Adult Film Association of America

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Adult Film Association of America
Adult Film Association of America logo.png
AFAA logo
AbbreviationAFAA
Formation1969;51 years ago (1969) [1]
Dissolved1992 (1992) [2]
Type Trade association [3]
Legal statusMerged with Free Speech Legal Defense Fund [2]
PurposeAdvocacy for the adult film industry, opposition to censorship, presentation of erotic movie awards
Location
  • United States
Membership
285 producers, distributors, theater owners, cable programmers, and videocassette manufacturers in the adult film business [1]

The Adult Film Association of America (AFAA) was the first American association of pornographic film producers. It fought against censorship laws, attempted to defend the industry against prosecution for obscenity, and held an annual adult film awards ceremony. Founded in 1969, it continued separate operation until 1992 when it merged with Free Speech Legal Defense Fund. [2] The organization was also host to the Erotic Film Awards which were held from 1977 until 1986.

Contents

History

Origin, 1970s and 1980s

It was founded in 1969 in Kansas City, with Sam Chernoff of Astro-Jemco Film Co. as the first president. Other notable presidents included film producer David F. Friedman, elected the third president in 1971, and re-elected four times before becoming Chairman of the Board, and erotic actress and magazine publisher Gloria Leonard, who became president in 1986. [4]

It held adult film awards ceremonies for 10 years during the Golden Age of Porn. The first awards ceremony was held July 14, 1977, at the Wilshire Ebell Theatre in Los Angeles while religious protesters picketed outside, [5] as they would several years thereafter. [1] [6] [7] [8] [9] [10] [11] "These feverish protesters are such a familiar part of the ritual, they really should be listed in the program," sex news magazine Cheri stated after the 1983 awards. [12]

With the advent of pornography on video, in early 1986 the AFAA renamed itself Adult Film and Video Association of America (AFVAA) [13] and added a new award category, best adult video. The 10th annual awards, held at the Sheraton Premiere Hotel in Los Angeles on June 29, 1986, were the last.

The association changed its name again in 1987 to the Adult Video Association (AVA). [14] No awards were given for 1987. [15] Instead, in mid-1988 they were replaced by an annual Night of the Stars dinner-dance and legal fundraiser, [16] the fifth of which it held in June 1992 with more than 500 people in attendance, the association's biggest show ever. [2] Lifetime Achievement Awards were presented at the Night of the Stars, however, film awards were discontinued.

1990s

By February 1992, the tables were turned – association members "picketed the Public Forum on Pornography sponsored by religious groups who hope to institute morality codes back into all movies made." [2]

In October 1992, Video Vixens Trading Cards for collectors were released with part of the profits going to the AVA. That same month, the AVA and Free Speech Legal Defense Fund, which had been organized in 1991, unified to create a new umbrella organization, the Free Speech Coalition (FSC). [2] [17] Its role as the trade association of the adult entertainment industry [3] was taken over by the FSC, which acknowledges the AFAA as its first ancestor. [18]

AFAA award history

Pornographic actress Marilyn Chambers presented the very first award for best erotic motion picture to the L. Sultana production of The Opening of Misty Beethoven , while runner-up was Count the Ways, produced by Virginia Ann Perry. [5] Jennifer Welles and Jamie Gillis were the first winners in the best actress and best actor categories. Pornographic actor John Holmes told the crowd at the first year's awards, "In the not-too-far distant future we will proudly say that we were pioneers." [5]

Retroactive awards of merit were also given to five movies considered best from 1955 to 1975: Tonight for Sure , Not Tonight, Henry! Trader Hornee and Sometime Sweet Susan. Deep Throat was also honored as one of the top-grossing of all movies, including mainstream films, of 1972. Board chairman Friedman said the AFAA was "much too busy fighting legal battles" in the early days to hold awards ceremonies, so these special awards were intended to make up for not having presented them in the past. [5]

For a time the most notable erotic film awards were those of the AFAA, considered to be "the closest thing the porn world's got to filmdom's Oscar derby." [11] Many stars would arrive in chauffeur-driven limousines while some would vie for attention by arriving in a four-horse carriage, a Roman chariot, a horse or even an elephant. [19] The third annual awards "drew a festive crowd of some 600 porn-people plus several hundred hard-core fans to the Hollywood Palladium." [8] Subsequent awards shows even attracted celebrities such as The Godfather director Francis Ford Coppola, [11] [20] singer Stephen Bishop [20] and gonzo journalist Hunter S. Thompson [13] to be part of the audience and comedian Jackie Gayle [20] and singer Jaye P. Morgan of The Gong Show to be part of evening's entertainment. [19] The fifth and eighth awards ceremonies were videotaped and offered to cable and subscription television [1] [19] and for sale on VHS cassettes while the seventh was taped for an August 1983 broadcast on Playboy TV. Other awards during the porno chic era included Adam Film World's X-Caliber awards, first given out in 1975 and based on votes of fans, [5] Hustler magazine's Erotic Movie Awards, first presented in 1977 and the Critics Adult Film Awards, bestowed by a New York-based group of East Coast adult sex film critics from 1981 to 1987.

By the third awards ceremony in 1980, although the concept was seen as positive, adult entertainment magazine Genesis reported they were "beginning to generate as much controversy as the regular Academy Awards, or more." [9] While it seemed "politicking" gave the Best Film award to Legend of Lady Blue over heavy favorites Sex World and Take Off, the "most glaring lack of any validity" was shown by giving the best actor award to Aldo Ray. "The Erotica Awards are supposed to be presented to sex-film performers who both 'act' well and 'perform' well. In Sweet Savage, not only did Aldo Ray not 'act' particularly well—his part was simply gratuitous...he never even performed at all. The fact is he never even took his clothes off, nor did he show up to receive his award." [9] Aside from that, Sweet Savage was released "well into 1979" and the films nominated were supposed to have been released in 1978, leaving the impression the AFAA gave him the award to "capitalize on his name and to obtain more media coverage." [9] Adam Film World Guide, however, reported the following year's awards, which were presented in July 1981, "covered films released from mid-1980 to the middle of '81", [19] which could have meant Sweet Savage was eligible for awards in 1979 if the same time frame was considered. Meanwhile, Adam Film World noted Ray's award "was not surprising considering that one of the announced functions of the aFAA and its annual awards is to upgrade the image of the adult film industry in the public eye." [8]

Originally the Erotica Awards were determined by vote of the "association's membership of more than 700 producers, distributors and theater operators." [19] However, in later years the AFAA ceremony was increasingly accused of bias, with a "belief among some that the West Coast producers were controlling what films received the awards" after Amanda By Night was passed over for best film at the 1981 awards. [1] Starting with the awards presented in 1982, the AFAA decided to appoint an independent jury of three persons not associated with the adult film industry to make the final choices from the five finalists in each category. [1] Jurors subsequently included an assortment of men and women such as a sexologist, [21] author Robert Rimmer [1] and journalists such as Brendan Gill of The New Yorker [11] and other publications including Daily Variety , Playboy , USA Today and the Los Angeles Herald Examiner . [4] [22]

However, criticism continued, especially for the best erotic scene victory of Virginia in 1984, which led to the founding of the X-Rated Critics Organization and its Heart-On Awards. [1] The role of adult film awards has been mostly supplanted by the AVN Awards, which also launched in 1984.

Credo

The AFAA had a credo that "recognized the responsibilities of adult filmmakers to the general public": [23] 1. That films of adult subject matter will be produced for and exhibited to adult audiences and that persons not of legal age will not be admitted. 2. That the definition of an "adult" is that designation set by the constituted authorities of the community but in no event any persons under the age of 18 years. 3. That we will produce and exhibit only films that are in conformity with the Free Speech Provisions of the Constitution of the United States of America. 4. That we will respect the privacy of the general public in our advertising and public displays. 5. That we in no manner will condone, produce or exhibit child pornography in any form.

Erotic Film Awards

Erotic Film Awards
Awarded forExcellence in erotic film
Sponsored byAdult Film Association of America
Location Los Angeles, California
CountryUnited States
Presented byAdult Film Association of America
Hosted by David F. Friedman
Reward(s)Trophy
First awarded1977
Last awarded1986
Television/radio coverage
Network Playboy TV

The AFAA awards were called the Erotic Film Awards and the trophy, known as the Erotica Award, [22] was a golden statuette "in the form of a shapely nude holding high a rampant spear in an obvious attitude of erotic excitement." [5] Winners are shown below in the year the awards were presented:

Best Picture

YearAwardRecipient
1977Winner The Opening of Misty Beethoven – L. Sultana [24]
NomineesCount the Ways – Virginia Ann Perry, producer [1] [5]
1978Winner Desires Within Young Girls Harold Lime, producer [6] [24]
Nominees
1979Winner Legend of Lady Blue – John Byron [7] [8]
NomineesSex World, Take Off, [9] Bad Penny, Candy Stripers , China Cat, Debbie Does Dallas , Deep Roots, Dirty Lilly, Erotic Adventures of Candy, Fiona on Fire, Girls of Pussycat Ranch, Hot Skin, Little Girls Blue, Little Orphan Dusty, Pretty Peaches , Skin Flicks, Sweet Savage, The Health Spa, The Other Side of Julie [25]
1980Winner Babylon Pink Cecil Howard [24]
NomineesEasy, The Ecstasy Girls, Fantasy, Jack 'N' Jill, Pro Ball Cheerleaders [1] [10] [26] [27]
1981Winners (tie) Talk Dirty to Me – Jerry Ross; Urban Cowgirls – Cliff Stern & Laura Stevens, producers (Jet Productions) [28]
NomineesAmanda By Night, [1] [19] Insatiable , The Budding of Brie [29]
1982WinnerNothing to Hide – Bernardo Spinelli (Cal-Vista International) [24]
FinalistsNeon Nights – Cecil Howard, Outlaw Ladies – Ron Sullivan & Eldon Byrd, Games Women Play – Chuck Vincent, Skintight – Mike De. Weldon [1] [30]
1983WinnerRoommatesChuck Vincent & Bill Slibodian, producers (Platinum Pictures) [24]
FinalistsBody Talk – Tod Jonson, producer (Key Films); Foxtrot – Cecil Howard, producer (Command Cinema); Irresistible – Joe Steinman, executive producer (Essex Distributing); Undercovers – Anne Rhine, producer (Evolution Enterprises) [22]
1984Winner The Devil in Miss Jones Part II – James George [20]
FinalistsFlesh and Laces, Part I and II – Hollywood International; Little Girls Lost – Ted Roter; Naughty Girls Need Love Too – Essex; Reel People – Richard Frazzini; Suzie Superstar – Cal Vista International; That's Outrageous – P.R.P. Inc. [24]
1985Winner Dixie Ray, Hollywood Star – Billy Thornberg [21]
FinalistsEvery Woman Has A Fantasy – Sandra Winters; Firestorm – Cecil Howard; L'amour – Marga Aulbach; Viva Vanessa – Nibo Films [31]
1986Winner Taboo American Style (The Miniseries)VCA [ citation needed ]
FinalistsThe Grafenberg Spot, Trashy Lady, Snake Eyes; New Wave Hookers [32]

Best Adult Video

YearAwardRecipient
1986Winner Dangerous Stuff Cecil Howard (Command Video)[ citation needed ]
FinalistsAngel's Revenge – Dick Miller; Black Throat – Gregory Dark; Erotic Zones, Part II – Caballero Control Corp.; The Woman In Pink – Essex [32]

Best Actress

YearAwardRecipientImage
1977Winner Jennifer Welles Little Orphan Sammy[ citation needed ]
Veronica Hart, winner of the 1983 Best Actress Erotica Award, at the 2002 AVN Adult Entertainment Expo Veronica Hart.png
Veronica Hart, winner of the 1983 Best Actress Erotica Award, at the 2002 AVN Adult Entertainment Expo
NomineesAnnette Haven [33]
1978Winner Georgina Spelvin Desires Within Young Girls [6]
Nominees
1979Winner Desireé Cousteau Pretty Peaches [7] [8]
Nominees Abigail Clayton, Carol Connors, Samantha Fox, Amber Hunt, Gloria Leonard, Sharon Mitchell, Tamara Morgan, Rhonda Jo Petty, Maurene Spring, Serena, Sharon Thorpe, Bambi Woods [25]
1980Winner Samantha Fox Jack 'N' Jill [10] [26]
Nominees Lesllie BoveeMisbehavin', Gloria Leonard – All About Gloria Leonard, Candida RoyalleProball Cheerleaders, Serena – Ecstasy Girls, Georgina Spelvin – For Richer For Poorer [27]
1981WinnerSamantha FoxThis Lady Is A Tramp [19]
Nominees
1982WinnerGeorgina SpelvinThe Dancers[ citation needed ]
FinalistsChelsea Manchester – Nothing To Hide; Annette Haven – nominated twice, for Wicked Sensations & Skintight; [1] Mai LinOriental Hawaii [30]
1983Winner Veronica Hart Roommates [24]
FinalistsSamantha Fox – Undercovers; Kelly Nichols – Roommates; Loni SandersNever So Deep; Marlene WilloughbyFoxtrot [22]
1984Winner Kelly Nichols In Love [20]
FinalistsArlene Manhattan – Aphrodesia's Diary; Jessie St. JamesBetween Lovers; Georgina Spelvin – The Devil in Miss Jones Part II; Veronica Hart – Little Girls Lost; Shauna Grant – nominated twice, for Suzie Superstar & Virginia [24]
1985WinnerRachel AshleyEvery Woman Has A Fantasy [21]
FinalistsAngel – L'amour; Lisa De LeeuwDixie Ray, Hollywood Star; Victoria Jackson – Firestorm; Kelly Nichols – Great Sexpectations [31]
1986Winner Gloria Leonard Taboo American Style (The Miniseries)[ citation needed ]
FinalistsTish Ambrose – Corporate Assets; Laurie Smith – Snake Eyes; Ginger Lynn – nominated twice, for The Grafenberg Spot & Trashy Lady [32]

Best Actor

YearAwardRecipientImage
1977Winner Jamie Gillis The Opening of Misty Beethoven [6]
John Leslie, four-time Best Actor Erotica Award winner, at the 2007 AVN Adult Entertainment Expo. John Leslie AEE Las Vegas 20070115 crop.jpg
John Leslie, four-time Best Actor Erotica Award winner, at the 2007 AVN Adult Entertainment Expo.
Nominees Harry ReemsSex Wish; Tyler Horne; Carl Lacy; Ken Turner; [34] John Holmes [33]
1978WinnerJamie GillisA Coming of Angels [6]
Nominees
1979WinnerAldo RaySweet Savage [7]
NomineesJohn Leslie, Richard Bolla, Wade Nichols, [8] Jess Chana, Joe Civera, Eric Edwards, Don Fernando, Robert Girard, John Holmes, Tony Hudson, William Margold [25]
1980WinnerJamie GillisThe Ecstasy Girls [10] [26]
NomineesJohn C. Holmes – Blonde Fire; [27] John Leslie – Sensuous Detective; [27] Turk Lyon – Proball Cheerleaders; [27] Jack WranglerJack 'N' Jill [27]
1981Winner John Leslie Talk Dirty To Me [19]
Nominees
1982WinnerJohn LeslieWicked Sensations[ citation needed ]
FinalistsRandy West – Country Comfort; [1] Ron Jeremy – Bad Girls; John Leslie – also nominated for Nothing To Hide; Richard Bolla – Indecent Exposure [30]
1983WinnerJohn LeslieTalk Dirty To Me Part II [24]
FinalistsEric Edwards – Titillation; Richard Pacheco – Irresistible; Jake Teague – Foxtrot; Steven Tyler – Body Talk [22]
1984Winner Paul Thomas Virginia [20]
FinalistsJack Wrangler – The Devil in Miss Jones Part II; Jamie Gillis – Flesh and Laces, Part I and II; Richard Pacheco – Naughty Girls Need Love Too; John Leslie – Suzie Superstar [24]
1985Winner (tie)John Leslie – tie with himself, for both Dixie Ray, Hollywood Star & Every Woman Has A Fantasy [21]
Finalists Tom ByronKinky Business; Eric Edwards – Firestorm; Harry Reems – L'amour [31]
1986Winner Jerry Butler Snake Eyes[ citation needed ]
FinalistsPaul Thomas – Taboo American Style (The Miniseries); Eric Edwards – Corporate Assets; Harry Reems – Trashy Lady; Jamie Gillis – Girls On Fire [32]

Best Supporting Actress

YearAwardRecipient
1977Winner Georgina Spelvin Ping Pong[ citation needed ]
Nominees
1978Winner Annette Haven A Coming of Angels [6]
Nominees
1979WinnerGeorgina SpelvinTake Off [7] [8]
NomineesBeth Anna, Lauria Cloud, Carol Connors, Colene Davis, Annette Haven, Arcadia Lake, Gloria Leonard, Molly Malone, Pat Manning, Kay Parker, Liz Renay, Sharon Thorpe, Eileen Wells [25]
1980WinnerGeorgina SpelvinThe Ecstasy Girls [10] [19] [26]
NomineesLisa De Leeuw – Proball Cheerleaders, Gloria Leonard – Misbehavin' , and Spelvin again in Easy & Fantasy [27]
1981WinnerGeorgina SpelvinUrban Cowgirls [19]
NomineesGloria Leonard, Jessie St. James, Juliet Anderson, Vanessa del Rio [29]
1982WinnerHolly McCallNothing To Hide[ citation needed ]
FinalistsJessie St. James – Oriental Hawaii; Merle Michaels – Outlaw Ladies; [1] Lisa DeLeeuw – 8 to 4; Georgina Spelvin – Indecent Exposure [30]
1983Winner Veronica Hart Foxtrot [24]
FinalistsSharon Mitchell – Blue Jeans; Jessie St. James – Casanova Part II; Kay Parker – nominated twice, for Body Talk & Taboo II [22]
1984Winner Kay Parker Sweet Young Foxes [20]
FinalistsVanessa del Rio – Aphrodesia's Diary; Georgina Spelvin – Between Lovers; Samantha Fox – The Devil in Miss Jones Part II; Shauna Grant – Flesh and Laces, Part I and II; Anna Ventura – That's Outrageous [24]
1985Winner Chelsea Blake Great Sexpectations [21]
FinalistsKelly Nichols, [21] Ginger Lynn, [21] Sharon Kane [21]
1986Winner Lisa De Leeuw Raw Talent[ citation needed ]
FinalistsAnnette Haven – The Grafenberg Spot; Colleen BrennanHyapatia Lee's The Ribald Tales of Canterbury; Ginger Lynn – Girls On Fire; Amber LynnTrashy Lady [32]

Best Supporting Actor

YearAwardRecipientImage
1977Winner Carlos Tobalina [22] [24] Tell Them Johnny Wadd Is Here
Ron Jeremy, two-time Best Supporting Actor Erotica Award winner, at the "Free Speech Coalition Awards Annual Bash Event", November 2009. Ron Jeremy 2009.jpg
Ron Jeremy, two-time Best Supporting Actor Erotica Award winner, at the "Free Speech Coalition Awards Annual Bash Event", November 2009.
Nominees
1978Winner John Leslie A Coming of Angels [6]
Nominees
1979Winners (tie) Roger Caine Bad Penny and John Seeman Sweet Savage 1
NomineesEd Canon, Alan B. Colberg, John Holmes, Mike Ranger [25]
1980Winner Bobby Astyr People [10] [26]
NomineesJamie Gillis – Sensuous Detective, Frank Hollowell – Ecstasy Girls, John Seeman – Ms. Magnificent, Paul Thomas – Fantasy [27]
1981Winner Richard Pacheco Talk Dirty To Me [19]
NomineesJamie Gillis, John Leslie, Joey Silvera, Randy West [29]
1982Winners (tie) Richard Bolla Outlaw Ladies and Richard PachecoNothing To Hide [24]
FinalistsJohn Leslie – Bad Girls; Paul Thomas – Wicked Sensations; Eric Edwards – Indecent Exposure [30]
1983Winner Jamie Gillis Roommates [24]
FinalistsR. Bolla – Foxtrot; Richard Pacheco – Never So Deep; John Regis – Undercovers; Randy West – The Mistress [22]
1984Winner Ron Jeremy Suzie Superstar [20]
FinalistsEric Edwards – Bodies in Heat; R. Bolla – The Devil in Miss Jones Part II; John Leslie – Naughty Girls Need Love Too; Bill MargoldSweet Alice; Billy DeeVirginia [24]
1985WinnerRon JeremyAll The Way In [21]
Finalists
1986WinnerJohn Leslie Taboo IV [ citation needed ]
FinalistsJack Baker – New Wave Hookers; Dennis Duggan – Hyapatia Lee's The Ribald Tales of Canterbury; John C. Holmes – Girls on Fire; Rick Savage – Trashy Lady [32]

Best Director

YearAwardRecipientImage
1977Winner Henry Paris The Opening of Misty Beethoven[ citation needed ]
Pornographic film director Henri Pachard, three-time Best Director Erotica Award winner, at the 2006 Erotica Los Angeles convention. Henri Pachard.jpg
Pornographic film director Henri Pachard, three-time Best Director Erotica Award winner, at the 2006 Erotica Los Angeles convention.
Nominees
1978Winner Alex de Renzy Baby Face [6]
Nominees
1979Winner Armand Weston Take Off [7] [8]
NomineesBeau Buchanan, Bob Chinn, Jim Clark, Gerard Damiano, Norm de Plume, Alex deRenzy, Claire Dia, A. Fabritzi, Ja Jaacovi, Gail Palmer, Ann Perry, Anthony Spinelli, Ken Schwartz, Mark Ubell, Johanna Williams [25]
1980Winner Henri Pachard Babylon Pink [10] [26]
NomineesAnthony Spinelli – Easy, Robert McCallum – Ecstasy Girls, Gerard Damiano – Fantasy, Jack Genero – Proball Cheerleaders [27]
1981Winner Tsanusdi Urban Cowgirls [19]
Nominees
1982Winner Anthony Spinelli Nothing To Hide[ citation needed ]
FinalistsChuck Vincent – Games Women Play; Henri Pachard – Outlaw Ladies; Cecil Howard – Neon Nights; David I. Frazer & Svetlana – Bad Girls [30]
1983Winner Chuck Vincent Roommates [24]
Finalists Gerard DamianoNever So Deep; Cecil Howard – Foxtrot; Henri Pachard – Mascara; Ann Rhine – Undercovers [22]
1984WinnerHenri PachardThe Devil in Miss Jones Part II [20]
FinalistsTroy Benny – Flesh and Laces, Part I and II; Ted Roter – Little Girls Lost; Anthony Spinelli – Reel People; Cecil Howard – Scoundrels; F. J. LincolnThat's Outrageous; Vinnie Rossi – Too Much Too Soon; John Seeman – Virginia [24]
1985WinnerAnthony SpinelliDixie Ray, Hollywood Star [21]
FinalistsCecil Howard – Firestorm; Henri Pachard – Great Sexpectations; Marga Aulbach & Jack RemyL'amour; Paul Vatelli – Stiff Competition [31]
1986WinnerHenri PachardTaboo American Style (The Miniseries)[ citation needed ]
FinalistsCecil Howard – Snake Eyes; Mitchell brothers – The Grafenberg Spot; Steve Scott – Trashy Lady; Gregory Dark – New Wave Hookers [32]

Best Screenplay

YearAwardRecipient
1977Winner The Opening of Misty Beethoven Henry Paris [24]
NomineesPortrait of a Seduction [1]
1978Winner Desires Within Young Girls Edward E. Paramore III & Ramsey Karson [6]
Nominees
1979Winner Legend of Lady Blue A. Fabritzi [7] [8]
NomineesBad Penny, Dirty Lilly, Erotic Adventures of Candy, Girls of Pussycat Ranch, Hot Skin, Little Girls Blue, Little Orphan Dusty, Sweet Savage, Sex World, Take Off, The Health Spa [25]
1980Winner The Ecstasy Girls Bill Aaron & Ted Paramore [10] [26]
NomineesEasy – Anthony Spinelli, Jack 'N' Jill – Billy S. Schaeffer, Misbehavin' – B. Slobodian/C. Vincent, Proball Cheerleaders – Jess Pearson [27]
1981Winner The Budding of Brie Dorris Borrow & Henri Pachard [19]
Nominees
1982WinnerThe Dancers – Michael Ellis[ citation needed ]
FinalistsNeon Nights – Anne Randall; Games Women Play – Chick Vincent & Jimmy James; Nothing to Hide – Michael Ellis; Outlaw Ladies – Henry Pachard [30]
1983WinnerRoommatesChuck Vincent & Rick Marx [24]
FinalistsBody Talk – Avon Coe & Art Lester; Never So Deep – Paula & Gerard Damiano; Foxtrot – Anne Randall; Undercovers – Anne Rhine; I Like To Watch – Paul Vatelli [22]
1984WinnerIn Love – Rick Marx & Chuck Vincent[ citation needed ]
FinalistsThe Devil in Miss Jones Part II – Henri Pachard & Ellie Howard; Little Girls Lost – Ted Roter; Scoundrels – Anne Randall; That's Outrageous – F. J. Lincoln [24]
1985Winner Dixie Ray, Hollywood Star – Dean Rogers [21]
Finalists
1986Winner Raw Talent Joyce Snyder [13]
FinalistsSnake Eyes – Anne Randall; Taboo American Style (The Miniseries) – Henri Pachard & Rick Marx; Corporate Assets – Thomas Paine; Trashy Lady – Steve Scott & Will Kelly [32]

Best Erotic Scene

YearAwardRecipient
1984WinnerVirginia – John Seeman, producer (the final scene with Paul Thomas & Shauna Grant was the one shown at the awards ceremony) [35]
FinalistsAphrodesia's Diary – Serge Lincoln; Flesh and Laces, Part I and II – Hollywood International; Hot Dreams – Warren Evans; Reel People – Richard Frazzini; Sexcapades – David Stone; Suzie Superstar – Cal Vista International [24]
1985WinnerFirestorm – Cecil Howard (the "red scene" group grope with Victoria Jackson, George Payne, Sharon Kane & Michael Bruce) [21]
FinalistsBody Girls – Caribbean Films; Good Girl/Bad Girl; Stud Hunters – Suze Randall; Trinity Brown – Cal Vista International [31]
1986Winners (tie) New Wave Hookers – Gregory Dark (the three-way scene with Ginger Lynn, Steve Powers & Tom Byron) and Passage Thru Pamela – Buncco, Inc. (the transsexual scene) [4]
FinalistsThe Grafenberg Spot – Mitchell brothers; Snake Eyes – Cecil Howard; Too Good To Be True – Cottonwood Productions [32]

Best Foreign Film

YearAwardRecipientImage
1977 2 WinnerLes félines (France) in French (a.k.a. The Felines ) – Daniel Daërt (Rita Films) [5] [22] France
NomineesNo other nominees [33]
1978Winner Bel Ami (Sweden) (a.k.a. For Men Only) – (Mature FIlms) [6] Sweden
Nominees
1979Winner Joy of Fooling Around (France) – Jack Matthews & Pierre DuBois (Cal Vista) [8] [22] [25] France
Nominees
1980Winner Librianna, Bitch of the Black Sea (Russia) 3 – (Evolution Enterprises) [10] [22] [26] Soviet Union
NomineesSensational Janine – (Leisure Time Booking), Sex Roulette – (Leisure Time Booking) [27]
1981 2 Winner Ta mej i dalen (Sweden) in Swedish (a.k.a. Practice Makes Perfect) – (Cal Vista) [19] [22] Sweden
Nominees

Best Musical Score

YearAwardRecipient
1977Winner Les félines Vladimir Cosma [5]
Nominees
1978Winner Seven Into Snowy Mayloo Music 4 [6] [22]
Nominees
1979Winner Sex World Berry Lipman [22]
NomineesCandy Stripers, Deep Roots, Erotic Adventures of Candy, Legend of Lady Blue, Little Orphan Dusty, Sex Flicks, Sweet Savage, Take Off, The Health Spa [25]
1980Winner The Ecstasy Girls Ronni Romanovitch [10] [19] [22] [26]
NomineesFor Richer For Poorer – Gerard Damiano; Frat House – Sven Conrad; Libriana, Bitch of the Black Sea – Bob Freeman; Ms. Magnificent – Lon Jon; Telefantasy – Pacific Coast [27]
1981Winner Amanda By Night Ronny Romanovitch [22]
Nominees
1982Winner Rhinestone Cowgirls Randy Rivera [22]
FinalistsOutlaw Ladies – Jhana Productions; Nothing To Hide – Ronny Romanouvich; The Dancers – Chet Moore and Jim Moore; Beauty Pageant – Bob Lind; Bad Girls – Bill King [30]
1983WinnerRoommatesJonathan Hannah [24]
FinalistsBody Talk – David Henry; Irresistible – Geoffrey Pekofsky; The Mistress – Ronny Romanovitch; I Like To Watch – 3 Bells West [22]
1984Winner Suzie Superstar – Horizon [11] [35]
FinalistsThe Devil in Miss Jones Part II – Barry Levitt; Scoundrels – David Ogrin & Peter Lewis; That's Outrageous – Vern Carlson; Too Much Too Soon – Shamus Music [24]
1985WinnerFirestorm – Peter Lewis & David Ogrin [21]
FinalistsAll The Way In; L'amour – Daniel Boules; Stud Hunters – George Michaelski; Dixie Ray, Hollywood Star – Daryll Keen [31]
1986Winner New Wave Hookers The Plugz [4]
FinalistsHyapatia Lee's The Ribald Tales of Canterbury – Lexi Hunter; Squalor Motel – Slavin [32]

Best Song

YearAwardRecipient
1977Winner"Sammy — Fast and Slow" [33] from Little Orphan Sammy Dave Wolff & Art Resnick [5] [22]
Nominees
1978Winner"Once Upon a Dream" from Seven Into Snowy Antonio Shepherd [6] [22]
Nominees
1979Winner"Take Off" from Take Off Elephant's Memory [8] [22]
Nominees"Six Tits In A Row" from Chorus Call; [7] "It Hurts" from Candy Stripers; [9] "Lonely Without You" from Deep Roots; "Long After I'm Gone" from Disco Lady; "Candy" from Erotic Adventures of Candy; "The Ranchand" from Girls of Pussycat Ranch; "Skin" from Hot Skin; "Little Blue Box" from Little Blue Box; "Sex World" from Sex World [25]
1980Winner"This Time We Might Make It" from The Ecstasy Girls Ronni Romanovitch [10] [22] [26]
Nominees"Leonard's Theme" from All About Gloria Leonard; "One Page of Love" from Two Sisters; "Small Town Girls" from Small Town Girls [1] [27]
1981WinnerTitle song from Vista Valley PTA Ben Dorsett [19] [22]
Nominees
1982Winner"Glory Bound" from Rhinestone Cowgirls Randy Rivera [22]
Finalists"Saran Lakes" from Outlaw Ladies; "Nothing To Lose" from Nothing To Hide; "8 To 4" theme from 8 To 4; "Neon Nights" theme from Neon Nights; "Beautiful Forever" from Centerfold Fever [30]
1983Winners (tie)"Foxtrot" from Foxtrot and "With You" from Roommates 5
Finalists"Undercover Man" from Undercovers; "Dirty Talk" from Talk Dirty To Me II; "Never Love a Single Man" from The Mistress [22]
1984Winner"If I Love You Tonight" from Suzie Superstar [11] [35]
Finalists"Sexy Faces" from Flesh and Laces, Part I and II; "It's Just The Devil In Miss Jones" from The Devil in Miss Jones Part II; "Little Girls Lost" from Little Girls Lost; "That First Love" from In Love; "A Woman In Love" from Between Lovers; "The Young Like It Hot" from The Young Like It Hot; "Outrageous" from That's Outrageous [24]
1985Winner"Firestorm Theme" from Firestorm [21]
Finalists"Body Girls Theme" from Body Girls; "Girls Just Want To" from Girls Just Want To...; "Letting Go" from Lady Dynamite; "L'amour" from L'amour [31]
1986Winner"Electrify Me" from New Wave Hookers Dark Brothers [4]
Finalists"Country Boy" from Too Good To Be True; "Roll Me Over" from The Grafenberg Spot; "Reggae Theme Song" from Raw Talent; "The Ribald Tales of Canterbury" from Hyapatia Lee's The Ribald Tales of Canterbury – Lexi Hunter [32]

Best Art and Set Decoration

YearAwardRecipient
1977Winner Les félines – Andre Gillette [5] [22]
Nominees
1978Winner Desires Within Young Girls – Brent Barrydown [6] [22]
Nominees
1979 6 Winner Sex World – Bill Wolf [8] [22]
NomineesCandy Stripers, Captain Lust, Erotic Adventures of Candy, Health Spa, Legend of Lady Blue, Girls of Pussycat Ranch, Skin Flicks, Sweet Savage, Take Off [25]
1980 6 Winner The Ecstasy Girls – Valdesta [10] [26]
NomineesAll About Gloria Leonard – Howard A. Howard; Fantasy – P. Reisenwitz/G. Damiano; For Richer For Poorer – Gerard Damiano; Small Town Girls – Ektor Carranza [27]
1981Winner Urban Cowgirls – Ektor Carranza [19] [22]
Nominees
1982Winner Pandora's Mirror – Maria Ranoldi [22]
FinalistsOutlaw Ladies – Eddie Heath; Games Women Play – Pat Finnegan; Bad Girls – Svetlana; Nothing To Hide – B. C. Lewis & Marti Maxwell; Oriental Hawaii – Eddie Duncan [30]
1983Winner Café Flesh – Paul Berthell [22] /Steve Sayadian [24]
FinalistsBody Talk – Avon Coe & Art Lester; Blonde Goddess – Bill Eagle; Casanova Part II – Maria Pia Tobalina; Foxtrot – Oslak Vabo & Anne Randall [22]
1984Winner ...In The Pink – Andre Nichipolodas [35]
FinalistsThe Devil in Miss Jones Part II – Eddie Heath; Scoundrels – Lynn Jefferies; Suzie Superstar – Robert McCallum; Virginia – Karen Fields [24]
1985Winner Dixie Ray, Hollywood Star – Brian Costales [21]
Finalists
1986WinnerDames – Jules Burke [4]
FinalistsTrashy Lady – Steve Scott; Hyapatia Lee's The Ribald Tales of Canterbury – Redi-Set; New Wave Hookers – Pez. D. Spenser; Squalor Motel – Michelle Seffman [32]

Best Cinematography

YearAwardRecipient
1977Winner Femmes de Sade Alex de Renzy [5] [22]
Nominees
1978WinnerBaby Face – Alex de Renzy [6] [22] [24]
Nominees
1979WinnerTake OffJoao Fernandez [7] [8] [22]
NomineesCaptain Lust, Erotic Adventures of Candy, Hot Skin, Legend of Lady Blue, Little Girls Blue, Pretty Peaches, Sweet Savage, The Health Spa [25]
1980Winner The Ecstasy Girls Mike Stryker [10] [24] [26]
NomineesFantasy – Harry Flecks, Jack 'N' Jill – Larry Revine, People – J. Fernandes/J. McCalmont, Proball Cheerleaders – Jack Genero [27]
1981Winner Urban Cowgirls Ken Gibb [19] [22]
Nominees
1982Winners (tie) Games Women Play Larry Revene and Nothing To HideJack Remy [22]
FinalistsSkintight – Mike Stryker; Outlaw Ladies – Leroy Reoene; Bad Girls – Jean Petrov; Oriental Hawaii – Carlos Tobalina [30]
1983WinnerFoxtrotFelix Daniels & Charles K. White [24]
FinalistsNever So Deep – Harry Flex; Roommates – Larry Revene; Casanova Part II – Carlos Tobalina; I Like To Watch – Paul G. Vatelli [22]
1984WinnerVirginiaRahn Vickery [11] [20] [35]
FinalistsAphrodesia's Diary – Gerard Loubeau; The Devil in Miss Jones Part II – Larry Revene; Flesh and Laces, Part I and II – Carlos Tobalina; Glitter – Roberta Findlay; Suzie Superstar – Robert McCallum [24]
1985Winner Dixie Ray, Hollywood Star Fred Andes [21]
Finalists
1986Winner Trashy Lady – Tom Howard [4]
FinalistsSnake Eyes – Sven Nuvo; The Grafenberg Spot – Jon Fontana; Beverly Hills Exposed – Robert McCallum; New Wave Hookers – Jr. "Speedy" Bodden [32]

Best Costume Design

YearAwardRecipient
1977Winner Femmes de Sade – Carol Maniscalco [5] [22]
NomineesNo other nominees [33]
1978WinnerBaby Face – Carol Maniscalo [6] [22]
Nominees
1979WinnerTake Off – Alexis Blassini [7] [8] [22]
NomineesCandy Stripers, Captain Lust, Erotic Adventures of Candy, Health Spa, Little Girls Blue, Pretty Peaches, Star Babe, Sweet Savage [25]
1980Winner Chopstix, the Motion Picture – Foreign Delights [10] [22] [26]
NomineesEcstasy Girls – Valdesta; Libriana, Bitch of the Black Sea – Pezda Vanutcka; Ms. Magnificent – Debbie Shine; Proball Cheerleaders – Marie Christie [27]
1981Winner Urban Cowgirls – Cheree Eastmore [19] [22]
Nominees
1982WinnerCountry Comfort – Sarah Yesko [22]
FinalistsGames Women Play – Eddie Heath; Oriental Hawaii – Maria Pia Tobalina; Bad Girls – Cindy Matzker; Pandora's Mirror – Renata Ranoldi [30]
1983Winner 1001 Erotic Nights – Victoria Donne [24]
FinalistsCafé Flesh – Polly Ester; Blue Jeans – Fran Schifrin & Guiliana Schnitzler; Irresistible – Debbie Shine; Casanova Part II – Maria Pia Tobalina [22]
1984Winner The Devil in Miss Jones Part II – Eddie Heath [11] [35]
FinalistsBetween Lovers – Raynor Shine; Scoundrels – Lynn Jefferies; Suzie Superstar – Enjoy Costumes [24]
1985Winner Sexorama – Dani Morrison [36]
Finalists
1986WinnerDames – Raynor Shine [4]
FinalistsBordello – Eddy Heath; Hyapatia Lee's The Ribald Tales of Canterbury – Sheri Eastmore; New Wave Hookers – Gregory Dark & John D. Arc; Trashy Lady – Arley [32]

Best Editing

YearAwardRecipient
1977Winner The Opening of Misty Beethoven Henry Paris [5] [22]
Nominees
1978WinnerBaby FaceRichard Chasen & Bill Westwick [6] [22]
Nominees
1979Winner Legend of Lady Blue Vilmos Vasquez [7] [8] [22]
NomineesBad Penny, China Cat, Deep Roots, Erotic Adventures of Candy, Here Comes the Bride, Hot Skin, Little Girls Blue, Pretty Peaches, Sensual Encounters, Sex World, The Health Spa [25]
1980Winner Jack 'N' Jill Martha Ubell [10] [22] [26]
NomineesChopstix – Mason Girard; Ecstasy Girls – Terrance O'Riely; Fantasy – P. Riesenwitz/G. Damiano; Misbehavin' – Chuck Vincent; Proball Cheerleaders – Cine Enterprises [27]
1981Winner Talk Dirty To Me – Tim McDonald [19] [22]
Nominees
1982Winner Outlaw Ladies Arlo Schiffin [22]
FinalistsNothing to Hide – Terrance O' Reilly; Games Women Play – James Macreading; Bad Girls – David I. Frazer; Skintight – Hayes Dupree [30]
1983WinnerRoommatesJames Macreading [24]
FinalistsNever So Deep – Paula & Gerard Damiano; Talk Dirty To Me II – Tim McDonald; The Mistress – Terrance O'Reilly; Café Flesh – Snowflake Films; Foxtrot – Oslak Vabo [22]
1984Winners (tie) The Devil in Miss Jones Part II – Ted Ryan and VirginiaFarouk Ibenson & Skip Mason [11] [35]
FinalistsFlesh and Laces, Parts I and II – Rob Freeman & Alberto Soria; Glitter – Roberta Findlay; Too Much Too Soon – Snowflake Films [24]
1985Winner Dixie Ray, Hollywood Star Peter Stootsberry & Frank A. Coe [21]
Finalists
1986Winners (tie) Taboo American Style (The Miniseries)Jim McReading and Snake EyesOslak Vabo [4]
FinalistsTrashy Lady – Steve Scott; Passion Pit – Michele M. Bale; The Adventures of Rick Quick – Kristin Leavenworth [32]

Best Trailer

YearAwardRecipient
1977Winner Little Orphan Sammy – D. W. Productions [5]
NomineesThe Double Exposure of Holly – Ronan O'Casey [33]
1978WinnerBaby Face – Alex de Renzy [6] [22]
Nominees
1979Winner Little Girls Blue – Johanna Williams[ citation needed ]
NomineesCandy Stripers, China Cat, Chorus Call, Debbie Does Dallas, Dirty Lilly, Deep Roots, Erotic Adventures of Candy, Health Spa, Legend of Lady Blue, Little Blue Box, Little Orphan Dusty, Sensual Encounter, Skin Flicks [25]
1980WinnerEasy – Terry Chiappe, Cal Vista [10] [19] [22] [26]
NomineesEcstasy Girls – Terrance O'Riely, Fantasy – P.R.P., Frat House – Richard Aldrich, Jack 'N' Jill – Chuck Vincent, Proball Cheerleaders – Jack Genero [27]
1981Winner Vista Valley PTA – Cal Vista [19] [22]
Nominees
1982Winners (tie)Skintight – Hayes Dupree and The Dancers – Terrance O'Reilly [24]
FinalistsNeon Nights – Cecil Howard; Bad Girls – David I. Frazer & Svetlana; Games Women Play – James Macreading [30]
1983Winners (tie)Foxtrot – Oslak Vabo, Anne Randall & Cecil Howard; Never So Deep – Paula & Gerard Damiano [24]
FinalistsBody Talk – Diamond Cutting; Erotic Adventures of Lolita – John Donnally; Roommates – James Macreading [22]
1984WinnerVirginia – Farouk Ibenson & Lynn Elaine [11] [20] [35]
FinalistsFlesh and Laces, Part I and II – Bob Freeman & Alberto Soria; Reel People – Terrance O'Reilly; Suzie Superstar – Sam Norrell; That's Outrageous – Jack Baker; Too Much Too Soon – Snowflake Films [24]
1985WinnerFirestorm [36]
Finalists
1986Winner New Wave Hookers – Gregory Dark & Jane Waters [4]
FinalistsSnake Eyes – Oslak Vabo; Girls On Fire – Barry Cleve; Passion Pit – Michele M. Bale; Passage Thru Pamela – Firth Demule; Beverly Hills Exposed – Terrance O'Reilly [32]

Best Advertising Campaign

YearAwardRecipient
1977WinnerLes félinesNancy B. Grant [5] [22]
NomineesThe Double Exposure of Holly – Ronan O'Casey [33]
1978WinnerEruptionChet Collom [6] [22]
Nominees
1979WinnerPretty PeachesLes Natali [22]
NomineesDebbie Does Dallas, Deep Roots, Erotic Adventures of Candy, Girls of Pussycat Ranch, Here Comes the Bride, Legend of Lady Blue, Little Blue Box, Little Orphan Dusty, Sensual Encounter, Sweet Dreams of Mona Q, The Health Spa, The Other Side of Julie [25]
1980WinnerBabylon PinkWin-Van [10] [22] [26]
NomineesAll About Gloria Leonard – F. A. Davidson, Easy – Chet Collom, Ecstasy Girls – Sampson & Cramer, Jack 'N' Jill – Frank Csoka, Proball Cheerleaders – Chet Collom [27]
1981WinnerVista Valley PTAChet Collom [19] [22]
Nominees
1982WinnerNothing To HideJimmie Johnson [22]
FinalistsBad Girls – Svetlana; Neon Nights – Cecil Howard; Games Women Play – Jim Johnson & Penelope Gottlieb; Oriental Hawaii – Maria Pia Tobalina [30]
1983WinnerBody TalkNancy Villigran [24]
FinalistsFoxtrot – Cecil Howard; Erotic Adventures of Lolita – Jimmy Johnson; I Like To Watch – Berson Lewis; Roommates – Shorelane Benet Advertising [22]
1984WinnerVirginiaWalnut Advertising [11] [20]
FinalistsAphrodesia's Diary – Sampson Advertising; Bodies In Heat – Chet Collom; Scoundrels – Cecil Howard; Suzie Superstar – Jim Houston and Associates; Walnut Advertising was also nominated for Little Girls Lost & Reel People [24]
1985WinnerL'AmourMarga Aulbach & Debbie Rubio [36]
Finalists
1986WinnerGirls on FireWalnut Advertising & Murray Perlstein [4]
FinalistsNew Wave Hookers – Cynthia Patterson; Pleasures of Innocence – Walnut Advertising; Marianne Burton was nominated twice for Passion Pit & Sex Crimes 2084 [32]

Special Awards

YearAwardRecipientImage
1977Deep Throat Award Plymouth Films , producers of Deep Throat , for its box-office success [5] [33]
Deep Throat theatrical release poster Deep Throat poster 2.jpg
Deep Throat theatrical release poster
Best Adult Film 1955-60 Tonight for Sure Francis Ford Coppola 7
Best Adult Film 1961-65 Not Tonight, Henry! Ted Paramore beat Sinderella and the Golden Bra [33] 7
Best Adult Film 1966-70 Trader Hornee [5] [23] David F. Friedman beat Starlet (also by Friedman) [33]
Best Adult Film 1971-75 Sometime Sweet Susan [5] [23] beat The Devil in Miss Jones [33]
Literary Man of the Year Prof. Arthur Knight , film critic, historian, and teacher at the University of Southern California film school [33]
1978Man of the Year Larry Flynt , publisher of Hustler , and Gene Reeves , the attorney who was with him when Flynt was shot on March 6, 1978, in Georgia. [6]
Literary Man of the Year Al Goldstein [6]
Best Media ManBruce Williamson of Playboy [6]
1979Literary Man of the Year Dr. Wardell B. Pomeroy of the Institute for Sex Research [8]
1980Media Man of the Year Jim Harwood of Daily Variety [37]
1981Media Man of the Year David Shute [28]
Woman of the Year Virginia Ann Perry-Rhine , a past AFAA president [28]
Man of the Year AwardDavid F. Friedman, a past AFAA president and current board chairman [30]
Pioneer Woman of the Year Ava Leighton [28]
Pioneer Man of the Year Dan Sonney [28]
1982
1983Pioneer Man of the Year Award Louis K. Sher [22]
Life Achievement Award Vincent Miranda [22]
1984Award of MeritDr. Lois Lee , founder of Children of the Night, on which Children of the Night was partially based on. [35]
1985Pioneer of the Year Award Paul Mart [36]

Lifetime Achievement Awards

After the Erotic Film Awards were discontinued, the association resumed presenting Lifetime Achievement Awards at its annual "Night of the Stars" fundraising event, starting in mid-1988. When the association merged into the Free Speech Coalition in late 1992, the new coalition took over the tradition.

Actresses

Actors

Directors

Joel T. Warner 'Good Guy' Award

Hal Freeman 'Freedom Isn't Free' Award

Notes

^1 Adam Film World recorded the winner of this category in 1979 as having been a tie between Roger Caine and John Seeman. [8] Cinema-X magazine recorded Roger Caine as the sole winner. [25]

^2 This award was called "Best Foreign Language Film" at the 1977 and 1981 awards shows. It was not awarded after 1981.

^3 IMDb states this movie, while advertised as the first X-rated movie made in Russia, was actually made in the U.S. [39]

^4 Adam Film World reported both Seven Into Snowy as winner of "Best Musical Score" and also Get Your Nose Out Of My Pantyhose won "Best Original Musical Score", a different award, [6] in 1978. However, the AFAA's seventh and eighth annual programs, which list previous years' winners, make no mention of Get Your Nose Out of My Pantyhose or any separate "Original" score award. As well, IMDb states "Get Your Nose Out of My Pantyhose" is not a movie, but a song from a movie called Breaker Beauties, so Adam Film World's report of an "Original" score award may be erroneous.

^5 The official 8th Annual AFAA Erotic Film Awards program lists both songs as having won the award, [24] however Jim Holliday's Only the Best book only mentions "With You" from Roommates as winning. [23] Cheri magazine's coverage of the awards doesn't mention the category at all. [11]

^6 This award was called "Best Production Values" at the 1979 and 1980 awards shows. [10] [22] [24]

^7 Adam Film World [5] ' and Cinema Blue [33] coverage of the first Erotica Awards both listed Not Tonight, Henry! as having won "Best Adult Film 1961-65" and Tonight For Sure as having won "Best Adult Film 1955-60". However, Not Tonight, Henry! premiered Dec. 30, 1960 [40] in Los Angeles, while Tonight For Sure premiered in L.A., Oct. 25, 1962, [40] so it's likely an error by the AFAA resulted in each film being given the award for the other's time period. Nominee Sinderella and the Golden Bra was listed in the correct time period. Jim Holliday's book, Only the Best, lists the movies as having won in the correct time periods, however. [23]

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  33. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 "The Blue Oscars," Cinema Blue, Vol. 2 No. 1, pp. 12–14
  34. "King Jamie", Cinema Blue, Vol. 2 No. 1, pp. 15–19.
  35. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 AFAA, 8th Annual AFAA Erotic Film Awards video, 1984
  36. 1 2 3 4 "The AFAA Eroticas: One More Time," Adam, November 1985, p. 64
  37. "The 4th Annual Erotic Awards," Adam Film World Guide, May 1981, pp. 22-26
  38. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 Adam Film World Guide 2004 Directory of Adult Films, page 305.
  39. Librianna, Bitch of the Black Sea on IMDb
  40. 1 2 "AFI CATALOG". afi.com. Retrieved 24 June 2016.