Homophobia

Last updated

Homophobia encompasses a range of negative attitudes and feelings toward homosexuality or people who are identified or perceived as being lesbian, gay, bisexual or transgender (LGBT). [1] [2] [3] It has been defined as contempt, prejudice, aversion, hatred or antipathy, may be based on irrational fear and ignorance, and is often related to religious beliefs. [4] [5]

Contents

Homophobia is observable in critical and hostile behavior such as discrimination and violence on the basis of sexual orientations that are non-heterosexual. [1] [2] [6] Recognized types of homophobia include institutionalized homophobia, e.g. religious homophobia and state-sponsored homophobia, and internalized homophobia, experienced by people who have same-sex attractions, regardless of how they identify. [7] [8]

Negative attitudes toward identifiable LGBT groups have similar yet specific names: lesbophobia is the intersection of homophobia and sexism directed against lesbians, biphobia targets bisexuality and bisexual people, and transphobia targets transgender and transsexual people and gender variance or gender role nonconformity. [1] [3] [9] According to 2010 Hate Crimes Statistics released by the FBI National Press Office, 19.3 percent of hate crimes across the United States "were motivated by a sexual orientation bias." [10] Moreover, in a Southern Poverty Law Center 2010 Intelligence Report extrapolating data from fourteen years (1995–2008), which had complete data available at the time, of the FBI's national hate crime statistics found that LGBT people were "far more likely than any other minority group in the United States to be victimized by violent hate crime." [11]

Origin of the term

Although sexual attitudes tracing back to Ancient Greece (8th to 6th centuries BC to the end of antiquity (ca. 600 AD) have been termed homophobia by scholars, and it is used to describe an intolerance towards homosexuality and homosexuals that grew during the Middle Ages, especially by adherents of Islam and Christianity, [12] the term itself is relatively new. [13]

Coined by George Weinberg, a psychologist, in the 1960s, [14] the term homophobia is a blend of (1) the word homosexual, itself a mix of neo-classical morphemes, and (2) phobia from the Greek φόβος, phóbos, meaning "fear", "morbid fear" or "aversion". [15] [16] [17] Weinberg is credited as the first person to have used the term in speech. [13] The word homophobia first appeared in print in an article written for the May 23, 1969, edition of the American pornographic magazine Screw , in which the word was used to refer to heterosexual men's fear that others might think they are gay. [13]

Conceptualizing anti-LGBT prejudice as a social problem worthy of scholarly attention was not new. A 1969 article in Time described examples of negative attitudes toward homosexuality as "homophobia", including "a mixture of revulsion and apprehension" which some called homosexual panic . [18] In 1971, Kenneth Smith used homophobia as a personality profile to describe the psychological aversion to homosexuality. [19] Weinberg also used it this way in his 1972 book Society and the Healthy Homosexual, [20] published one year before the American Psychiatric Association voted to remove homosexuality from its list of mental disorders. [21] [22] Weinberg's term became an important tool for gay and lesbian activists, advocates, and their allies. [13] He describes the concept as a medical phobia: [20]

[A] phobia about homosexuals.... It was a fear of homosexuals which seemed to be associated with a fear of contagion, a fear of reducing the things one fought for — home and family. It was a religious fear and it had led to great brutality as fear always does. [13]

In 1981, homophobia was used for the first time in The Times (of London) to report that the General Synod of the Church of England voted to refuse to condemn homosexuality. [23]

However, when taken literally, homophobia may be a problematic term. Professor David A. F. Haaga says that contemporary usage includes "a wide range of negative emotions, attitudes and behaviours toward homosexual people," which are characteristics that are not consistent with accepted definitions of phobias, that of "an intense, illogical, or abnormal fear of a specified thing." Five key differences are listed as distinguishing homophobia, as often used, from a true phobia. [24]

Classification

Brochure used by Save Our Children, a political coalition formed in 1977 in Miami, Florida, U.S., to overturn a recently legislated county ordinance that banned discrimination in areas of housing, employment, and public accommodation based on sexual orientation Save Our Children From Homosexuality Brochure.jpg
Brochure used by Save Our Children, a political coalition formed in 1977 in Miami, Florida, U.S., to overturn a recently legislated county ordinance that banned discrimination in areas of housing, employment, and public accommodation based on sexual orientation

Homophobia manifests in different forms, and a number of different types have been postulated, among which are internalized homophobia, social homophobia, emotional homophobia, rationalized homophobia, and others. [25] There were also ideas to classify homophobia, racism, and sexism as an intolerant personality disorder . [26]

In 1992, the American Psychiatric Association, recognizing the power of the stigma against homosexuality, issued the following statement, reaffirmed by the Board of Trustees, July 2011: "Whereas homosexuality per se implies no impairment in judgment, stability, reliability, or general social or vocational capabilities, the American Psychiatric Association (APA) calls on all international health organizations, psychiatric organizations, and individual psychiatrists in other countries to urge the repeal in their own countries of legislation that penalizes homosexual acts by consenting adults in private. Further, APA calls on these organizations and individuals to do all that is possible to decrease the stigma related to homosexuality wherever and whenever it may occur." [27]

Institutionalized homophobia

Religious attitudes

Religious protestors at a pride parade in Jerusalem, with a sign that reads, "Homo sex is immoral (Lev. 18/22)". The association of homosexual sex with immorality or sinfulness is seen by many as a homophobic act. Protestors at a pride parade in Jerusalem with sign that reads, "Homo sex is immoral (Lev. 18-22)".jpg
Religious protestors at a pride parade in Jerusalem, with a sign that reads, "Homo sex is immoral (Lev. 18/22)". The association of homosexual sex with immorality or sinfulness is seen by many as a homophobic act.

Many world religions contain anti-homosexual teachings, while other religions have varying degrees of ambivalence, neutrality, or incorporate teachings that regard homosexuals as third gender. Even within some religions which generally discourage homosexuality, there are also people who view homosexuality positively, and some religious denominations bless or conduct same-sex marriages. There also exist so-called Queer religions, dedicated to serving the spiritual needs of LGBTQI persons. Queer theology seeks to provide a counterpoint to religious homophobia. [28] In 2015, attorney and author Roberta Kaplan stated that Kim Davis "is the clearest example of someone who wants to use a religious liberty argument to discriminate [against same-sex couples]." [29]

Christianity and the Bible

Passages commonly interpreted as condemning homosexuality or same-gender sexual relations are found in both Old and New Testaments of the Bible. Leviticus 18:22, says "Thou shalt not lie with mankind, as with womankind: it is abomination." The destruction of Sodom and Gomorrah is also commonly seen as a condemnation of homosexuality. Christians and Jews who oppose homosexuality often cite such passages; historical context and interpretation is more complicated. Scholarly debate over the interpretation of these passages has focused on placing them in proper historical context, for instance pointing out that Sodom's sins are historically interpreted as being other than homosexuality, and on the translation of rare or unusual words in the passages in question. In Religion Dispatches magazine, Candace Chellew-Hodge argues that the six or so verses that are often cited to condemn LGBT people are referring instead to "abusive sex". She states that the Bible has no condemnation for "loving, committed, gay and lesbian relationships" and that Jesus was silent on the subject. [30] This view is opposed by a number of conservative evangelicals, [31] including Robert A. J. Gagnon [32]

The official teaching of the Catholic Church regarding homosexuality is that same-sex behavior should not be expressed.[ citation needed ] In the United States, a February 2012 Pew Research Center poll shows that Catholics support gay marriage by a margin of 52% to 37%. [33] That is a shift upwards from 2010, when 46% of Catholics favored gay marriage. [34] The Catechism of the Catholic Church States that, "'homosexual acts are intrinsically disordered.'...They are contrary to the natural law.... Under no circumstances can they be approved." [35]

Islam and sharia

In some cases, the distinction between religious homophobia and state-sponsored homophobia is not clear, a key example being territories under Islamic authority. All major Islamic sects forbid homosexuality, which is a crime under Sharia Law and treated as such in most Muslim countries. In Afghanistan, for instance, homosexuality carried the death penalty under the Taliban. After their fall, homosexuality was reduced from a capital crime to one that is punished with fines and prison sentences. The legal situation in the United Arab Emirates, however, is unclear.

In 2009, the International Lesbian and Gay Association (ILGA) published a report entitled State Sponsored Homophobia 2009, [36] which is based on research carried out by Daniel Ottosson at Södertörn University College, Stockholm, Sweden. This research found that of the 80 countries around the world that continue to consider homosexuality illegal: [37] [38]

In 2001, Al-Muhajiroun, an international organization seeking the establishment of a global Islamic caliphate, issued a fatwa declaring that all members of The Al-Fatiha Foundation (which advances the cause of gay, lesbian, and transgender Muslims) were murtadd , or apostates, and condemning them to death. Because of the threat and because they come from conservative societies, many members of the foundation's site still prefer to be anonymous so as to protect their identities while they are continuing a tradition of secrecy. [43]

In some regions, gay people have been persecuted and murdered by Islamist militias, [44] such as Al-Nusra Front and ISIL in parts of Iraq and Syria. [45]

State-sponsored homophobia

v
t
e
Worldwide laws regarding same-sex intercourse, unions and expression
Same-sex intercourse illegal. Penalties:
.mw-parser-output .legend{page-break-inside:avoid;break-inside:avoid-column}.mw-parser-output .legend-color{display:inline-block;min-width:1.25em;height:1.25em;line-height:1.25;margin:1px 0;text-align:center;border:1px solid black;background-color:transparent;color:black}.mw-parser-output .legend-text{}
Death
Death, not enforced
Prison
Prison, not enforced
Death under militias
Detention w/o prosecution
Same-sex intercourse legal. Recognition of unions:
Marriage
Extraterritorial marriage
Civil unions
Limited domestic
Limited foreign
Optional certification
None
Restrictions of expression
Rings indicate local or case-by-case application.
No arrests in the past three years or moratorium on law.
For some jurisdictions the law may not yet be in effect.
Marriage not available locally. Some jurisdictions may perform other types of partnerships. World laws pertaining to homosexual relationships and expression.svg
Worldwide laws regarding same-sex intercourse, unions and expression
Same-sex intercourse illegal. Penalties:
   Death
  Death, not enforced
  Prison
  Prison, not enforced
  Death under militias
  Detention w/o prosecution
Same-sex intercourse legal. Recognition of unions:
   Marriage
  Extraterritorial marriage
  Limited foreign
  Optional certification
  None
  Restrictions of expression
Rings indicate local or case-by-case application.
No arrests in the past three years or moratorium on law.
For some jurisdictions the law may not yet be in effect.
Marriage not available locally. Some jurisdictions may perform other types of partnerships.

State-sponsored homophobia includes the criminalization and penalization of homosexuality, hate speech from government figures, and other forms of discrimination, violence, persecution of LGBT people. [46]

Past governments

In medieval Europe, homosexuality was considered sodomy and it was punishable by death. Persecutions reached their height during the Medieval Inquisitions, when the sects of Cathars and Waldensians were accused of fornication and sodomy, alongside accusations of Satanism. In 1307, accusations of sodomy and homosexuality were major charges leveled during the Trial of the Knights Templar. [47] The theologian Thomas Aquinas was influential in linking condemnations of homosexuality with the idea of natural law, arguing that "special sins are against nature, as, for instance, those that run counter to the intercourse of male and female natural to animals, and so are peculiarly qualified as unnatural vices." [48]

Although bisexuality was accepted as normal human behavior in Ancient China, [49] homophobia became ingrained in the late Qing Dynasty and the Republic of China due to interactions with the Christian West, [50] and homosexual behaviour was outlawed in 1740. [51] When Mao Zedong came to power, the government thought of homosexuality as "social disgrace or a form of mental illness", and "[d]uring the cultural revolution (1966–76), people who were homosexual faced their worst period of persecution in Chinese history." Despite there being no law in the communist People's Republic against homosexuality, "police regularly rounded up gays and lesbians." Other laws were used to prosecute homosexual people and they were "charged with hooliganism or disturbing public order." [52]

The Soviet Union under Vladimir Lenin decriminalized homosexuality in 1922, long before many other European countries. The Soviet Communist Party effectively legalized no-fault divorce, abortion and homosexuality, when they abolished all the old Tsarist laws and the initial Soviet criminal code kept these liberal sexual policies in place. [53] Lenin's emancipation was reversed a decade later by Joseph Stalin and homosexuality remained illegal under Article 121 until the Yeltsin era.

In Nazi Germany, gay men were persecuted and approximately five to fifteen thousand were imprisoned in Nazi concentration camps. [54]

Current governments
Protests in New York City against Uganda's Anti-Homosexuality Bill. Uganda Anti-Homosexuality Bill protest.jpg
Protests in New York City against Uganda's Anti-Homosexuality Bill.

Homosexuality is illegal in 74 countries. [55] The North Korean government condemns Western gay culture as a vice caused by the decadence of a capitalist society, and it denounces it as promoting consumerism, classism, and promiscuity. [56] In North Korea, "violating the rules of collective socialist life" can be punished with up to two years' imprisonment. [57] However, according to the North Korean government, "As a country that has embraced science and rationalism, the DPRK recognizes that many individuals are born with homosexuality as a genetic trait and treats them with due respect. Homosexuals in the DPRK have never been subject to repression, as in many capitalist regimes around the world."

LGBT-free zone stickers distributed by the Gazeta Polska newspaper 02019 1570 LGBT free zone, cursed rainbow, Gazeta Polska stickers.jpg
LGBT-free zone stickers distributed by the Gazeta Polska newspaper

Robert Mugabe, the former president of Zimbabwe, has waged a violent campaign against LGBT people, arguing that before colonisation, Zimbabweans did not engage in homosexual acts. [58] His first major public condemnation of homosexuality was in August 1995, during the Zimbabwe International Book Fair. [59] He told an audience: "If you see people parading themselves as lesbians and gays, arrest them and hand them over to the police!" [60] In September 1995, Zimbabwe's parliament introduced legislation banning homosexual acts.

[59] In 1997, a court found Canaan Banana, Mugabe's predecessor and the first President of Zimbabwe, guilty of 11 counts of sodomy and indecent assault. [61] [62]

In Poland local towns, cities, [63] [64] and Voivodeship sejmiks [65] have declared their respective regions as LGBT ideology free zone with the encouragement of the ruling Law and Justice party. [63]

Internalized homophobia

Internalized homophobia refers to negative stereotypes, beliefs, stigma, and prejudice about homosexuality and LGBT people that a person with same-sex attraction turns inward on themselves, whether or not they identify as LGBT. [13] [66] [7] The degree to which someone is affected by these ideas depends on how much and which ideas they have consciously and subconsciously internalized. [67] These negative beliefs can be mitigated with education, life experience and therapy, [7] [68] especially with gay-friendly psychotherapy/analysis. [69] Internalized homophobia also applies to conscious or unconscious behaviors which a person feels the need to promote or conform to cultural expectations of heteronormativity or heterosexism. This can include extreme repression and denial coupled with forced outward displays of heteronormative behavior for the purpose of appearing or attempting to feel "normal" or "accepted." Other expressions of internalized homophobia can also be subtle. Some less overt behaviors may include making assumptions about the gender of a person's romantic partner, or about gender roles. [13] Some researchers also apply this label to LGBT people who support "compromise" policies, such as those that find civil unions acceptable in place of same-sex marriage. [70]

Some studies have shown that people who are homophobic are more likely to have repressed homosexual desires. [71] In 1996, a controlled study of 64 heterosexual men (half said they were homophobic by experience, with self-reported orientation) at the University of Georgia found that men who were found to be homophobic (as measured by the Index of Homophobia) [71] were considerably more likely to experience more erectile responses when exposed to homoerotic images than non-homophobic men. [72] Weinstein et al. 2012 [73] arrived at similar results when researchers found that students who came from "the most rigid anti-gay homes" were most likely to reveal repressed homosexual attraction. [74] The researchers said that this explained why some religious leaders who denounce homosexuality are later revealed to have secret homosexual relations. [74] They noted that "these people are at war with themselves and are turning this internal conflict outward." [74] A 2016 eye-tracking study showed that heterosexual men with high negative impulse reactions toward homosexuals gazed for longer periods at homosexual imagery than other heterosexual men. [75] According to Cheval et al. (2016), these findings reinforce the necessity to consider that homophobia might reflect concerns about sexuality in general and not homosexuality in particular. [76] In contrast, Jesse Marczyk argued in Psychology Today that homophobia is not repressed homosexuality. [77]

Researcher Iain R. Williamson, in his 1998 paper "Internalized Homophobia and Health Issues Affecting Lesbians and Gay Men" finds the term homophobia to be "highly problematic" but for reasons of continuity and consistency with the majority of other publications on the issue retains its use rather than using more accurate but obscure terminology. [7] The phrase internalized sexual stigma is sometimes used in place to represent internalized homophobia. [72] An internalized stigma arises when a person believes negative stereotypes about themselves, regardless of where the stereotypes come from. It can also refer to many stereotypes beyond sexuality and gender roles. Internalized homophobia can cause discomfort with and disapproval of one's own sexual orientation. Ego-dystonic sexual orientation or egodystonic homophobia, for instance, is a condition characterized by having a sexual orientation or an attraction that is at odds with one's idealized self-image, causing anxiety and a desire to change one's orientation or become more comfortable with one's sexual orientation. Such a situation may cause extreme repression of homosexual desires. [71] In other cases, a conscious internal struggle may occur for some time, often pitting deeply held religious or social beliefs against strong sexual and emotional desires. This discordance can cause clinical depression, and a higher rate of suicide among LGBT youth (up to 30 percent of non-heterosexual youth attempt suicide) has been attributed to this phenomenon. [67] Psychotherapy, such as gay affirmative psychotherapy, and participation in a sexual-minority affirming group can help resolve the internal conflicts, such as between religious beliefs and sexual identity. [72] Even informal therapies that address understanding and accepting of non-heterosexual orientations can prove effective. [67] Many diagnostic "Internalized Homophobia Scales" can be used to measure a person's discomfort with their sexuality and some can be used by people regardless of gender or sexual orientation. Critics of the scales note that they presume a discomfort with non-heterosexuality which in itself enforces heternormativity. [71] [78]

Social homophobia

The fear of being identified as gay can be considered as a form of social homophobia. Theorists including Calvin Thomas and Judith Butler have suggested that homophobia can be rooted in an individual's fear of being identified as gay. Homophobia in men is correlated with insecurity about masculinity. [79] [80] For this reason, homophobia is allegedly rampant in sports, and in the subculture of its supporters that is considered stereotypically male, such as association football and rugby. [81]

These theorists have argued that a person who expresses homophobic thoughts and feelings does so not only to communicate their beliefs about the class of gay people, but also to distance themselves from this class and its social status. Thus, by distancing themselves from gay people, they are reaffirming their role as a heterosexual in a heteronormative culture, thereby attempting to prevent themselves from being labeled and treated as a gay person. This interpretation alludes to the idea that a person may posit violent opposition to "the Other" as a means of establishing their own identity as part of the majority and thus gaining social validation.

Nancy J. Chodorow states that homophobia can be viewed as a method of protection of male masculinity. [82]

Various psychoanalytic theories explain homophobia as a threat to an individual's own same-sex impulses, whether those impulses are imminent or merely hypothetical. This threat causes repression, denial or reaction formation. [83]

Distribution of attitudes

Westboro Baptist Church protesters, in Oklahoma, 2005 WBC protest.jpg
Westboro Baptist Church protesters, in Oklahoma, 2005
Between January 2010 and November 2014, 47 individuals have been killed due to their real or perceived sexual orientation or gender identity in Turkey according to online news sources. Hate murders against LGBTI in Turkey by Year and Region (2010-2014).png
Between January 2010 and November 2014, 47 individuals have been killed due to their real or perceived sexual orientation or gender identity in Turkey according to online news sources.

Disapproval of homosexuality and of gay people is not evenly distributed throughout society, but is more or less pronounced according to age, ethnicity, geographic location, race, sex, social class, education, partisan identification and religious status. [13] According to UK HIV/AIDS charity AVERT, religious views, lack of homosexual feelings or experiences, and lack of interaction with gay people are strongly associated with such views. [84]

The anxiety of heterosexual individuals (particularly adolescents whose construction of heterosexual masculinity is based in part on not being seen as gay) that others may identify them as gay [85] [86] has also been identified by Michael Kimmel as an example of homophobia. [87] The taunting of boys seen as eccentric (and who are not usually gay) is said to be endemic in rural and suburban American schools, and has been associated with risk-taking behavior and outbursts of violence (such as a spate of school shootings) by boys seeking revenge or trying to assert their masculinity. [88] Homophobic bullying is also very common in schools in the United Kingdom. [89] At least 445 LGBT Brazilians were either murdered or committed suicide in 2017. [90]

In some cases, the works of authors who merely have the word "Gay" in their name (Gay Talese, Peter Gay) or works about things also contain the name ( Enola Gay ) have been destroyed because of a perceived pro-homosexual bias. [91]

In the United States, attitudes about people who are homosexual may vary on the basis of partisan identification. Republicans are far more likely than Democrats to have negative attitudes about people who are gay and lesbian, according to surveys conducted by the National Election Studies from 2000 through 2004. This disparity is shown in the graph on the right, which is from a book published in 2008 by Joseph Fried. The tendency of Republicans to view gay and lesbian people negatively could be based on homophobia, religious beliefs, or conservatism with respect to the traditional family. [92]

Homophobia also varies by region; statistics show that the Southern United States has more reports of anti-gay prejudice than any other region in the US. [93]

In a 1998 address, author, activist, and civil rights leader Coretta Scott King stated that "Homophobia is like racism and anti-Semitism and other forms of bigotry in that it seeks to dehumanize a large group of people, to deny their humanity, their dignity and personhood." [94] One study of white adolescent males conducted at the University of Cincinnati by Janet Baker[ which? ] has been used to argue that negative feelings towards gay people are also associated with other discriminatory behaviors. [95] According to the study, hatred of gay people, anti-Semitism, and racism are "likely companions." [95] Baker hypothesized "maybe it's a matter of power and looking down on all you think are at the bottom." [95] A study performed in 2007 in the UK for the charity Stonewall reports that up to 90 percent of the population support anti-discrimination laws protecting gay and lesbian people. [96]

Economic cost

Acceptance of homosexuality to GDP per capita in several countries. Homofobia vs GDP (en).svg
Acceptance of homosexuality to GDP per capita in several countries.

There are at least two studies which indicate that homophobia may have a negative economic impact for the countries where it is widespread. In these countries there is a flight of their LGBT populations —with the consequent loss of talent—, as well as an avoidance of LGBT tourism, that leaves the pink money in LGBT-friendlier countries. As an example, LGBT tourists contribute 6,800 million dollars every year to the Spanish economy. [98]

As soon as 2005, an editorial from the New York Times related the politics of don't ask, don't tell in the US Army with the lack of translators from Arabic, and with the delay in the translation of Arabic documents, calculated to be about 120,000 hours at the time. Since 1998, with the introduction of the new policy, about 20 Arabic translators had been expelled from the Army, specifically during the years the US was involved in wars in Iraq and Afghanistan. [99]

M. V. Lee Badgett, an economist at the University of Massachusetts Amherst, presented in March 2014 in a meeting of the World Bank the results of a study about the economical impact of homophobia in India. Only in health expenses, caused by depression, suicide, and HIV treatment, India would have spent additional 23,100 million dollars due to homophobia. On top, there would be costs caused by violence, workplace loss, rejection of the family, and bullying at school, that would result in a lower education level, lower productivity, lower wages, worse health, and a lower life expectancy among the LGBT population. [100] In total, she estimated for 2014 in India a loss of up to 30,800 million dollars, or 1,7 % of the Indian GDP. [98] [101] [102]

The LGBT activist Adebisi Alimi, in a preliminary estimation, has calculated that the economic loss due to homophobia in Nigeria is about 1% of its GDP. Taking into account that in 2015 homosexuality is still illegal in 36 of the 54 African countries, the money loss due to homophobia in the continent could amount to hundreds of millions of dollars every year. [98]

Another study regarding socioecological measurement of homophobia and its public health impact for 158 countries was conducted in 2018. It found that the prejudice against gay people has a worldwide economic cost of $119.1 billion. Economical loss in Asia was 88.29 billion dollars due to homophobia, and in Latin America & the Caribbean it was 8.04 billion dollars. Economical cost in East Asia and Middle Asia was 10.85 billion dollars. Economical cost in Middle East and North Africa was 16.92 billion dollars. The researcher suggested that a 1% decrease in the level of homophobia is associated with a 10% increase in the gross domestic product per capita. [103]

A newer study from March 2018 done by The Williams Institute (UCLA School of Law) concludes that there is a positive correlation between LGBT inclusion and GDP per capita. According to this study, the legal rights of LGBT people have a bigger influence than the degree of acceptance in the society, but both effects reinforce each other. [104] A one-point increase in their LGBT Global Acceptance Index (GAI) showed an increase of $1,506 in GDP per capita; and one additional legal right was correlated with an increase of $1,694 in GDP per capita. [105]

Efforts to combat homophobia

LGBT activists at Cologne Pride carrying a banner with the flags of over 70 countries where homosexuality is illegal. Cologne Germany Cologne-Gay-Pride-2015 Parade-17b.jpg
LGBT activists at Cologne Pride carrying a banner with the flags of over 70 countries where homosexuality is illegal.

Most international human rights organizations, such as Human Rights Watch and Amnesty International, condemn laws that make homosexual relations between consenting adults a crime. Since 1994, the United Nations Human Rights Committee has also ruled that such laws violated the right to privacy guaranteed in the Universal Declaration of Human Rights and the International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights. In 2008, the Roman Catholic Church issued a statement which "urges States to do away with criminal penalties against [homosexual persons]." The statement, however, was addressed to reject a resolution by the UN Assembly that would have precisely called for an end of penalties against homosexuals in the world. [106] In March 2010, the Committee of Ministers of the Council of Europe adopted a recommendation on measures to combat discrimination on grounds of sexual orientation or gender identity, described by CoE Secretary General as the first legal instrument in the world dealing specifically with one of the most long-lasting and difficult forms of discrimination to combat. [107]

To combat homophobia, the LGBT community uses events such as gay pride parades and political activism (See gay pride). In August 2019, the Pride in London community took a different initiative to “show solidarity with the LGBT+ community” and colored the crossings in rainbow colors for the annual parades. The first permanent crossings have been put on roads in Lambeth. Others were painted in Royal Borough of Greenwich. [108]

One form of organized resistance to homophobia is the International Day Against Homophobia (or IDAHO), [109] first celebrated May 17, 2005 in related activities in more than 40 countries. [110] The four largest countries of Latin America (Argentina, Brazil, Mexico and Colombia) developed mass media campaigns against homophobia since 2002. [111]

In addition to public expression, legislation has been designed, controversially, to oppose homophobia, as in hate speech, hate crime, and laws against discrimination on the basis of sexual orientation. Successful preventative strategies against homophobic prejudice and bullying in schools have included teaching pupils about historical figures who were gay, or who suffered discrimination because of their sexuality. [112]

Some argue that anti-LGBT prejudice is immoral and goes above and beyond the effects on that class of people. Warren J. Blumenfeld argues that this emotion gains a dimension beyond itself, as a tool for extreme right-wing conservatives and fundamentalist religious groups and as a restricting factor on gender-relations as to the weight associated with performing each role accordingly. [113] Furthermore, Blumenfeld in particular stated:

"Anti-gay bias causes young people to engage in sexual behavior earlier in order to prove that they are straight. Anti-gay bias contributed significantly to the spread of the AIDS epidemic. Anti-gay bias prevents the ability of schools to create effective honest sexual education programs that would save children's lives and prevent STDs (sexually transmitted diseases)." [113]

Drawing upon research by Arizona State University Professor Elizabeth Segal, University of Memphis professors Robin Lennon-Dearing and Elena Delavega argued in a 2016 article published in the Journal of Homosexuality that homophobia could be reduced through exposure (learning about LGBT experiences), explanation (understanding the different challenges faced by LGBT people), and experience (putting themselves in situations experienced by LGBT people by working alongside LGBT co-workers or volunteering at an LGBT community center). [114]

Criticism of meaning and purpose

Distinctions and proposed alternatives

Researchers have proposed alternative terms to describe prejudice and discrimination against LGBT people. Some of these alternatives show more semantic transparency while others do not include - phobia :

Opposition to the term homophobia

People and groups have objected to the use of the term homophobia. [120] [121] [122]

Non-neutral phrasing

Use of homophobia, homophobic, and homophobe has been criticized as pejorative against LGBT rights opponents. Behavioral scientists William O'Donohue and Christine Caselles stated in 1993 that "as [homophobia] is usually used, [it] makes an illegitimately pejorative evaluation of certain open and debatable value positions, much like the former disease construct of homosexuality" itself, arguing that the term may be used as an ad hominem argument against those who advocate values or positions of which the user does not approve. [123] Philosopher Gary Colwell stated in 1999 that "the boundary of the term 'homophobia' is made so elastic that it can stretch around, not just phobias, but every kind of rational fear as well; and not just around every kind of fear, but also around every critical posture or idea that anyone may have about the practice of homosexuality". [124]

In 2012 the Associated Press Stylebook was revised to advise against using non-clinical words with the suffix -phobia, including homophobia, in "political and social contexts." AP Deputy Standards Editor Dave Minthorn said the word homophobia suggests a severe mental disorder, and that it could be substituted with "anti-gay" or similar phrasing. [125] [126] The AP's decision was criticized in some media outlets, especially those in the LGBT area, [127] who argued that homophobia did not necessarily have to be interpreted in a strict clinical sense. [128] [129]

Heterophobia

The term heterophobia is sometimes used to describe reverse discrimination or negative attitudes towards heterosexual people and opposite-sex relationships based on their sexual orientation. [130] The scientific use of heterophobia in sexology is restricted to few researchers, notably those who question Alfred Kinsey's sex research. [131] [132] To date, the existence or extent of heterophobia is mostly unrecognized by sexologists. [130] Beyond sexology there is no consensus as to the meaning of the term because it is also used to mean "fear of the opposite" such as in Pierre-André Taguieff's The Force of Prejudice: On Racism and Its Doubles (2001).

Referring to the debate on both meaning and use, SUNY lecturer Raymond J. Noonan, in his 1999 presentation to The Society for the Scientific Study of Sexuality (SSSS) and the American Association of Sex Educators, Counselors, and Therapists (AASECT) Conference, [130] states:

The term heterophobia is confusing for some people for several reasons. On the one hand, some look at it as just another of the many me-too social constructions that have arisen in the pseudoscience of victimology in recent decades. (Many of us recall John Money’s 1995 criticism of the ascendancy of victimology and its negative impact on sexual science.) Others look at the parallelism between heterophobia and homophobia, and suggest that the former trivializes the latter... For others, it is merely a curiosity or parallel-construction word game. But for others still, it is part of both the recognition and politicization of heterosexuals' cultural interests in contrast to those of gays—particularly where those interests are perceived to clash.

Stephen M. White and Louis R. Franzini introduced the related term heteronegativism to refer to the considerable range of negative feelings that some gay individuals may hold and express toward heterosexuals. This term is preferred to heterophobia because it does not imply extreme or irrational fear. [133]

See also

Related Research Articles

Heteronormativity is the belief that heterosexuality is the default, preferred, or normal mode of sexual orientation. It assumes the gender binary and that sexual and marital relations are most fitting between people of opposite sex. A heteronormative view therefore involves alignment of biological sex, sexuality, gender identity and gender roles. Heteronormativity is often linked to heterosexism and homophobia. The effects of societal heteronormativity on lesbian, gay and bisexual individuals can be examined as heterosexual or "straight" privilege.

Biphobia

Biphobia is aversion toward bisexuality and bisexual people as individuals. It can take the form of denial that bisexuality is a genuine sexual orientation, or of negative stereotypes about people who are bisexual. Other forms of biphobia include bisexual erasure. Specific people of any sexual orientation can experience or perpetuate biphobia.

Heterosexism is a system of attitudes, bias, and discrimination in favor of opposite-sex sexuality and relationships. It can include the presumption that other people are heterosexual or that opposite-sex attractions and relationships are the only norm and therefore superior.

The field of psychology has extensively studied homosexuality as a human sexual orientation. The American Psychiatric Association listed homosexuality in the DSM-I in 1952, but that classification came under scrutiny in research funded by the National Institute of Mental Health. That research and subsequent studies consistently failed to produce any empirical or scientific basis for regarding homosexuality as anything other than a natural and normal sexual orientation that is a healthy and positive expression of human sexuality. As a result of this scientific research, the American Psychiatric Association removed homosexuality from the DSM-III in 1973. Upon a thorough review of the scientific data, the American Psychological Association followed in 1975 and also called on all mental health professionals to take the lead in "removing the stigma of mental illness that has long been associated" with homosexuality. In 1993, the National Association of Social Workers adopted the same position as the American Psychiatric Association and the American Psychological Association, in recognition of scientific evidence. The World Health Organization, which listed homosexuality in the ICD-9 in 1977, removed homosexuality from the ICD-10 which was endorsed by the 43rd World Health Assembly on 17 May 1990.

Societal attitudes toward homosexuality How societies view, stigmatize or like homosexuality

Societal attitudes toward homosexuality vary greatly across different cultures and historical periods, as do attitudes toward sexual desire, activity and relationships in general. All cultures have their own values regarding appropriate and inappropriate sexuality; some sanction same-sex love and sexuality, while others may disapprove of such activities in part. As with heterosexual behaviour, different sets of prescriptions and proscriptions may be given to individuals according to their gender, age, social status or social class.

Non-heterosexual is a word for a sexual orientation or sexual identity that is not heterosexual. The term helps define the "concept of what is the norm and how a particular group is different from that norm". Non-heterosexual is used in feminist and gender studies fields as well as general academic literature to help differentiate between sexual identities chosen, prescribed and simply assumed, with varying understanding of implications of those sexual identities. The term is similar to queer, though less politically charged and more clinical; queer generally refers to being non-normative and non-heterosexual. Some view the term as being contentious and pejorative as it "labels people against the perceived norm of heterosexuality, thus reinforcing heteronormativity". Still others say non-heterosexual is the only term useful to maintaining coherence in research and suggest it "highlights a shortcoming in our language around sexual identity"; for instance, its use can enable bisexual erasure.

LGBT stereotypes Uninformed, conventional views towards a minority group

Lesbian, gay, bisexual and transgender (LGBT)stereotypes are conventional, formulaic generalizations, opinions, or images based on the sexual orientations or gender identities of LGBT people. Stereotypical perceptions may be acquired through interactions with parents, teachers, peers and mass media, or, more generally, through a lack of firsthand familiarity, resulting in an increased reliance on generalizations.

Homosexuality is romantic attraction, sexual attraction, or sexual behavior between members of the same sex or gender. As a sexual orientation, homosexuality is "an enduring pattern of emotional, romantic, and/or sexual attractions" to people of the same sex. It "also refers to a person's sense of identity based on those attractions, related behaviors, and membership in a community of others who share those attractions."

LGBT rights in Kazakhstan

Lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender (LGBT) rights in Kazakhstan are limited. LGBT persons in Kazakhstan face legal and social challenges and discrimination not experienced by non-LGBT residents. Both male and female same-sex sexual activity are legal in Kazakhstan, but same-sex couples and households headed by same-sex couples are not eligible for the same legal protections available to opposite-sex married couples.

Sexual orientation discrimination is discrimination based on sexual orientation and/or sexual behaviour.

Homosexuality, as a phenomenon and as a behavior, has existed throughout the eras in human societies.

The Riddle scale was a psychometric scale that measured the degree to which a person is or is not homophobic. The scale was frequently used in tolerance education about anti-discriminatory attitudes regarding sexual orientation. It is named after its creator, psychologist Dorothy Riddle.

Sexual stigma is a form of social stigma against people who are perceived to be non-heterosexual because of their beliefs, identities or behaviors. Privileged individuals, or the majority group members, are the main contributors of placing sexual stigmas on individuals and their minority group. It is those who hold a higher status that determine within a society which groups are deemed unworthy of a higher status by labeling their specific actions or beliefs. Stereotypes are then produced which further the debilitating effects of the label(s) placed on group members with non-heterosexual beliefs or practices.

Education and the LGBT community

In the recent history of the expansion of LGBT rights, the issue of teaching various aspects of lesbian, gay, bisexual and transgender life and existence to younger children has become a heated point of debate, with proponents stating that the teaching of LGBT-affirming topics to children will increase a sense of visibility for LGBT students and reduce incidences of homophobia or closeted behavior for children, while opponents to the pedagogical discussion of LGBT people to students are afraid that such discussions would encourage children to violate or question religiously or ideologically motivated rejections of non-heterosexuality in private settings. Much of the religious and/or social conservative aversion to non-heterosexuality and the broaching of the topic to juveniles tends to occur in regions with a historic demographic dominance or majority of adherents to an Abrahamic religion, particularly the majority of denominations of Christianity, Islam and Judaism, while those who were raised in those religions but advocate or take more favorable/nuanced positions on LGBT issues or are LGBT themselves may often be ostracized from more socially conservative congregations over the issue.

Domestic violence within lesbian relationships is the pattern of violent and coercive behavior in a female same-sex relationship wherein a lesbian or other non-heterosexual woman seeks to control the thoughts, beliefs, or conduct of her female intimate partner. In the case of multiple forms of domestic partner abuse, it is also referred to as lesbian battering.

Outline of LGBT topics Overview of and topical guide to LGBT topics

The following outline offers an overview and guide to LGBT topics.

Homophobia in ethnic minority communities is any negative prejudice or form of discrimination in ethnic minority communities worldwide towards people who identify as–or are perceived as being–lesbian, gay, bisexual or transgender (LGBT), known as homophobia. This may be expressed as antipathy, contempt, prejudice, aversion, hatred, irrational fear, and is sometimes related to religious beliefs. While religion can have a positive function in many LGB Black and Minority Ethnic (BME) communities, it can also play a role in supporting homophobia.

Domestic violence in same-sex relationships

Domestic violence in same-sex relationships is a pattern of violence or abuse that occurs within same-sex relationships. Domestic violence is an issue that affects people of any sexuality, but there are issues that affect victims of same-sex domestic violence specifically. These issues include homophobia, internalized homophobia, HIV and AIDS stigma, STD risk and other health issues, lack of legal support, and the violence they face being considered less serious than heterosexual domestic violence. Moreover, the issue of domestic violence in same-sex relationships has not been studied as comprehensively as domestic violence in heterosexual relationships. However, there are legal changes being made to help victims of domestic violence in same-sex relationships, as well as organizations that cater specifically to victims of domestic violence in same-sex relationships.

LGBTQ psychology

LGBTQ+ psychology is a field of psychology surrounding the lives of LGBTQ+ individuals, in particular the diverse range of psychological perspectives and experiences of these individuals. It covers different aspects such as identity development including the 'coming out' process, parenting and family practices and supports for LGBTQ+ individuals, as well as issues of prejudice and discrimination involving the LGBTQ+ community.

Sexual assault of LGBT persons

Sexual assault of LGBT people is a form of violence that occurs within the LGBT community. While sexual assault and other forms of interpersonal violence can occur in all forms of relationships, it is found that sexual minorities experience it at rates that are equal to or higher than their heterosexual counterparts. There is a lack of research on this specific problem for the LGBT population as a whole, but there does exist a substantial amount of research on college LGBT students who have experienced sexual assault.

References

  1. 1 2 3 Adams, Maurianne; Bell, Lee Anne; Griffin, Pat (2007). Teaching for Diversity and Social Justice. Routledge. pp. 198–199. ISBN   978-1135928506 . Retrieved December 27, 2014. Because of the complicated interplay among gender identity, gender roles, and sexual identity, transgender people are often assumed to be lesbian or gay (See Overview: Sexism, Heterosexism, and Transgender Oppression). ... Because transgender identity challenges a binary conception of sexuality and gender, educators must clarify their own understanding of these concepts. ... Facilitators must be able to help participants understand the connections among sexism, heterosexism, and transgender oppression and the ways in which gender roles are maintained, in part, through homophobia.
  2. 1 2 Renzetti, Claire M.; Edleson, Jeffrey L. (2008). Encyclopedia of Interpersonal Violence. SAGE Publications. p. 338. ISBN   978-1452265919 . Retrieved December 27, 2014. In a culture of homophobia (an irrational fear of gay, lesbian, bisexual, and transgender [GLBT] people), GLBT people often face a heightened risk of violence specific to their sexual identities.
  3. 1 2 Schuiling, Kerri Durnell; Likis, Frances E. (2011). Women's Gynecologic Health. Jones & Bartlett Publishers. pp. 187–188. ISBN   978-0763756376 . Retrieved December 27, 2014. Homophobia is an individual's irrational fear or hate of homosexual people. This may include bisexual or transgender persons, but sometimes the more distinct terms of biphobia or transphobia, respectively, are used.
  4. Newport, Frank (3 April 2015). "Religion, Same-Sex Relationships and Politics in Indiana and Arkansas". Gallup. Archived from the original on 5 August 2017. Retrieved 12 June 2016.
  5. Meyer, Doug. Violence against Queer People: Race, Class, Gender, and the Persistence of Anti-LGBT Discrimination. Rutgers University Press.
  6. 1 2 3 4 Williamson, I. R. (1 February 2000). "Internalized homophobia and health issues affecting lesbians and gay men". Health Education Research. 15 (1): 97–107. doi: 10.1093/her/15.1.97 . PMID   10788206.
  7. Frost, David M.; Meyer, Ilan H. (2009). "Internalized homophobia and relationship quality among lesbians, gay men, and bisexuals". Journal of Counseling Psychology. 56 (1): 97–109. doi:10.1037/a0012844. PMC   2678796 . PMID   20047016.
  8. Thomas Spijkerboer (2013). Fleeing Homophobia: Sexual Orientation, Gender Identity and Asylum. Routledge. p. 122. ISBN   978-1134098354 . Retrieved December 27, 2014. Transgender people subjected to violence, in a range of cultural contexts, frequently report that transphobic violence is expressed in homophobic terms. The tendency to translate violence against a trans person to homophobia reflects the role of gender in attribution of homosexuality as well as the fact that hostility connected to homosexuality is often associated with the perpetrators' prejudices about particular gender practices and their visibility.
  9. FBI National Press Office. 2011. "FBI Releases 2010 Hate Crime Statistics. FBI [Internet]. Available from: http://www.fbi.gov/news/pressrel/press-releases/fbi-releases-2010-hate-crime-statistics.
  10. Intelligence Report, Winter 2010, Issue Number: 140, Anti-Gay Hate Crimes: Doing the Math by Mark Potok, Senior Fellow
  11. Anderson, Eric. "Homophobia (psychology and society)". britannica.com. Encyclopædia Britannica. Retrieved 17 February 2015.
  12. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 Herek, Gregory M. (April 2004). "Beyond 'Homophobia': Thinking About Sexual Prejudice and Stigma in the Twenty-First Century" (PDF). Sexuality Research and Social Policy. 1 (2): 6–24. doi:10.1525/srsp.2004.1.2.6. S2CID   145788359.
  13. "Homophobia". glbtq. Archived from the original on 2012-03-18. Retrieved 2012-04-14.
  14. "Oxford Dictionaries".
  15. "American Heritage Dictionary". Archived from the original on 2013-12-04.
  16. "Online Etymology Dictionary".
  17. "Behavior: The Homosexual: Newly Visible, Newly Understood". Time. 94 (18). October 1969.
  18. Smith, Kenneth T (1971). "Homophobia: a tentative personality profile". Psychological Reports. 29 (3): 1091–4. doi:10.2466/pr0.1971.29.3f.1091. OCLC   100640283. PMID   5139344. S2CID   13323120.
  19. 1 2 Weinberg, George (1973) [1972]. Society and the healthy homosexual . Garden City, New York Anchor Press Doubleday & Co. ISBN   978-0-385-05083-8. OCLC   434538701.
  20. Freedman, Alfred M (September 1, 2000). "Recalling APA's Historic Step". APA News. ISSN   0033-2704. Archived from the original on November 21, 2010. Retrieved 2010-08-21.
  21. Macionis, John J.; Plummer, Kenneth (2005). Sociology: a global introduction (3 ed.). Pearson Education. p. 332. ISBN   978-0-13-128746-4.
  22. Clifford Longley (February 28, 1981). "Homosexuality best seen as a handicap, Dr Runcie says". The Times. London. Let us recognize where the problem lies – in the dislike and distaste felt by many heterosexuals for homosexuals, a problem we have come to call homophobia. and Gledhill, Ruth (August 7, 2008). "New light on Archbishop of Canterbury's view on homosexuality". The Times. London.
  23. Plummer, David (2016). One of the boys. NY, NY: Routledge. ISBN   9781317712121 . Retrieved 15 August 2019.
  24. "The Riddle Homophobia Scale". Archived from the original on September 4, 2006. Retrieved June 1, 2016. from Allies Committee website, Department of Student Life, Texas A&M University
  25. Guindon MH, Green AG, Hanna FJ (April 2003). "Intolerance and Psychopathology: Toward a General Diagnosis for Racism, Sexism, and Homophobia". Am J Orthopsychiatry . 73 (2): 167–76. doi:10.1037/0002-9432.73.2.167. PMID   12769238.
  26. "Position Statement on Homosexuality". American Psychiatric Association.
  27. "Queer Spirituality". Archived from the original on September 27, 2007.
  28. Bromberger, Brian (October 15, 2015). "New book details Windsor Supreme Court victory". Bay Area Reporter . Retrieved October 16, 2015.
  29. "The "Gay" Princess Di Bible". 2 December 2008.
  30. "HOMOSEXUAL RELATIONS and the BIBLE". Peace by Jesus. Retrieved 15 August 2019.
  31. Gagnon, Robert. "Dr. Robert A. J. Gagnon". robgagnon.net/. Retrieved 15 August 2019.
  32. ANALYSIS February 7, 2012 (2012-02-07). "Religion and Attitudes Toward Same-Sex Marriage – Pew Forum on Religion & Public Life". Pewforum.org. Retrieved 2012-07-05.
  33. Gilgoff, Dan (7 May 2012). "Biden's support for gay marriage matches most Catholics' views". CNN.
  34. https://www.vatican.va/archive/ccc_css/archive/catechism/p3s2c2a6.htm
  35. ILGA: 2009 Report on State Sponsored Homophobia (2009) Archived October 29, 2009, at the Wayback Machine
  36. "ILGA:7 countries still put people to death for same-sex acts". Archived from the original on 2009-10-29.
  37. "Homosexuality and Islam – ReligionFacts".
  38. 1 2 "ILGA: Lesbian and Gay Rights in the World (2009)" (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on 2011-08-11.
  39. Steven Eke (28 July 2005). "Iran 'must stop youth executions'". BBC News. Human Rights Watch calls on Iran to end juvenile executions, after claims that two boys were executed for being gay.
  40. Moore, Patrick (January 31, 2006). Murder and Hypocrisy. The Advocate. p. 37. Retrieved December 31, 2013. Homan, and organization for lesbian, gay, bisexual and transgender Iranians in exile, estimates that more than 4,000 gay Iranians have been executed in the country since the Islamic revolution of 1979.
  41. Whitaker, Brian (18 March 2005). "Arrests at Saudi 'gay wedding'". The Observer. London. Saudi executions are not systematically reported, and officials deny that the death penalty is applied for same-sex activity alone.
  42. Aldrich, Robert (2006). Gay life and culture : a world history. Universe. ISBN   978-0-7893-1511-3. OCLC   74909268.
  43. "Under ISIS: Where Being Gay Is Punished by Death". ABC News. 13 June 2016.
  44. "ISIS, many of their enemies share a homicidal hatred of gays". CBS News. 13 June 2016.
  45. Bruce-Jones, Eddie; Itaborahy, Lucas Paoli (May 2011). "State-sponsored Homophobia" (PDF). ilga.org. Archived from the original (PDF) on December 19, 2011. Retrieved October 15, 2011.
  46. Legman, G. (1966). The Guilt of the Templars. New York: Basic Books. p. 11.
  47. Crompton, Louis (2009). Homosexuality and Civilization. Harvard University Press. p. 187. ISBN   978-0-674-03006-0.
  48. Crompton, Louis, Homosexuality and Civilization, Harvard University, 2003[ page needed ]
  49. Kang, Wenqing. Obsession: male same-sex relations in China, 1900–1950, Hong Kong University Press. Page 3
  50. Francoeur, Robert T.; Noonan, Raymond J. (2004). The Continuum complete international encyclopedia of sexuality. The Continuum International Publishing Group, Inc. ISBN   978-0-8264-1488-5.
  51. "History of Chinese homosexuality". Shanghai Star. 2004-04-01. Retrieved July 3, 2009.
  52. Hazard, John N; Columbia University. Russian Institute (1965). Unity and diversity in socialist law. [New York] Russian Institute, School of International Affairs, Columbia University. OCLC   80991633.
  53. "Persecution of Homosexuals in the Third Reich". United States Holocaust Memorial Museum . Retrieved 9 January 2019.
  54. "LGBT relationships are illegal in 74 countries, research finds". The Independent. 17 May 2016.
  55. Global Gayz. "Gay North Korea News & Reports 2005". Archived from the original on 2005-10-18.. Retrieved on May 5, 2006
  56. Spartacus International Gay Guide, page 1217. Bruno Gmunder Verlag, 2007.
  57. Ember, Carol R; Ember, Melvin (2004). Encyclopedia of sex and gender : men and women in the world's cultures. Kluwer Academic/Plenum Publishers. p. 213. ISBN   978-0-306-47770-6. OCLC   54914021.
  58. 1 2 Epprecht, Marc (2004). Hungochani : the history of a dissident sexuality in southern Africa. Montreal. p. 180. ISBN   978-0-7735-2751-5. OCLC   54905608.
  59. Under African Skies, Part I: 'Totally unacceptable to cultural norms' Archived 2006-05-06 at the Wayback Machine Kaiwright.com
  60. Veit-Wild, Flora; Naguschewski, Dirk (2005). Body, sexuality, and gender. Rodopi. p. 93. ISBN   978-90-420-1626-2.
  61. Canaan Banana, president jailed in sex scandal, dies The Guardian
  62. 1 2 Polish towns advocate ‘LGBT-free’ zones while the ruling party cheers them on, Washington Post, 21 July 2019
  63. Why 'LGBT-free zones' are on the rise in Poland, Canadian Broadcasting Corporation, 27 July 2019
  64. Polish ruling party whips up LGBTQ hatred ahead of elections amid 'gay-free' zones and Pride march attacks, Telegraph, 9 August 2019
  65. Herek, Gregory M.; Cogan, Jeanine C.; Gillis, J. Roy; Glunt, Eric K. (1997). "Correlates of Internalized Homophobia in a Community Sample of Lesbians and Gay Men". Journal of the Gay and Lesbian Medical Association. 2 (1): 17–25. CiteSeerX   10.1.1.582.7247 . OCLC   206392016.
  66. 1 2 3 Gonsiorek, John C. (March 1988). "Mental health issues of gay and lesbian adolescents". Journal of Adolescent Health Care. 9 (2): 114–122. doi:10.1016/0197-0070(88)90057-5. PMID   3283088.
  67. Martino, Wayne (1 January 2000). "Policing Masculinities: Investigating the Role of Homophobia and Heteronormativity in the Lives of Adolescent School Boys". The Journal of Men's Studies. 8 (2): 213–236. doi:10.3149/jms.0802.213. S2CID   145712607.
  68. Dreyer, Yolanda (5 May 2007). "Hegemony and the internalisation of homophobia caused by heteronormativity". HTS Teologiese Studies. 63 (1): 1–18. doi: 10.4102/hts.v63i1.197 .
  69. Rostosky, Sharon Scales; Riggle, Ellen D. B.; Horne, Sharon G.; Miller, Angela D. (January 2009). "Marriage amendments and psychological distress in lesbian, gay, and bisexual (LGB) adults". Journal of Counseling Psychology. 56 (1): 56–66. doi:10.1037/a0013609. S2CID   43455275 .
  70. 1 2 3 4 Adams, Henry E.; Wright, Lester W.; Lohr, Bethany A. (August 1996). "Is homophobia associated with homosexual arousal?". Journal of Abnormal Psychology. 105 (3): 440–445. doi:10.1037/0021-843X.105.3.440. PMID   8772014. S2CID   8349682 . Lay summary.
  71. 1 2 3 Report of the American Psychological Association Task Force on Appropriate Therapeutic Responses to Sexual Orientation (PDF). American Psychological Association. August 2009.[ page needed ]
  72. Weinstein, Netta; Ryan, William S.; DeHaan, Cody R.; Przybylski, Andrew K.; Legate, Nicole; Ryan, Richard M. (2012). "Parental autonomy support and discrepancies between implicit and explicit sexual identities: Dynamics of self-acceptance and defense". Journal of Personality and Social Psychology. 102 (4): 815–832. doi:10.1037/a0026854. PMID   22288529. S2CID   804948 .
  73. 1 2 3 "Health & Science". The Week. 18 April 2012.
  74. Cheval, Boris; Radel, Remi; Grob, Emmanuelle; Ghisletta, Paolo; Bianchi-Demicheli, Francesco; Chanal, Julien (May 2016). "Homophobia: An Impulsive Attraction to the Same Sex? Evidence From Eye-Tracking Data in a Picture-Viewing Task". The Journal of Sexual Medicine. 13 (5): 825–834. doi:10.1016/j.jsxm.2016.02.165. PMID   27006197.
  75. Cheval, Boris; Grob, Emmanuelle; Chanal, Julien; Ghisletta, Paolo; Bianchi-Demicheli, Francesco; Radel, Remi (October 2016). "Homophobia Is Related to a Low Interest in Sexuality in General: An Analysis of Pupillometric Evoked Responses". The Journal of Sexual Medicine. 13 (10): 1539–1545. doi:10.1016/j.jsxm.2016.07.013. PMID   27528498.
  76. Marczyk, Jesse. "Homophobia Isn't Repressed Homosexuality And there's no good reason to suspect it would be, either". Psychology Today. Sussex Publishers, LLC. Retrieved 16 August 2019.
  77. Shidlo, Ariel (1994). "Internalized Homophobia: Conceptual and Empirical Issues in Measurement". Lesbian and Gay Psychology: Theory, Research, and Clinical Applications. pp. 176–205. doi:10.4135/9781483326757.n10. ISBN   9780803953123.
  78. "Masculinity Challenged, Men Prefer War and SUVs".
  79. "Homophobia and Hip-Hop". PBS. Retrieved 2011-10-16.
  80. "Fans' culture hard to change".
  81. Nancy J. Chodorow. Statement in a public forum on homophobia by The American Psychoanalytic Foundation, 1999
  82. West, D.J. Homosexuality re-examined. Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press, 1977. ISBN   0-8166-0812-1
  83. "Prejudice & Attitudes to Gay Men & Lesbians". 2015-06-23.
  84. Epstein, Debbie (1996). "Keeping them in their Place: Hetero/Sexist Harassment, Gender and the Enforcement of Heterosexuality". Sex, Sensibility and the Gendered Body. pp. 202–221. doi:10.1007/978-1-349-24536-9_11. ISBN   978-0-333-65002-8.
  85. Herek, Gregory M; Society for the Psychological Study of Lesbian and Gay Issues (1998). Stigma and sexual orientation : understanding prejudice against lesbians, gay men, and bisexuals. Psychological perspectives on lesbian and gay issues, v. 4. Sage Publications. ISBN   978-0-8039-5385-7. OCLC   37721264.
  86. Kimmel, M. (1994). Masculinity as homophobia: Fear, shame and silence in the construction of gender identity. In H. Brod & M. Kaufman (Eds.), Theorizing masculinities (pp. 119–141). Newbury Park, CA: Sage
  87. Kimmel, Michael S; Mahler, Matthew (2003). "Adolescent Masculinity, Homophobia, and Violence: Random School Shootings, 1982–2001". Am Behav Sci. 46 (10): 1439–58. doi:10.1177/0002764203046010010. OCLC   437621566. S2CID   141177806.
  88. "How fair is Britain? the first Triennial Review". Equality and Human Rights Commission. Archived from the original on 15 October 2010. Retrieved 8 November 2010.
  89. "Violent deaths of LGBT people in Brazil hit all-time high". The Guardian. 22 January 2018.
  90. Petras, Kathryn; Petras, Ross (2003). Unusually Stupid Americans (A compendium of all American Stupidity) . New York: Villard Books. p.  103. ISBN   978-0-9658068-7-9.
  91. Fried, Joseph (2008). Democrats and Republicans—rhetoric and reality : comparing the voters in statistics and anecdotes. Algora Pub. p. 185. ISBN   978-0-87586-605-5. OCLC   183179592.
  92. Lyons, P. M., Jr.; Anthony, C. M.; Davis, K. M.; Fernandez, K.; Torres, A. N.; Marcus, D. K. (2005). "Police Judgments of Culpability and Homophobia". Appl Psychol Crim Justice. 1 (1): 1–14.
  93. Chicago Defender, April 1, 1998, front page
  94. 1 2 3 "Homophobia, racism likely companions, study shows". Jet. Johnson Publishing Company. January 10, 1994. p. 12.
  95. Muir, Hugh (May 23, 2007). "Majority support gay equality rights, poll finds". Guardian. London. Retrieved May 4, 2010.
  96. "The global divide on homosexuality: greater acceptance in more secular and affluent countries". Pew Research Global Attitudes Project. 4 June 2013.
  97. 1 2 3 Smith, David. "The Hidden Cost of Homophobia in Africa". the Williams institute. Archived from the original on 26 June 2019. Retrieved 26 August 2015.
  98. "The Price of Homophobia". The New York Times. 20 January 2005. Retrieved 10 December 2015.
  99. Alimi, Adebisi (19 June 2014). "The development costs of homophobia" . Retrieved 10 December 2015.
  100. Badgett, M.V. Lee. "Sexual Minorities and Development" (PDF). The World Bank. Retrieved 10 December 2015.
  101. "What Homophobia Costs a Country's Economy". The Atlantic. 2014-03-12. Archived from the original on 26 June 2019. Retrieved 26 August 2017.
  102. Lamontagne, Erik; d’Elbée, Marc; Ross, Michael W; Carroll, Aengus; Plessis, André du; Loures, Luiz (3 March 2018). "A socioecological measurement of homophobia for all countries and its public health impact". European Journal of Public Health. 28 (5): 967–972. doi: 10.1093/eurpub/cky023 . PMID   29514190.
  103. Badgett, M.V. Lee; Park, Andrew; Flores, Andrew (March 2018). "Links between economic development and new measures of LGBT inclusion" (PDF). The Williams Institute (UCLA School of Law). Retrieved 10 February 2020.
  104. "Global Acceptance Index". The Williams Institute. UCLA School of Law. Retrieved 10 February 2020.
  105. "Statement of the Holy See Delegation at the 63rd Session of the General Assembly of the United Nations on the Declaration on Human Rights, Sexual Orientation and Gender Identity". vatican.va. 18 December 2008.
  106. "Council of Europe to advance human rights for lesbian, gay, bisexual and transgender persons" (Press release). Council of Europe. 1 April 2010. Retrieved October 16, 2020.
  107. "The UK's first rainbow crossing". BBC. Retrieved 20 August 2019.
  108. "Towards an international Day against Homophobia Archived 2005-12-17 at the Wayback Machine ", April 10, 2004
  109. "1st Annual International Day Against Homophobia to be Celebrated in over 40 Countries on May 17", May 12, 2005 Archived February 11, 2007, at the Wayback Machine
  110. " "Campaigns against Homophobia in Argentina, Brazil, Colombia, and Mexico". Pan American Health Organization. Retrieved 2011-10-16.
  111. Shepherd, Jessica (26 October 2010). "Lessons on gay history cut homophobic bullying in north London school". The Guardian. Retrieved 9 November 2010.
  112. 1 2 Blumenfeld, Warren J (1992). Homophobia : how we all pay the price . Beacon Press. ISBN   978-0-8070-7919-5. OCLC   24544734.
  113. Delavega, Elena; Lennon-Dearing, Robin (2016). "Do Social Workers Apply "Love Thy Neighbor as Thyself" to Gay, Lesbian, Bisexual, and Transpersons in the South?". Journal of Homosexuality. 63 (9): 1171–1193. doi:10.1080/00918369.2016.1150058. PMID   26849856. S2CID   205471075.
  114. Boswell, John (1980). Christianity, social tolerance, and homosexuality: Gay people in Western Europe from the beginning of the Christian era to the fourteenth century . Chicago: University of Chicago Press.
  115. Hudson, WW; Ricketts, WA (1980). "A strategy for the measurement of homophobia". Journal of Homosexuality . 5 (4): 357–72. doi:10.1300/J082v05n04_02. OCLC   115532547. PMID   7204951.
  116. Jung, Patricia Beattie; Smith, Ralph F. (1993). Heterosexism: An Ethical Challenge . State University of New York Press. ISBN   978-0-7914-1696-9.
  117. Herek GM (1990). "The context of anti-gay violence: Notes on cultural and psychological heterosexism". J Interpers Violence. 5 (3): 316–333. doi:10.1177/088626090005003006. S2CID   145678459.
  118. Herek, Gregory M. (February 2000). "The Psychology of Sexual Prejudice". Current Directions in Psychological Science. 9 (1): 19–22. doi:10.1111/1467-8721.00051. S2CID   36963920.
  119. Banks, James A. (2012-05-24). Encyclopedia of Diversity in Education. SAGE. pp. 1093–. ISBN   978-1-4129-8152-1 . Retrieved 17 December 2012.
  120. Patterson, Eric (2008-03-31). On Brokeback Mountain: Meditations About Masculinity, Fear, and Love in the Story and the Film. Lexington Books. pp. 42–. ISBN   978-0-7391-2165-8 . Retrieved 17 December 2012.
  121. Warhol-Down, Robyn; Herndl, Diane Price (2009-11-30). Feminisms Redux: An Anthology of Literary Theory and Criticism. Rutgers University Press. pp. 196–. ISBN   978-0-8135-4620-9 . Retrieved 17 December 2012.
  122. O'Donohue, William; Caselles, Christine (September 1993). "Homophobia: Conceptual, definitional, and value issues". J Psychopathol Behav Assess. 15 (3): 177–195. doi:10.1007/BF01371377. S2CID   144801673.
  123. Gary Colwell (1999). "Turning the Tables with 'Homophobia'". Journal of Applied Philosophy . 16 (3): 207–222. doi:10.1111/1468-5930.00124. JSTOR   24354374.
  124. Byers, Dylan. "AP nixes 'homophobia', 'ethnic cleansing'" . Retrieved 16 December 2012.
  125. Page, Clarence (5 December 2012). "Words with negative power". Chicago Tribune. Retrieved 16 December 2012.
  126. Michelson, Noah (5 December 2012). "Huffington Post discussion". Huffington Post. Retrieved 16 December 2012.
  127. Rainey, James (28 November 2012). "No more 'homophobia'? AP raises the question". Los Angeles Times. Retrieved 16 December 2012. Baltimore Sun language authority John McIntyre described it as "reasoned, principled, and wrong-headed," while National Lesbian and Gay Journalists Association President Michael Triplett advocates terms such as "LGBT rights opponents"
  128. Frank, Nathaniel (27 November 2012). "The Associated Press Bans Homophobia". Slate. Retrieved 16 December 2012. Nathaniel Frank of Slate suggested that "In pursuit of accuracy, the standard-setters (got) it wrong" and that Minthorn's words were "oddly amorphous phrases for a standards editor".
  129. 1 2 3 Raymond J. Noonan (November 6, 1999). "Heterophobia: The Evolution of an Idea". Dr. Ray Noonan’s 1999 Conference Presentations. Retrieved November 25, 2012.
  130. Reisman, Judith A.; Eichel, Edward W.; Muir, J. Gordon; Court, John Hugh (1990). Kinsey, Sex and Fraud: The Indoctrination of a People, an Investigation Into the Human Sexuality Research of Alfred C. Kinsey, Wardell B. Pomeroy, Clyde E. Martin, and Paul H. Gebhard. Lochinvar-Huntington House. ISBN   978-0-910311-20-5.[ page needed ]
  131. The Complete Dictionary of Sexuality by Robert T. Francoeur[ page needed ]
  132. White, Stephen M.; Franzini, Louis R. (24 February 1999). "Heteronegativism: The Attitudes of Gay Men and Lesbians Toward Heterosexuals". Journal of Homosexuality. 37 (1): 65–79. doi:10.1300/J082v37n01_05. PMID   10203070.

Further reading