List of heads of state of Hungary

Last updated

For earlier rulers, see Grand Prince of the Hungarians, King of Hungary and List of Hungarian monarchs

The following is a list of heads of state of Hungary, from the Hungarian Declaration of Independence and the establishment of the Hungarian State in 1849 (during the Hungarian Revolution of 1848) until the present day.

Contents

Hungarian State (1849)

Parties   Opposition Party

No.PictureName
(Birth–Death)
Term of OfficePolitical PartyPosition(s)
1 Vastagh Portrait of Lajos Kossuth.jpg Lajos Kossuth
(1802–1894)
14 April 184911 August 1849 Opposition Party Governor-President
Also Prime Minister
until 1 May 1849
Gorgei Artur by Miklos Barabas.jpg Artúr Görgey
(1818–1916)
11 August 184913 August 1849 Revolutionary Army Dictator
Acting civil and military authority

After the collapse of the Hungarian Revolution of 1848, the restored Hungarian Kingdom became an integral part of the Austrian Empire until 1867, when dual Austro-Hungarian Monarchy was created and the Hungarian Kingdom was organized as Lands of the Crown of Saint Stephen .

Lands of the Crown of Saint Stephen (1867–1918)

Hungarian People's Republic (1918–1919)

Parties   F48P–Károlyi

No.PictureName
(Birth–Death)
Term of OfficePolitical PartyPosition(s)
1 Mihaly-karolyi--outlawsdiary00tormuoft.jpg Mihály Károlyi
(1875–1955)
16 November 191811 January 1919 F48P–Károlyi Provisional President of the Republic
Also Prime Minister
11 January 191921 March 1919President of the Republic

Hungarian Soviet Republic (1919)

Parties   MSZP/SZKMMP

No.PictureName
(Birth–Death)
Term of OfficePolitical PartyPosition(s)
1 Garbai Sandor.JPG Sándor Garbai
(1879–1947)
21 March 19191 August 1919 MSZP/SZKMMP Chairman of the Central Executive Council

Hungarian People's Republic (1919)

Parties   MSZDP

No.PictureName
(Birth–Death)
Term of OfficePolitical PartyPosition(s)
1 Peidl Gyula.jpg Gyula Peidl
(1873–1943)
1 August 19196 August 1919 MSZDP Prime Minister
Acting Head of State

Hungarian Republic (1919–1920)

Parties   KNEP    Independent

No.PictureName
(Birth–Death)
Term of OfficePolitical PartyPosition(s)
1 Joseph August of Austria (1872-1962) in 1917.jpg Archduke Joseph August
(1872–1962)
7 August 191923 August 1919Independent
(Regent)
Regent of Hungary
Istvan Friedrich Hungarian Prime Minister.jpg István Friedrich
(1883–1951)
23 August 191924 November 1919KNP → KNEP Acting Head of State
Also Prime Minister
Huszar Karoly.jpg Károly Huszár
(1882–1941)
24 November 19191 March 1920 KNEP

Kingdom of Hungary (1920–1946)

   Independent

No.PortraitName
(Birth–Death)
Term of officePolitical partyPosition(s)
Took officeLeft officeTime in office
2
Horthy 1943.jpg
Miklós Horthy
(1868–1957)
1 March 192015 October 194424 years, 228 days Independent Regent of Hungary

Government of National Unity (1944–1945)

Parties   NYKP

No.PortraitName
(Birth–Death)
Term of officePolitical partyPosition(s)
Took officeLeft officeTime in office
1
Ferenc Szalasi.jpg
Ferenc Szálasi
(1897–1946)
16 October 194428 March 1945163 days NYKP Leader of the Nation
De facto, appointed by the Germans
Also Prime Minister

Soviet-backed provisional governments (1944–1946)

Parties   Independent

No.PictureName
(Birth–Death)
Term of OfficePolitical PartyPosition(s)
Bela Miklos de Dalnok 1944.jpg Béla Miklós
(1890–1948)
21 December 194425 January 1945IndependentHead of State
Also Prime Minister
In opposition
Coa Hungary Country History med (1919-1938).svg High National Council 26 January 19451 February 1946Multi-partyCollective Head of State
In opposition to 28 March 1945

Hungarian Republic (1946–1949)

Parties   FKGP    MDP

No.PictureName
(Birth–Death)
Term of OfficePolitical PartyPosition(s)
2 Tildy Zoltan-MTI 1946.jpg Zoltán Tildy
(1889–1961)
1 February 19463 August 1948 FKGP President of the Republic
3 Szakasits Arpad 1949.jpg Árpád Szakasits
(1888–1965)
3 August 194823 August 1949 MDP

Hungarian People's Republic (1949–1989)

Chairman of the Presidential Council

Parties   MDPMSZMP    Independent

No.PictureName
(Birth–Death)
Term of OfficePolitical PartyPosition(s)
1 Szakasits Arpad 1949.jpg Árpád Szakasits
(1888–1965)
23 August 194926 April 1950 MDP Chairman of the Presidential Council
2 Ronai Sandor (crop).jpg Sándor Rónai
(1892–1965)
26 April 195014 August 1952
3 Dobi Istvan 1948-06.jpg István Dobi
(1898–1968)
14 August 195225 October 1956
(3)25 October 195614 April 1967 MSZMP
4 Pal Losonczi.jpg Pál Losonczi
(1919–2005)
14 April 196725 June 1987
5 Nemeth Karoly -Fortepan.jpg Károly Németh
(1922–2008)
25 June 198729 June 1988
6 Straub F. Bruno3 (cropped).jpg Brunó Ferenc Straub
(1914–1996)
29 June 198823 October 1989Independent

Leader of the Hungarian Working People's Party / Hungarian Socialist Workers' Party

Parties   MDPMSZMP

No.PictureName
(Birth–Death)
Term of OfficePolitical PartyPosition(s)Notes
1 Kommunista politikusok a tribunon fortepan 79084 (profile-4).jpg Mátyás Rákosi
(1892–1971)
12 June 194828 June 1953 MDP General SecretaryAlso Prime Minister (1952–1953)
28 June 195318 July 1956First Secretary
2 Gero Erno 1955 (cropped).jpg Ernő Gerő
(1898–1980)
18 July 195625 October 1956
3 Janos Kadar (fototeca.iiccr.ro).jpg János Kádár
(1912–1989)
25 October 195630/31 October 1956Also Prime Minister (1956–1958 and 1961–1965)
(3)1 November 195628 March 1985 MSZMP
28 March 198527 May 1988General Secretary
4 Grosz Karoly 1986.jpg Károly Grósz
(1930–1996)
27 May 19887 October 1989Also Prime Minister (1987–1988)
5 Nyers Rezso 1970.jpg Rezső Nyers
(1923–2018)
26 June 19897 October 1989Party President [1]

Hungarian Republic / Hungary (from 1989)

Parties   MSZP    SZDSZ    Fidesz    Independent

No.PictureName
(Birth–Death)
Term of OfficePolitical PartyPosition(s) Term
(Election)
Szuros Matyas (Heti Valasz).JPG Mátyás Szűrös
(born 1933)
23 October 19892 May 1990 MSZP Provisional President of the Republic
GonczArpad.jpg Árpád Göncz
(1922–2015)
2 May 19903 August 1990 SZDSZ Acting President of the Republic
44 August 19904 August 1995President of the Republic 1 (1990)
4 August 19954 August 2000 2 (1995)
5 Ferenc Madl.jpg Ferenc Mádl
(1931–2011)
4 August 20005 August 2005Independent 3 (2000)
6 Laszlo Solyom.jpg László Sólyom
(born 1942)
5 August 20056 August 2010 4 (2005)
7 SchmittPal-2011-01.jpg Pál Schmitt
(born 1942)
6 August 20102 April 2012
( resigned )
Fidesz 5 (2010)
Laszlo Kover Senate of Poland 01.JPG László Kövér
(born 1959)
2 April 201210 May 2012Acting President of the Republic
8 Ader Janos.jpg János Áder
(born 1959)
10 May 20128 May 2017President of the Republic 6 (2012)
8 May 2017Incumbent 7 (2017)

See also

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References

  1. While Grósz retained the title of General Secretary until 7 October, Nyers held the chairmanship of the Party's four-man presidency after the reorganization of the Party leadership on 26 June. This made him de facto chief executive of both the Party and the country after that date for several months in 1989.