Extramarital sex

Last updated

Extramarital sex occurs when a married person engages in sexual activity with someone other than his or her spouse.

Contents

The term may be applied to the situation of a single person having sex with a married person. From a religious perspective, it could refer to sex between people who are not in a conjugal[ when defined as? ] relationship.

Where extramarital sexual relations breach a sexual norm, it may be referred to as adultery (sexual acts between a married person and a person other than the spouse), fornication (sexual acts between unmarried people), philandery, or infidelity . These terms imply moral or religious consequences, whether in civil law or religious law.

Prevalence

American researcher Alfred Kinsey found in his 1950-era studies that 50% of American males and 26% of females had extramarital sex. [1] Depending on studies, it was estimated that 2650% of men and 2138% of women, [2] or 22.7% of men and 11.6% of women had extramarital sex. [3] Other authors say that between 20% and 25% of Americans had sex with someone other than their spouse. [4] Durex's Global Sex Survey (2005) found that 44% of adults worldwide reported having had one-night extramarital sex and 22% had an affair. [5] According to a 2004 United States survey, [6] 16% of married partners have had extramarital sex, nearly twice as many men as women, while an additional 30% have fantasized about extramarital sex.

A 2018 US study found that 53.5% of Americans who admitted having extramarital sex did so with someone they knew well, such as a close friend. About 29.4% were with someone who's somewhat well-known, such as a neighbor, co-worker or long-term acquaintance, and the rest were with casual acquaintances. [7] The study also found some gender differences, such as that men are more likely than women to hold more favorable attitudes about extramarital sex, and that among those who reported having extramarital sex in the past year, about 12% of men had paid for sex (or to have received payment for sex) compared to 1% for women. [7]

Other studies have shown rates of extramarital sex as low as 2.5%. [2]

Engagement in extramarital sex has been associated with individuals who have a higher libido (sex drive) than their partner. [8]

Religious views

Christianity

Christianity teaches that extramarital sex is immoral and sin. Scriptural foundations for this teaching are passages like 1 Corinthians 6:9–10:

"Or do you not know that wrongdoers will not inherit the kingdom of God? Do not be deceived: Neither the sexually immoral nor idolaters nor adulterers nor men who have sex with men nor thieves nor the greedy nor drunkards nor slanderers nor swindlers will inherit the kingdom of God."

In Christian marriage, husband and wife publicly promise fidelity to each other until death. Adultery contradicts this promise.

Hinduism

Hinduism condemns extramarital sex as sin. [9]

Islam

Traditional interpretations of Islamic law (or Sharia) prescribe severe punishments for zina , or extramarital sex, by both men and women. Premarital sex could be punished by up to 100 lashes, while adultery is punishable by stoning (but this punishment is no longer common). The act of sexual penetration must, however, be attested by at least four male Muslim witnesses of good character, the accused has a right to testify in court, the suspect's word or testimony is required to hold the most weight in the eyes of the judge(s), punishments are reserved to the legal authorities and the law states that false accusations are to be punished severely.[ citation needed ] The former regulations also make some Muslims believe, that the process's goal was to eventually abolish the physical penalties relating to acts of fornication and adultery that were already present within many societies around the world when Islamic teachings first arose. According to this view, the principles are so rigorous in their search for evidence, that they create the near impossibility of being able to reach a verdict that goes against the suspect in any manner. [10]

Judaism

The Torah prescribes the death penalty through stoning for adultery, which is defined as having sex with a woman who is married to another man. Two witnesses of good character had to testify in court for the case to be even considered by the judges.

Israelite and historic Jewish society was polygynous (one man could have many wives), so the marital status of the man was irrelevant. If a woman, however, is unmarried, a sexual relationship, though highly immoral and sinful from the religion's point of view, is not considered to be adultery, and therefore not punishable by death, but by lashing.

Any physical punishments for any sins were in effect at the times of Judges and the Holy Temple. Now, any physical punishment is prohibited by Judaism—as no proper judicial process can be provided until the Holy Temple is rebuilt by the Messiah.

Law

Extramarital sex is not illegal in many countries and most states in the United States. Virginia prosecuted John Bushey for adultery in 2001. [11] Other states allow jilted spouses to sue their ex-partners' lovers for alienation of affections. [11]

Extramarital sex is illegal in some Muslim-majority countries, including Saudi Arabia, Pakistan, [12] Afghanistan, [13] [14] [15] Iran, [15] Kuwait, [16] Maldives, [17] Morocco, [18] Oman, [19] Mauritania, [20] United Arab Emirates, [21] [22] Qatar, [23] Sudan, [24] Egypt, and Yemen. [25]

See also

Related Research Articles

Chastity An ethic concept of temperance related to sexuality

Chastity is a virtue related to temperance. Someone who is chaste refrains either from sexual activity considered immoral or any sexual activity, according to his or her state of life. In some contexts, for example when making a vow of chastity, chastity would mean the same as celibacy.

Marriage Culturally recognised union between people

Marriage, also called matrimony or wedlock, is a culturally recognised union between people, called spouses, that establishes rights and obligations between them, as well as between them and their children, and between them and their in-laws. The definition of marriage varies between cultures and religions, and within a culture or religion, over time. It has expanded and also constricted in terms of who and what is encompassed. Typically, it is an institution in which interpersonal relationships, usually sexual, are acknowledged or sanctioned. In some cultures, marriage is recommended or considered to be compulsory before pursuing any sexual activity. When defined broadly, marriage is considered a cultural universal. A marriage ceremony is called a wedding.

Adultery is extramarital sex that is considered objectionable on social, religious, moral, or legal grounds. Although the sexual activities that constitute adultery vary, as well as the social, religious, and legal consequences, the concept exists in many cultures and is similar in Christianity, Judaism and Islam. A single act of sexual intercourse is generally sufficient to constitute adultery, and a more long-term sexual relationship is sometimes referred to as an affair.

Virginity State of a person who has never engaged in sexual intercourse

Virginity is the state of a person who has never engaged in sexual intercourse. There are cultural and religious traditions that place special value and significance on this state, predominantly towards unmarried females, associated with notions of personal purity, honor and worth.

Infidelity Cheating, adultery, or having an affair

Infidelity is a violation of a couple's assumed or stated contract regarding emotional and/or sexual exclusivity. Other scholars define infidelity as a violation according to the subjective feeling that one's partner has violated a set of rules or relationship norms; this violation results in feelings of anger, jealousy, sexual jealousy, and rivalry.

Premarital sex is sexual activity practiced by people before they are married. Historically, premarital sex was considered a moral issue which was taboo in many cultures and considered a sin by a number of religions, but since about the 1960s, it has become more widely accepted, especially in Western countries. A 2014 Pew study on global morality found that premarital sex was considered particularly unacceptable in "predominantly Muslim nations", such as Malaysia, Indonesia, Jordan, Pakistan, and Egypt, each having over 90% disapproval, while people in Western European countries were the most accepting, with Spain, Germany, and France expressing less than 10% disapproval.

Hudood Ordinances Part of Pakistans Islamization

The Hudood Ordinances are laws in Pakistan that were enacted in 1979 as part of then military ruler Zia-ul-Haq's "Sharisation or "Islamisation" process. It replaced parts of the British-era Pakistan Penal Code, adding new criminal offences of adultery and fornication, and new punishments of whipping, amputation, and stoning to death. After much controversy and criticism parts of the law were extensively revised in 2006 by the Women's Protection Bill.

Zina Adultery in Islam

Zināʾ (زِنَاء) or zina is an Islamic legal term referring to unlawful sexual intercourse. According to traditional jurisprudence, zina can include adultery, fornication, prostitution, rape, sodomy, homosexuality, incest, and bestiality. Although classification of homosexual intercourse as zina differs according to legal school, the majority apply the rules of zinā to homosexuality, mostly male homosexuality. The Quran disapproved of the promiscuity prevailing in Arabia at the time, and several verses refer to unlawful sexual intercourse, including one that prescribes the punishment of 100 lashes for fornicators. Four witnesses are required to prove the offense. Zina thus belongs to the class of hadd crimes which have Quranically specified punishments.

Islamic sexual jurisprudence

Islamic sexual jurisprudence is a part of family, marital, hygienical and criminal jurisprudence of Islam that concerns the Islamic laws of sexuality in Islam, as largely predicated on the Qur'an, the sayings of Muhammad (hadith) and the rulings of religious leaders' (fatwa) confining sexual activity to marital relationships between men and women. While most traditions discourage celibacy, all encourage strict chastity, modesty and privacy with regard to any relationships between genders, holding forth that their intimacy as perceived within Islam – encompassing a swath of life broader than sexual activity – is largely reserved for marriage. This sensitivity to gender difference, gender seclution and modesty outside of marriage can be seen in current prominent aspects of Islam, such as interpretations of Islamic dress and degrees of gender segregation.

Rajm

Rajm in Islam refers to the Hudud punishment wherein an organized group throws stones at a convicted individual until that person dies. Under some versions of Islamic law (Sharia), it is the prescribed punishment in cases of adultery committed by a married man or married woman. The conviction requires a confession from either the adulterer/adulteress, or the testimony of four witnesses, or pregnancy outside of marriage.

Sexual ethics or sex ethics is the study of ethics in relation to human sexuality, and sexual behavior. Sexual ethics seeks to understand, evaluate, and critique the conduct of interpersonal relationships and sexual activities from social, cultural, and philosophical perspectives. Sexual ethics involve issues such as gender identification, sexual orientation, consent, sexual relations, and procreation. Sex has historically been an issue of great importance to people in cultures all over the world, and as such is a pertinent topic of discussion and study. As sex is a social practice that varies widely in the ways that it is understood, performed, and discussed, there is much to be said for a critical and comprehensive study of sexual ethics and norms.

LGBT rights in Afghanistan Rights of LGBT people in Afghanistan

Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual and Transgender people in the Islamic Republic of Afghanistan face legal challenges not experienced by non-LGBT residents. Members of the LGBTQ+ community are forced to keep their gender identity and sexual orientation a secret in fear of harassment, intimidation, persecution, and death. The religious nature of the nation and a lack of public education on the subject has limited any opportunity for public discussion, with any mention of homosexuality and related terms deemed taboo. Afghanistan's Constitution establishes the prominence of Sharia law as a precursor to all other laws, policies, and regulations, allowing for religious interpretations by the State in prohibiting all forms of same-sex sexual activity. Although the Penal Code of 1976 was reinstated after the American invasion of 2001, the country's new Penal Code of 2017 came into force on February 14, 2018. The new Penal Code outlines and prohibits specific activities of a sexual nature, and is considered to disproportionately affect members of the LGBTQ+ community.

Islam and masturbation

There are varying scholarly opinions regarding the permissibility of masturbation in Islam. Islamic scripture does not specifically mention masturbation. There are a few Hadiths mentioning it, but these are classified as unreliable.

Pace v. Alabama, 106 U.S. 583 (1883), was a case in which the United States Supreme Court affirmed that Alabama's anti-miscegenation statute was constitutional. This ruling was rejected by the Supreme Court in 1964 in McLaughlin v. Florida and in 1967 in Loving v. Virginia. Pace v. Alabama is possibly the first recorded interracial sex court case in America.

Stoning

Stoning, or lapidation, is a method of capital punishment where a group throws stones at a person until the subject dies from blunt trauma. It has been attested as a form of punishment for grave misdeeds since ancient times. Its adoption in some legal systems has caused controversy in recent decades.

Sodomy

Sodomy or buggery is generally anal or oral sex between people or sexual activity between a person and a non-human animal (bestiality), but it may also mean any non-procreative sexual activity. Originally, the term sodomy, which is derived from the story of Sodom and Gomorrah in the Book of Genesis, was commonly restricted to anal sex. Sodomy laws in many countries criminalized the behavior. In the Western world, many of these laws have been overturned or are not routinely enforced.

Sex and gender roles in the Catholic Church

Sex and gender roles in the Roman Catholic Church have been the subject of both intrigue and controversy throughout the Church's history. The cultural influence of the Catholic Church has been vast, particularly upon Western society. Christian concepts, introduced into evangelized societies worldwide by the Church, had a significant impact on established cultural views of sex and gender roles. Human sacrifice, slavery, infanticide and polygamy practiced by cultures such as those of the Roman Empire, Europe, Latin America and parts of Africa came to an end through Church evangelization efforts. Historians note that Catholic missionaries, popes and religious were among the leaders in campaigns against slavery, an institution that has existed in almost every culture and often included sexual slavery of women. Christianity affected the status of women in evangelized cultures like the Roman Empire by condemning infanticide, divorce, incest, polygamy and marital infidelity of both men and women. Some critics say the Church and teachings by St. Paul, the Church Fathers, and scholastic theologians perpetuated a notion that female inferiority was divinely ordained, while current Church teaching considers women and men to be equal, different, and complementary.

Thou shalt not commit adultery One of the Ten Commandments

"Thou shalt not commit adultery", one of the Ten Commandments, is found in the Book of Exodus of the Hebrew Bible and Old Testament. It is considered the sixth commandment by Roman Catholic and Lutheran authorities, but the seventh by Jewish and most Protestant authorities. What constitutes adultery is not plainly defined in this passage of the Bible, and has been the subject of debate within Judaism and Christianity.

Fornication Consensual sexual intercourse while not married

Fornication is generally consensual sexual intercourse between two people not married to each other. When one or more of the partners having consensual sexual intercourse is a married person, it is called adultery.

Rape in Islamic law

In Islam, human sexuality is governed by God's law. Accordingly, sexual violation is regarded as a violation of moral and divine law. Islam divided claims of sexual violation into 'divine rights' and 'interpersonal rights' : the former requiring divine punishment and the latter belonging to the more flexible human realm.

References

  1. The Kinsey Institute. Data from Alfred Kinsey's Studies Archived 2010-07-26 at the Wayback Machine . Published online.
  2. 1 2 Choi, K.H., Catania, J.A., & Dolcini, M.M. (1994). Extramarital sex and HIV risk behavior among U.S. adults: Results from the national AIDS behavioral survey. American Journal of Public Health, 84, 12, pp. 2003-2007.
  3. Wiederman,M.W. (1997). Extramarital sex: prevalence and correlates in a national survey Archived 2007-11-12 at the Wayback Machine . Journal of Sex Research, 34, 2, pp. 167–175.
  4. Atkins, D.C., Baucom, D.H. and Jacobson, N.S. (2001). Understanding Infidelity: Correlates in a National Random Sample. Journal of Family Psychology, 15, 4, pp. 735-749
  5. Durex. The Global Sex Survey 2005 Archived March 15, 2009, at the Wayback Machine . Published online.
  6. "American Sex Survey" (PDF). abcnews. 2004. p. 26. Retrieved 2009-09-04. Short Analysis here
  7. 1 2 According to research from the University of Colorado Boulder's Department of Psychology and Neuroscience, reported at Extramarital sex partners likely to be close friends, men more apt to cheat: study
  8. 1997, Vulnerability to HIV infection and effects of AIDS in Africa and Asia/India - Page 47, James Ntozi
  9. "The Hindu Mind: Fundamentals of Hindu Religion and Philosophy for All Ages", by Bansi Pandit, p. 361, 2001.
  10. "ASMA SOCIETY - American Society for Muslim Advancement". asmasociety.org. Archived from the original on 2010-07-05.
  11. 1 2 "Hate the Husband? Sue the Mistress!". The Huffington Post.
  12. Jordan, Mary (21 August 2008). "Searching for Freedom, Chained by the Law". The Washington Post. Retrieved 3 August 2013.
  13. Ernesto Londoño (2012-09-09). "Afghanistan sees rise in 'dancing boys' exploitation". The Washington Post. DEHRAZI, Afghanistan. Archived from the original on 2013-05-10.
  14. "Home". AIDSPortal. Archived from the original on 26 October 2008. Retrieved 2 August 2013.
  15. 1 2 "Iran". Travel.state.gov. Archived from the original on 1 August 2013. Retrieved 3 August 2013.
  16. "United Nations Human Rights Website - Treaty Bodies Database - Document - Summary Record - Kuwait". Unhchr.ch. Retrieved 2 August 2013.
  17. "Culture of Maldives". Every Culture. Retrieved 3 August 2013.
  18. "Morocco: Should pre-marital sex be legal?". BBC News.
  19. "www.interpol.com" (PDF). interpol.com. Archived from the original (PDF) on 2016-05-16.
  20. "2010 Human Rights Report: Mauritania". State.gov. 8 April 2011. Retrieved 2 August 2013.
  21. "Education in Dubai". Dubaifaqs.com. Retrieved 2 August 2013.
  22. Judd, Terri; Sajn, Nikolina (10 July 2008). "Briton faces jail for sex on Dubai beach". The Independent. Retrieved 3 August 2013.
  23. ""Sex outside marriage is a criminal offense here," PH ambassador to Qatar warns Pinoys". SPOT.ph. 12 September 2011. Retrieved 3 August 2013.
  24. "Sudan must rewrite rape laws to protect victims". Reuters. 28 June 2007. Retrieved 2 August 2013.
  25. "Women's Rights in the Middle East and North Africa - Yemen". Unhcr.org. Retrieved 2 August 2013.