Anti-Hungarian sentiment

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Anti-Hungarian sentiment (also known as Hungarophobia, [1] [2] Anti-Hungarianism, Magyarophobia [3] or Antimagyarism [4] ) is dislike, distrust, racism, or xenophobia directed against the Hungarians. It can involve hatred, grievance, distrust, intimidation, fear, and hostility towards the Hungarian people, language and culture.

Contents

History

During the era of the Austro-Hungarian monarchs, the court in Vienna was influenced by Hungarophobia, but the Hungarian landowner nobles also showed signs of Germanophobia. [5] In the 18th century, after the end of Rákóczi's War of Independence, many immigrants came to the underpopulated southern parts of the Kingdom of Hungary: for instance, 800 new German villages were established. [6] The authorities preferred non-Hungarian settlers. The Habsburgs regarded Hungarians as "politically unreliable" and so were not allowed to settle in the southern territories until the 1740s. [7] The organized resettlement was planned by the Habsburgs. The resettlement policy was characterized as anti-Hungarian, [8] [9] as the Habsburgs feared an uprising of Protestant Hungarians. [10]

Thousands of Hungarians were massacred in Transylvania in 1848-49 (now part of Romania) in nine separate incidents during the Hungarian Revolution of 1848.

Modern

Czechoslovakia

Minorities in Czechoslovakia in 1918 to 1939 enjoyed personal freedoms and were properly recognized by the state. There were three Hungarian and/or Hungarian-centric political parties:

After World War II, Czechoslovakia became a communist state; during the transition to a communist one-party state, decrees permitting the forced [11] expulsion of German and Hungarian minorities from ethnic enclaves in Czechoslovakia came into effect, and Hungarians were forcibly relocated to Sudetenland, on the borders of Czechoslovakia. The Czechoslovak government deported more than 44,129 Hungarians from Slovakia to the Sudetenland for forced labor [12] [13] between 1945 and 1948, [13] and the Beneš decrees remain legally in effect in the Czech Republic. [14]

Slovakia

Jan Slota, the ex-chairman of Slovak National Party SNS, claimed that the Hungarian minority of Slovakia "is a tumour in the body of the Slovak nation". Zilina P6112384-selection.jpg
Ján Slota, the ex-chairman of Slovak National Party SNS, claimed that the Hungarian minority of Slovakia "is a tumour in the body of the Slovak nation".

In Slovakia, Hungarian and pro-Hungarian political parties are a stable part of the political system. Anti-Hungarian sentiment had been criticized particularly during the third government of Vladimír Mečiar. In the past, so-called "Hungarian card" had been used mainly by the Slovak National Party (SNS) [18] against the granting of a special status to the Hungarian minority; it argued for the complete assimilation of the Hungarian minority into Slovak society.[ verification needed ] It considers that Hungarians in Slovakia are actually overprivileged. [18] [19] After personnel changes in the presidium, SNS abandoned similar rhetoric and formed a common government with pro-Hungarian Most-Híd in 2016.

Anti-Hungarian rhetoric of some far-right organizations[ who? ][ citation needed ] in Slovakia is based on historical stereotypes and conflicts in the common history as interpreted from nationalistic positions and recent events. [ citation needed ] In such interpretations, the arrival of old Hungarian tribes is described as the occupation by barbarian tribes and contributed to the destruction of Great Moravia. Other negative sentiments are related to the period of Magyarization, the policy of interwar Hungary, the collaboration of Hungarian-minority parties with the Hungarian government against Czechoslovakia, the First Vienna Award and the Slovak–Hungarian War. [20] Hungary is accused of still trying to undermine the territorial integrity of Slovakia, and local minority politicians are accused of irredentism. [20] However, anti-Hungarian sentiment is not typical even for all far-right organisations, and the leader of the Slovak Brotherhood emphasized the need for collaboration with Hungarian far-right organisations against materialism and multiculturalism. [20]

Women, Slovak or not, used to be required to affix the Slovak feminine marker -ová (used for declension of feminine names) at the end of their surname. [21]

One incident of ethnically-motivated violence against Hungarians in Slovakia is the Hedvig Malina case. A 23-year-old Hungarian student from Horné Mýto was allegedly beaten and robbed in Nitra after speaking Hungarian in public. [22] [23] [24] A football match in Dunajská Streda also caused tensions between Slovakia and Hungary when Hungarian fans were badly beaten by the Slovak police. [25]

The majority and the Hungarian minority describe their coexistence mostly as good. For example, in a public survey in 2015, 85.2% of respondents characterized their coexistence as good (63.6% rather good, 21.6% very good) and only 7.6% as bad (6.3% rather bad, 1.3% very bad). [26]

Romania

In Romania, the Ceaușescu régime was obsessed with the ancient history of Transylvania [ clarification needed ] [27] The National Communism in Romania made [28] the historical personalities of Hungary (such as John Hunyadi or György Dózsa) [28] [29] go through Romanianization and become more central figures in Romanian history. [27]

Derogatory terms

In English

In Romanian

See also

Related Research Articles

Demographics of Hungary

This article is about the demographic features of the population of Hungary, including population density, ethnicity, education level, health of the populace, economic status, religious affiliations and other aspects of the population. Hungary's population has been slowly declining since 1980.

This article covers the history and bibliography of Romania and links to specialized articles.

Treaty of Trianon Peace treaty between Kingdom of Hungary and the Allied Powers at the end of World War I

The Treaty of Trianon was prepared at the Paris Peace Conference and was signed in the Grand Trianon Palace in Versailles on 4 June 1920. It formally ended World War I between most of the Allies of World War I and the Kingdom of Hungary. French diplomats played the major role in designing the treaty, with a mind to establishing French-led coalition of the newly formed nations. It regulated the status of the independent Hungarian state and defined its borders generally within the ceasefire lines established in November–December 1918 and left Hungary as a landlocked state that included 93,073 square kilometres (35,936 sq mi), 28% of the 325,411 square kilometres (125,642 sq mi) that had constituted the pre-war Kingdom of Hungary. The truncated Kingdom had a population of 7.6 million, 36% compared to the pre-war kingdom's population of 20.9 million. Though the areas that were allocated to neighbouring countries had a majority of non-Hungarians, in them lived 3.3 million Hungarians – 31% – who were now in a minority status. The treaty limited Hungary's army to 35,000 officers and men, and the Austro-Hungarian Navy ceased to exist. These decisions and their consequences have been the cause of deep resentment in Hungary ever since.

Austro-Hungarian Compromise of 1867 Establishment of Austria-Hungary

The Austro-Hungarian Compromise of 1867 established the dual monarchy of Austria-Hungary. The Compromise partially re-established the former pre-1848 sovereignty and status of the Kingdom of Hungary, however being separate from, but no longer subject to the Austrian Empire. The compromise put an end to the 18-year-long military dictatorship and absolutist rule over Hungary, which was introduced by Francis Joseph after the Hungarian Revolution of 1848. The territorial integrity of Kingdom of Hungary was restored. The agreement also restored the old historic constitution of the Kingdom of Hungary.

With the collapse of the Habsburg monarchy at the end of World War I, the independent country of Czechoslovakia was formed as a result of the critical intervention of U.S. President Woodrow Wilson, among others.

Hungarian irredentism

Hungarian irredentism or Greater Hungary are irredentist and revisionist political ideas concerning redemption of territories of the historical Kingdom of Hungary. The idea is associated with Hungarian revisionism, targeting at least to regain control over Hungarian-populated areas in Hungary's neighbouring countries. Hungarian historians did not use the term Greater Hungary, because the "Historic Hungary" is the established term for the Kingdom of Hungary before 1920.

Sudeten Germans Ethnic Germans living in the Czech lands before 1945

German Bohemians, later known as Sudeten Germans, were ethnic Germans living in the Czech lands of the Bohemian Crown, which later became an integral part of Czechoslovakia in which before 1945 over three million German Bohemians inhabited, about 23% of the population of the whole country and about 29.5% of the population of Bohemia and Moravia. Ethnic Germans migrated into the Kingdom of Bohemia, an electoral territory of the Holy Roman Empire, from the 11th century, mostly in the border regions of what was later called the "Sudetenland", which was named after the Sudeten Mountains. The process of German expansion was known as Ostsiedlung. The name "Sudeten Germans" was adopted during rising nationalism after the fall of Austria-Hungary after the First World War. After the Munich Agreement, the so-called Sudetenland became part of Germany.

United States of Greater Austria

The United States of Greater Austria was an unrealized proposal in 1906 to federalize Austria-Hungary to help resolve widespread ethnic and nationalist tensions. It was conceived by a group of scholars surrounding Archduke Franz Ferdinand of Austria, notably by the ethnic Romanian lawyer and politician Aurel Popovici.

Magyarization Adoption of Hungarian culture or language by non-Hungarian people

Magyarization, after "Magyar"—the Hungarian autonym—was an assimilation or acculturation process by which non-Hungarian nationals living in Austro-Hungarian Transleithania adopted the Hungarian national identity and language in the period between the Compromise of 1867 and Austria-Hungary's dissolution in 1918. Magyarization occurred both voluntarily and as a result of social pressure, and was mandated in certain respects by specific government policies.

Minorities of Romania

About 10.5% of Romania's population is represented by minorities. The principal minorities in Romania are Hungarians and Romani people, with a declining German population and smaller numbers of Poles in Bukovina, Serbs, Croats, Slovaks and Banat Bulgarians, Ukrainians, Greeks, Jews, Turks and Tatars, Armenians, Russians, Afro-Romanians, and others.

Romanianization

Romanianization is the series of policies aimed toward ethnic assimilation implemented by the Romanian authorities during the 20th and 21st century. The most noteworthy policies were those aimed at the Hungarian minority in Romania, Jews and as well the Ukrainian minority in Bukovina and Bessarabia.

Hungarians in Slovakia

Hungarians are the largest ethnic minority in Slovakia. According to the 2011 Slovak census, 458,467 people declared themselves Hungarians, while 508,714 stated that Hungarian was their mother tongue.

Principality of Transylvania (1570–1711)

The Principality of Transylvania was a semi-independent state, ruled primarily by Hungarian princes. Its territory, in addition to the traditional Transylvanian lands, also included the other major component called Partium, which was in some periods comparable in size with Transylvania proper. The establishment of the principality was connected to the Treaty of Speyer. However Stephen Báthory's status as king of Poland also helped to phase in the name Principality of Transylvania. It was usually under the suzerainty of the Ottoman Empire; however, the principality often had dual vassalage in the 16th and 17th centuries.

Slovakization Adoption of Slovak culture or language by non-Slovak people

Slovakization or Slovakisation is a form of either forced or voluntary cultural assimilation, during which non-Slovak nationals give up their culture and language in favor of the Slovak one. This process has relied most heavily on intimidation and harassment by state authorities. In the past the process has been greatly aided by deprivation of collective rights for minorities and ethnic cleansing, but in the last decades its promotion has been limited to the adoption of anti-minority policies and anti-minority hate speech.

2006 Slovak–Hungarian diplomatic affairs

The Slovak–Hungarian diplomatic affairs of 2006 were a series of ethnic and diplomatic affairs between Slovakia and Hungary.

The presence of German-speaking populations in Central and Eastern Europe is rooted in centuries of history, with the settling in northeastern Europe of Germanic peoples predating even the founding of the Roman Empire. The presence of the independent German states in the region, and later the German Empire and also in other multi-ethnic countries, such as Hungary, Poland, Imperial Russia, etc., demonstrates the extent and duration of German-speaking settlements.

Hungarians in Ukraine

The Hungarians in Ukraine number 156,600 people according to the Ukrainian census of 2001 and are the fifth largest national minority in the country. They are the seventh biggest Hungarian diaspora in the world. Hungarians are largely concentrated in the Zakarpattia Oblast where they form the largest minority at 12.1% of the population. In the area along the Ukrainian border with Hungary, Hungarians form the majority.

Hungary–Slovakia relations Diplomatic relations between Hungary and the Slovak Republic

Hungary and Slovakia are two neighboring countries in Central Europe. There are two major periods of official foreign relations between them in contemporary history. The first period included relations between the Kingdom of Hungary and the first Slovak Republic in 1939–1945. The second period has started in 1993, when the countries again established diplomatic relations, the year when Slovakia became independent of Czechoslovakia. Hungary has an embassy in Bratislava and a general consulate in Košice, and in Nitra, and Slovakia has an embassy in Budapest and a general consulate in Békéscsaba.

Hungarians in Romania

The Hungarian minority of Romania is the largest ethnic minority in Romania, consisting of 1,227,623 people and making up 6.1% of the total population, according to the 2011 census.

The Czechoslovak–Hungarian population exchange was the exchange of inhabitants between Czechoslovakia and Hungary after World War II. Between 45,000 and 120,000 Hungarians were forcibly transferred from Czechoslovakia to Hungary, and their properties confiscated, while around 72,000 Slovaks voluntarily transferred from Hungary to Czechoslovakia, half of whom eventually moved back to Hungary.

References

  1. Viktor Karády, The Jews of Europe in the Modern Era: A Socio-Historical Outline, Central European University Press, 2004, p. 223
  2. András Bán, Hungarian-British Diplomacy, 1938-1941: The Attempt to Maintain Relations, Routledge, 2004, p. 128
  3. Boyer, John W. (2009). Culture and Political Crisis in Vienna: Christian Socialism in Power, 1897-1918. University of Chicago Press, 1995. p. 116. ISBN   9780226069609.
  4. Verdery, Katherine. National Ideology Under Socialism: Identity and Cultural Politics in Ceauşescu's Romania. University of California Press, 1995. p. 317. ISBN   9780932088352.
  5. Michael Hochedlinger, Austria's Wars of Emergence: War, State and Society in the Habsburg Monarchy, 1683-1797, Pearson Education, 2003, p. 25
  6. Thomas Spira, German-Hungarian relations and the Swabian problem: from Károlyi to Gömbös, 1919-1936, East European quarterly, 1977, p. 2
  7. Károly Kocsis, Eszter Kocsisné Hodosi, Ethnic Geography of the Hungarian Minority on the Carpathian Basin, Simon Publications LLC, 1998, pp 140 -141
  8. Hídfő könyvtár, Volume 8, Issue 1, p. 48
  9. Istvàn Sisa, Magyarságtükör: nemzet határok nélkül, Püski, 2001, p. 99 Cited: "Magyarellenes betelepítési politika. A felszabadulást követően a Habsburgok olyan betelepítési politikát alkalmaztak, mely még tovább gyengítette a magyarok helyzetét." Translation: "(Section name) Anti-Hungarian resettlement policy. After the liberation, the policy employed by the Habsburgs weakened the situation of Hungarians more."
  10. Tibor Iván Berend, Éva Ring, Helyünk Európában: nézetek és koncepciók a 20. századi Magyarországon, Volume 1, Magvető, 1986, p. 144 Cited: "A Habsburg-család azonban a kálvinista magyarok lázadásától való félelmében az évszázados török háborúk által elpusztított területen magyarellenes telepítési politikát kezdeményezett" Translation: "The Habsburg family initiated an anti-Hungarian resettlement policy in the destroyed territories (caused by hundreds of years of Turkish wars) because of their fear of an uprising of Calvinist Hungarians"
  11. Thum, Gregor (2006–2007). "Ethnic Cleansing in Eastern Europe after 1945". Contemporary European History. 19 (1): 75–81. doi:10.1017/S0960777309990257. S2CID   145605508.
  12. Eleonore C. M. Breuning, Dr. Jill Lewis, Gareth Pritchard, Power and the people: a social history of Central European politics, 1945-56, Manchester University Press, 2005, p. 140
  13. 1 2 Anna Fenyvesi, Hungarian language contact outside Hungary: studies on Hungarian as a minority language, John Benjamins Publishing Company, 2005, p. 50
  14. "Radio Prague - The "Benes decrees" - a historian's point of view" . Retrieved 25 September 2015.
  15. "Separatist Movements Seek Inspiration in Kosovo". Der Spiegel . 2008-02-22. Retrieved 2008-08-06.
  16. Jan Cienski. "Slovakia and Hungary just won't get along". GlobalPost. Retrieved 25 September 2015.
  17. SPIEGEL ONLINE, Hamburg, Germany (25 August 2009). "The World from Berlin: Slovakia and Hungary 'Dangerously Close to Playing with Fire'". SPIEGEL ONLINE. Retrieved 25 September 2015.CS1 maint: multiple names: authors list (link)
  18. 1 2 Cohen, Shari J. (2009). Politics Without a Past: The Absence of History in Postcommunist Nationalism. Duke University Press, Nov 22, 1999. p. 140. ISBN   978-0822323990.
  19. Hungarian Human Rights Foundation Archived 2011-01-05 at the Wayback Machine New Slovak Government Embraces Ultra-Nationalists, Excludes Hungarian Coalition Party
  20. 1 2 3 Danilov, Sergej; Nociar, Tomáš, eds. (2012). Milovaní a nenávidení: Podobnosti a rozdiely medzi slovenskou a maďarskou krajnou pravicou[Loved and hated: Similarities and differences between Slovak and Hungarian far-right]. Bratislava: Inštitút pre medzikultúrny dialóg. pp. 12–13. ISBN   978-80-970915-0-7.
  21. Bernd, Rechel (2009). Minority rights in Central and Eastern Europe. Taylor & Francis. ISBN   978-0415590310.
  22. "Malina case bungled: Prosecutor". The Budapest Times. Retrieved 2008-03-11.
  23. "Maligned Hungarian seeks higher justice". The Budapest Times. 2007-12-10. Retrieved 2008-03-03.
  24. "Une étudiante met le feu aux poudres ("A student sets fire to the powder")" (in French). lepetitjournal.com. 2006-09-18. Archived from the original on 2016-01-21. Retrieved 2008-04-01.
  25. "Football riot stokes tension". spectator.sme.sk. Retrieved 2014-04-04.
  26. "Prieskum: Vzťahy Slovenska a Maďarska sa za posledných 10 rokov zlepšili" [Survey: Relationships between Slovakia and Hungary has improved over the last 10 years] (in Slovak). Pravda.sk. 2015-09-20. Retrieved 2016-08-23.
  27. 1 2 Lucian Boia, History and Myth in Romanian Consciousness, Central European University Press, 2001, p. 222 Citation:"....Thanks to the trios of Gelu, Glad and Menumorut, and Horea, Cloşca and Crişan, the Transylvanian heroes are actually more numerous than those of Wallachia or Moldavia, illustrating the obsession with Transylvania and the Hungarophobia that became accentuated towards the end of the Ceauşescu era."
  28. 1 2 "Rethinking National Identity after National-Communism? The case of Romania (by Cristina Petrescu, University of Bucharest)". www.eurhistxx.de. Archived from the original on 2014-03-05. Retrieved 2014-04-03.
  29. The Hungarian national component of the movement led by Dózsa was de-emphasized, while its strong antifeudal character was highlighted: (in Romanian) Emanuel Copilaş, "Confiscarea lui Dumnezeu şi mecanismul inevitabilităţii istorice" Archived 2011-07-21 at the Wayback Machine , Sfera Politicii 139, September 2009
  30. "Bohunk - Definition of bohunk by Merriam-Webster" . Retrieved 25 September 2015.
  31. "bohunk" in the Canadian Oxford Dictionary, Second Edition, Oxford University Press, 2004.
  32. Vilmos Tánczos, Language Use, Attitudes, Strategies. Linguistic Identity and Ethnicity in the Moldavian Csángó Villages, Editura ISPMN, 2012, p. 130
  33. http://adatbank.transindex.ro/html/alcim_pdf457.pdf

Bibliography