian countries are complex. [23] Families in poor rural areas commonly sell their children to human traffickers, who take the children to large cities in order to perform sex work. [23] The people in these communities are generally aware of what they are committing their children to, but consider the rewards of increased financial return to be greater than the consequence for their children. [23] Additionally, this is a common practice among rural families, and children are often enticed by the prospect of moving to a large city. [23]

Attitudes towards sex work in general is a complex issue. [23] Samarasinghe states that many women in Asian countries such as Thailand support husbands visiting prostitutes. [23] This is because prostitution is seen as an alternative to men taking on mistresses, whom they would be obligated to support financially, drawing funds away from the wife and children. [23] Thus, opposition to prostitution does not gather a great deal of support within receiving countries of sex tourism. [23]

The countries where tourists come from tend to have harsher attitudes towards prostitution. [24] Men who travel seeking to pay for sex may do so because it is much harder to engage in sex work in their home countries. Conversely, in receiving countries such as Cambodia, commercial sex work is generally accepted as a common behavior for men, and sex with minors is often accepted as well. Lawmakers as well as law enforcement often do not place priority on policing prostitution and sex trafficking. [24]

University of Leicester sociologists studied this subject as part of a research project for the Economic and Social Research Council and End Child Prostitution and Trafficking campaign. The study included interviews with over 250 Caribbean sex tourists. [25] Amongst their findings were:

However, despite a great deal of interest in sexual tourism amongst theorists, methodologically thorough and detailed studies remain rare, [26] despite the increasing accessibility of such groups for study in the past three decades. [27] [28]

Economic and policy implications

McPhee notes that one of the central challenges to addressing sex tourism is the differing laws and norms regarding normal sexual behavior in sending and receiving countries. [24] Because sex tourism is a transnational issue, it must be addressed beyond the domestic level. [24] Sex tourism also has economic implications for all nations involved. [24] Sex tourism is encouraged by the tourist sector of destination countries, because it draws individuals from wealthier nations with greater amounts of disposable income into poorer nations. This stimulates the economy of these poorer nations. These economic reinforcements are part of the reason sex tourism continues to exist. [24]

In an article published by the University of Chicago, Vrushali Patil argues that tourism in general has changed with economic policies in recent decades. [29] Patil states that the promotion of tourism caters to tourists in both Western and Eastern countries by emphasizing racial/ethnic and gender differences. [29] In order to appeal to tourists from Western countries, travel agencies may emphasize a stereotypical, exoticized portrait of the people in the destination country. [29] This, in turn, can reproduce colonial and traditional attitudes toward race and gender, reinforcing inequality between groups. [29] According to Patil, the state plays a vital part in this interaction, meaning that governments create barriers to formation of new policy. [29]

In an article for International Family Planning Perspectives, Mahler describes the economic conditions that lead to sexual exploitation of children. [30] Young girls and adolescent women are sold into slavery or transported across national borders to work in the commercial sex industry. [30] Mahler states that the rate of child prostitution is higher in countries where girls marry at very young ages. [30] Additionally, prostitution of children is highest in countries where young girls are expected to carry some of the family's financial burden, such as in Thailand. [30] 80% of prostitutes in Thailand send money home to their families. [30] Sex work yields higher wages than work in the formal sector, and remittances from a relative in the sex industry allows poor families (especially in rural areas) to achieve a much higher quality of life. [30]

Sex tourism is also encouraged by cultural attitudes. [30] In Thailand, for example, prostitution is very common, and is socially reinforced by the high value placed on sexual experience for men combined with the high value placed on sexual purity for women. [30] The social restrictions placed on women create high demand for commercial sex workers, and this ensures a consistent supply of prostitutes. [30] The high number of prostitutes and widespread cultural acceptance of prostitutes in Thailand is one of the factors that promotes sex tourism to this country. [30]

Gay sex tourism

The sex tourism industry offers a flourishing submarket for gay, bisexual and bicurious tourists. Existing studies suggest that gay sex tourism has similar motivations as non-gay sex tourism, with the added element of being able to connect to one's gay sexual identity. [31] As these studies present, "leisure activities and holidays have a particular significance for gay men as they provide the most significant opportunity for constructing, confirming and/or changing their sexual identity." [32] Gays may find their home communities not to be as gay-friendly as other travel destinations may be, therefore allowing them opportunities to find other gay identifying individuals to explore their identity with.

Popular gay sex tourism markets in "Gran Canaria, Ibiza, Sardinia, Sicily and Fire Island have been journalistically described as holidays where gay sexual activity is widely possible" [33] Just like in heterosexual sex tourism markets, some arrangements may be monetary and some may not. Different places have different ways of identifying their interest in such arrangements. For example, in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil for example, gay sex tourism has become a popular niche hosting a racially diverse market. The workers there are called "Michês" and stand out by wearing bright blue towels and often work in saunas (bath houses). [34]

Adult-only resorts

Adult-only sex-friendly resorts have become more popular as younger travelers want to experience consensual sex abroad while avoiding ethical issues of prostitution. Those resorts are characterized as the safe, consensual space of adult and sex-positive nature where all expressions of gender, orientation, and relationships are free of any pressure. [35] Largely in Mexico and the Caribbean, they can include clothing-optional resorts with spaces where travelers can meet others and make use of "playrooms". [35] Nudist resorts however are not intended to be places for overt sexual activity.

Child sex tourism

Some people travel to engage in sex with child prostitutes in a practice called child sex tourism. While it is criminal in most countries, this multibillion-dollar [36] industry is believed to involve as many as 2 million children around the world. [37]

"Child sex tourists may not have a specific preference for children as sexual partners but take advantage of a situation in which children are made available to them for sexual exploitation. It is often the case that these people have travelled from a wealthier country (or a richer town or region within a country) to a less-developed destination, where poorer economic conditions, favourable exchange rates for the traveller and relative anonymity are key factors conditioning their behaviour and sex tourism." [38]

In an effort to eradicate the practice, some countries have enacted laws to allow prosecution of their citizens for child abuse that occurs outside their home country, even if it is not against the law in the country where the child abuse took place, for example, the United States Protect Act. [39] The Code of Conduct for the Sexual Exploitation of Children in Travel and Tourism is an international organization composed of members of the tourism industry and children's rights experts with the purpose to eradicate the practice of child sex tourism.

Brazil is considered to have the second-worst child sex trafficking record, after Thailand. [40]

UNICEF notes that sexual activity is often seen as a private matter, making communities reluctant to act and intervene in cases of sexual exploitation. [41] These attitudes make children far more vulnerable to sexual exploitation. Most exploitation of children takes place as a result of their absorption into the adult sex trade where they are exploited by local people and sex tourists. [41] The Internet provides an efficient global networking tool for individuals to share information on destinations and procurement. [41]

In cases involving children, the U.S. has relatively strict domestic laws that hold accountable any American citizen or permanent resident of the U.S. who travels abroad for the purpose of engaging in illicit conduct with a minor. [41] As of 2009, sex tourism and human trafficking remain fast-growing industries. [41]

Regulation

De Wallen, Amsterdam's red-light district, offers activities such as legal prostitution and a number of coffee shops that sell marijuana. It is one of the main tourist attractions. Red-light district of Amsterdam by day. 2012.JPG
De Wallen, Amsterdam's red-light district, offers activities such as legal prostitution and a number of coffee shops that sell marijuana. It is one of the main tourist attractions.

Regulations and government involvement prove to have a positive impact on the sex industry. By decriminalizing prostitution, a government can protect sex workers under labor laws accessible by workers in other fields. [42]

In the Netherlands, prostitutes have access to unlimited free STD testing. [42] Criminalization of sex-related jobs increases workers' vulnerability to HIV by escalating stigma and discernment. Not only does the judgment sex workers feel within the healthcare community keep them from seeking timely treatment, it also adversely affects self-esteem and informed health choices. [42]

Opposition

One of the primary sources of opposition to sex tourism is with regard to child sex tourism, internationally defined as travel to have sex with a person under 18 years of age. This occurs when tourists from wealthy countries taking advantage of legal prostitution, lower consent ages, and the lack of extradition laws in order to engage in sex with minors in foreign countries. [43] Developed nations with more conservative views of sexuality provide a steady stream of tourists who feed the sex tourism industry. Some feel that they may be attempting to subvert laws in their home country. [43] Human rights organizations and governments argue that this pattern creates an incentive for trafficking of children and violation of children's human rights. [20]

Oppositions to sex tourism also stem from concerns around the trafficking of women. The United Nations Office on Drugs and Crime targets the trafficking of women and children as a central concern in their approach to transnational crime. [20] The United Nations Global Report on Trafficking in Persons states that women "comprise the vast majority" of human trafficking victims for sexual exploitation across the world. [21] They also note that women make up a relatively large portion of human trafficking offenders—about 30% of convicted human traffickers are women. [21] Samarasinghe argues that women who become involved in human trafficking were once victims of sex trafficking and sexual exploitation themselves. [23] The only way for these women to gain economic security and freedom is therefore to participate in the trafficking system as well. [23] These factors all contribute to the debate on human rights and their relations with sex tourism. In The Prostitution of Sexuality, Barry argues that the growing sex tourism industry reflects a global increase in sexual exploitation, and a lack of concern for the rights and dignity of sex workers. [44] Barry states that sex tourism, as well as the growing international porn industry, indicate a normalization of prostitution and an increase in the exploitation of women. [44] Additionally, Barry argues that sex tourism and prostitution directly contribute to gender inequality, and that general feminist political action should be expanded to include active opposition to prostitution. [44]

Prostitution across the globe

The legality of prostitution and of enforcement of such laws varies considerably around the world.

  Decriminalization - No criminal penalties for prostitution
  Legalization - prostitution legal and regulated
  Abolitionism - prostitution is legal, but organized activities such as brothels and pimping are illegal; prostitution is not regulated
  Neo-abolitionism - illegal to buy sex and for 3rd party involvement, legal to sell sex
  Prohibitionism - prostitution illegal
  Legality varies with local laws

See also

Related Research Articles

Child sex tourism (CST) is tourism for the purpose of engaging in the prostitution of children, which is commercially facilitated child sexual abuse. The definition of child in the United Nations Convention on the Rights of the Child is "every human being below the age of 18 years". Child sex tourism results in both mental and physical consequences for the exploited children, which may include sexually transmitted infections, "drug addiction, pregnancy, malnutrition, social ostracism, and possibly death", according to the State Department of the United States. Child sex tourism, part of the multibillion-dollar global sex tourism industry, is a form of child prostitution within the wider issue of commercial sexual exploitation of children. Child sex tourism victimizes approximately 2 million children around the world. The children who perform as prostitutes in the child sex tourism trade often have been lured or abducted into sexual slavery.

Child prostitution Prostitution involving a child

Child prostitution is prostitution involving a child, and it is a form of commercial sexual exploitation of children. The term normally refers to prostitution of a minor, or person under the legal age of consent. In most jurisdictions, child prostitution is illegal as part of general prohibition on prostitution.

Prostitution in Thailand

Prostitution has been common in Thailand for centuries. During the Ayutthaya Kingdom (1351–1767), prostitution was legal and taxed, and the state ran brothels. Prostitution is not illegal in Thailand, although many activities associated with it are. Nevertheless, it was estimated to be worth US$6.4 billion a year in revenue (2015), accounting for a significant portion of the national GDP.

Forced prostitution, also known as involuntary prostitution, is prostitution or sexual slavery that takes place as a result of coercion by a third party. The terms "forced prostitution" or "enforced prostitution" appear in international and humanitarian conventions such as the Rome Statute of the International Criminal Court but have been insufficiently understood and inconsistently applied. "Forced prostitution" refers to conditions of control over a person who is coerced by another to engage in sexual activity.

Human trafficking in the Philippines

Human trafficking and the prostitution of children is a significant issue in the Philippines, often controlled by organized crime syndicates. Human trafficking is a crime against humanity.

Prostitution in the Philippines is illegal, although somewhat tolerated, with law enforcement being rare with regards to sex workers. Penalties range up to life imprisonment for those involved in trafficking, which is covered by the Anti-Trafficking in Persons Act of 2003. Prostitution is available through bars, karaoke bars, massage parlors, brothels, street walkers, and escort services.

Prostitution in Mexico

Prostitution in Mexico is legal under Federal Law. Each of the 31 states enacts its own prostitution laws and policies. Thirteen of the states of Mexico allow and regulate prostitution. Prostitution involving minors under 18 is illegal. Some Mexican cities have enacted "tolerance zones" which allow regulated prostitution and function as red light districts. In Tuxtla Gutiérrez, capital of the state of Chiapas, there is a state-run brothel at the Zona Galáctica. In most parts of the country, pimping is illegal, although pimp-worker relationships still occur, sometimes under female pimps called "madrotas". The government provides shelter for former prostitutes.

Prostitution in Jamaica is illegal but widely tolerated, especially in tourist areas. UNAIDS estimate there to be 18,696 prostitutes in the country.

Prostitution in Brazil

Prostitution in Brazil is legal, in terms of exchanging sex for money, as there are no laws forbidding adults from being professional sex workers, but it is illegal to operate a brothel or to employ sex workers in any other way. Public order and vagrancy laws are used against street prostitutes. The affordability of prostitutes is the most inquired-about term in word completion queries on purchases on Google in Brazil.

Prostitution in Costa Rica is legal. Costa Rica's legal system is based on Roman law rather than common law, and so for prostitution to be illegal it would have to be explicitly stated as such in a penal code, and it is not. Nevertheless, many of the activities surrounding it are illegal, as the law forbids promoting or facilitating the prostitution of another, and therefore pimping, brothels, or prostitution rings are illegal. Prostitution is common and is practiced openly throughout the country, particularly in popular tourism destinations.

Prostitution in Cuba is not officially illegal, however, there is legislation against pimps, sexual exploitation of minors and pornography. Sex tourism has existed in the country, both before and after the 1959 Cuban Revolution. Many Cubans do not consider the practice immoral. In Cuban slang, female prostitutes are called Jineteras, and gay male prostitutes are called Jineteros or Pingueros. The terms literally mean "jockey" or "rider", and colloquially "sexual jockey", and connotes sexual control during intercourse. The terms also have the broader meaning of "hustler", and are related to jineterismo, a range of illegal or semi-legal economic activities related to tourism in Cuba. Stereotypically a jinetera is represented as a working-class Afro-Cuban woman. Black and mixed-race prostitutes are generally preferred by foreign tourists seeking to buy sex on the island. UNAIDS estimate there are 89,000 prostitutes in the country.

Prostitution in Panama is legal and regulated. Prostitutes are required to register and carry identification cards. However, the majority of prostitutes are not registered. There are 2,650 sex workers registered with the government in 2008, but there was no accurate information regarding the total number of persons practising prostitution in the country. Some estimate put the number of unregistered prostitutes at 4,000.

Prostitution in Kenya is widespread. The legal situation is complex. Although prostitution is not criminalised by Federal law, municipal by-laws may prohibit it.. It is illegal to profit from the prostitution of others, and to aid, abet, compel or incite prostitution.. UNAIDS estimate there to be 133,675 prostitutes in the country.

Sex industry Field of business

The sex industry consists of businesses that either directly or indirectly provide sex-related products and services or adult entertainment. The industry includes activities involving direct provision of sex-related services, such as prostitution, strip clubs, host and hostess clubs and sex-related pastimes, such as pornography, sex-oriented men's magazines, sex movies, sex toys and fetish and BDSM paraphernalia. Sex channels for television and pre-paid sex movies for video on demand, are part of the sex industry, as are adult movie theaters, sex shops, peep shows, and strip clubs.

Thailand has an unfortunate reputation for being a centre for child sex tourism and child prostitution. Even though domestic and international authorities work to protect children from sexual abuse, the problem still persists in Thailand and many other Southeast Asian countries. Child prostitution, like other forms of child sexual abuse, not only causes death and high morbidity rates in millions of children but also violates their rights and dignity.

Prostitution in Cambodia is illegal, but prevalent. A 2008 Cambodian Law on Suppression of Human Trafficking and Sexual Exploitation has proven controversial, with international concerns regarding human rights abuses resulting from it, such as outlined in the 2010 Human Rights Watch report.

Prostitution in Madagascar is legal, and common, especially in tourist areas. Related activities such as soliciting, procuring, living off the earnings of prostitution or keeping a brothel are prohibited. Public Order laws are also used against prostitutes. There are recent laws against "consorting with female prostitutes". People caught paying for sex with children under 14 can face criminal penalties of up to 10 years imprisonment. This is strictly enforced against foreign tourists. As well as in the tourist areas, prostitution also occurs around the mining towns of the interior such as Ilakaka and Andilamena. It was estimated that there were 167,443 sex workers in the country in 2014.

Prostitution in the Gambia is widespread but illegal. Most of the estimated 3,100 prostitutes in the Gambia are from Sierra Leone, Liberia, and Guinea. Prostitution takes place on the beach, in bars and hotels on the coast. Away from the coast, prostitution mainly takes place in bars. The bars are frequently raided and the foreign prostitutes deported. They often return within a few days.

Sex tourism in Ukraine

Sex tourism in Ukraine is visiting the country for the purposes of sexual activity. It is on rise as the country attracts many foreign visitors. The main reason for the situation stem from the combined effect of various factors. Currently, in Ukraine, the effect is constituted by a high level of the population poverty and its feminization, limited options for social mobility and very active system of organized crime.

Prostitution in Barbados is legal but related activities such as brothel keeping and solicitation are prohibited. The country is a sex tourism destination, including female sex tourism.

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