Web development

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Web development is the work involved in developing a Web site for the Internet (World Wide Web) or an intranet (a private network). [1] Web development can range from developing a simple single static page of plain text to complex web applications, electronic businesses, and social network services. A more comprehensive list of tasks to which Web development commonly refers, may include Web engineering, Web design, Web content development, client liaison, client-side/server-side scripting, Web server and network security configuration, and e-commerce development.

Contents

Among Web professionals, "Web development" usually refers to the main non-design aspects of building Web sites: writing markup and coding. [2] Web development may use content management systems (CMS) to make content changes easier and available with basic technical skills.

For larger organizations and businesses, Web development teams can consist of hundreds of people (Web developers) and follow standard methods like Agile methodologies while developing Web sites. Smaller organizations may only require a single permanent or contracting developer, or secondary assignment to related job positions such as a graphic designer or information systems technician. Web development may be a collaborative effort between departments rather than the domain of a designated department. There are three kinds of Web developer specialization: front-end developer, back-end developer, and full-stack developer. Front-end developers are responsible for behavior and visuals that run in the user browser, while back-end developers deal with the servers.

As an industry

Since the commercialization of the Web, Web development has been a growing industry. The growth of this industry is being driven by businesses wishing to use their Web site to advertise and sell products and services to customers. [3]

There are many open source tools for Web development such as BerkeleyDB, GlassFish, LAMP (Linux, Apache, MySQL, PHP) stack and Perl/Plack. This has kept the cost of learning Web development to a minimum. Another contributing factor to the growth of the industry has been the rise of easy-to-use WYSIWYG Web-development software, such as Adobe Dreamweaver, BlueGriffon and Microsoft Visual Studio. Knowledge of HyperText Markup Language (HTML) or of programming languages is still required to use such software, but the basics can be learned and implemented quickly.

An ever-growing set of tools and technologies have helped developers build more dynamic and interactive Web sites. Further, Web developers now help to deliver applications as Web services which were traditionally only available as applications on a desk-based computer. This has allowed for many opportunities to decentralize information and media distribution. Examples can be seen with the rise of cloud services such as Adobe Creative Cloud, Dropbox and Google Drive. These Web services allow users to interact with applications from many locations, instead of being tied to a specific workstation for their application environment.

Examples of dramatic transformation in communication and commerce led by Web development include e-commerce. Online auction sites such as eBay have changed the way consumers find and purchase goods and services. Online retailers such as Amazon.com and Buy.com (among many others) have transformed the shopping and bargain-hunting experience for many consumers. Another example of transformative communication led by Web development is the blog. Web applications such as WordPress and Movable Type have created blog-environments for individual Web sites. The increased usage of open-source content management systems and enterprise content management systems has extended Web development's impact at online interaction and communication.

Web development has also impacted personal networking and marketing. Web sites are no longer simply tools for work or for commerce, but serve more broadly for communication and social networking. Web sites such as Facebook and Twitter provide users with a platform to communicate and organizations with a more personal and interactive way to engage the public.

Chronology

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Practical Web development

Basic

In practice, many Web developers will have basic interdisciplinary skills / roles, including:

Testing

Testing is the process of evaluating a system or its component(s) with the intent to find whether it satisfies the specified requirements or not. Testing is executing a system in order to identify any gaps, errors, or missing requirements contrary to the actual requirements. The extent of testing varies greatly between organizations, developers, and individual sites or applications.

Security considerations

Web development takes into account many security considerations, such as data entry error checking through forms, filtering output, and encryption. Malicious practices such as SQL injection can be executed by users with ill intent yet with only primitive knowledge of Web development as a whole. Scripts can be used to exploit Web sites by granting unauthorized access to malicious users that try to collect information such as email addresses, passwords and protected content like credit card numbers. Some of this is dependent on the server environment on which the scripting language, such as ASP, JSP, PHP, Python, Perl or Ruby is running, and therefore is not necessarily down to the Web developer themselves to maintain. However, stringent testing of Web applications before public release is encouraged to prevent such exploits from occurring. If some contact form is provided on a Web site it should include a captcha field in it which prevents computer programs from automatically filling forms and also mail spamming.

Because new security holes are found in Web applications even after testing and launch, security patch updates are frequent for widely used applications. It is often the job of Web developers to keep applications up to date as security patches are released and new security concerns are discovered.

Keeping a Web server safe from intrusion is often called Server Port Hardening. Many technologies come into play to keep information on the Internet safe when it is transmitted from one location to another. For instance TLS certificates (or "SSL certificates") are issued by certificate authorities to help prevent Internet fraud. Many developers often employ different forms of encryption when transmitting and storing sensitive information. A basic understanding of information technology security concerns is often part of a Web developer's knowledge.

See also

Related Research Articles

World Wide Web System of interlinked hypertext documents accessed over the Internet

The World Wide Web (WWW), commonly known as the Web, is an information system where documents and other web resources are identified by Uniform Resource Locators, which may be interlinked by hyperlinks, and are accessible over the Internet. The resources of the Web are transferred via the Hypertext Transfer Protocol (HTTP), may be accessed by users by a software application called a web browser, and are published by a software application called a web server. The World Wide Web is not synonymous with the Internet, which pre-dated the Web in some form by over two decades and upon which technologies the Web is built.

Website Set of related web pages served from a single web domain

A website is a collection of web pages and related content that is identified by a common domain name and published on at least one web server. Notable examples are wikipedia.org, google.com, and amazon.com.

Web design encompasses many different skills and disciplines in the production and maintenance of websites. The different areas of web design include web graphic design; user interface design ; authoring, including standardised code and proprietary software; user experience design ; and search engine optimization. Often many individuals will work in teams covering different aspects of the design process, although some designers will cover them all. The term "web design" is normally used to describe the design process relating to the front-end design of a website including writing markup. Web design partially overlaps web engineering in the broader scope of web development. Web designers are expected to have an awareness of usability and if their role involves creating markup then they are also expected to be up to date with web accessibility guidelines.

An intranet is a computer network for sharing information, collaboration tools, operational systems, and other computing services within an organization, usually to the exclusion of access by outsiders. The term is used in contrast to public networks, such as the Internet, but uses most of the same technology based on the Internet Protocol Suite.

A web portal is a specially designed website that brings information from diverse sources, like emails, online forums and search engines, together in a uniform way. Usually, each information source gets its dedicated area on the page for displaying information ; often, the user can configure which ones to display. Variants of portals include mashups and intranet "dashboards" for executives and managers. The extent to which content is displayed in a "uniform way" may depend on the intended user and the intended purpose, as well as the diversity of the content. Very often design emphasis is on a certain "metaphor" for configuring and customizing the presentation of the content and the chosen implementation framework or code libraries. In addition, the role of the user in an organization may determine which content can be added to the portal or deleted from the portal configuration.

The term Web service (WS) is either: web services only for other application or machine not human

An application server is a server that hosts applications.

Web application Application that uses a web browser as a client

A web application is application software that runs on a web server, unlike computer-based software programs that are run locally on the operating system (OS) of the device. Web applications are accessed by the user through a web browser with an active network connection. These applications are programmed using a client–server modeled structure—the user ("client") is provided services through an off-site server that is hosted by a third-party. Examples of commonly-used web applications include: web-mail, online retail sales, online banking, and online auctions.

In business, an intranet strategy is the use of an intranet and associated hardware and software to obtain one or more organizational objectives. An intranet is an access-restricted network used internally in an organization. An intranet uses the same concepts and technologies as the World Wide Web and Internet. This includes web browsers and servers running on the internet protocol suite and using Internet protocols such as FTP, TCP/IP, HTML, and Simple Mail Transfer Protocol (SMTP).

In software engineering, the terms front end and back end refer to the separation of concerns between the presentation layer, and the data access layer of a piece of software, or the physical infrastructure or hardware. In the client–server model, the client is usually considered the front end and the server is usually considered the back end, even when some presentation work is actually done on the server itself.

WapTV was the name given to the company which originated the WTVML as a content format for the delivery of Interactive TV applications using Internet Servers. The system is an Interactive television technology platform comprising a microbrowser, a markup language, and a significant collection of associated software tools and services.

Web 2.0 World Wide Web sites that use technology beyond the static pages of earlier Web sites

Web 2.0 refers to websites that emphasize user-generated content, ease of use, participatory culture and interoperability for end users.

An intraweb is a web comprising all HTTP nodes on an intranet; synonyms are corporate web, internal web.

Mobile app development is the act or process by which a mobile app is developed for mobile devices, such as personal digital assistants, enterprise digital assistants or mobile phones. These applications can be pre-installed on phones during manufacturing platforms, or delivered as web applications using server-side or client-side processing to provide an "application-like" experience within a Web browser. Application software developers also must consider a long array of screen sizes, hardware specifications, and configurations because of intense competition in mobile software and changes within each of the platforms. Mobile app development has been steadily growing, in revenues and jobs created. A 2013 analyst report estimates there are 529,000 direct app economy jobs within the EU then 28 members, 60 percent of which are mobile app developers.

Wireless Application Protocol (WAP) is a technical standard for accessing information over a mobile wireless network. A WAP browser is a web browser for mobile devices such as mobile phones that use the protocol. Introduced in 1999, WAP achieved some popularity in the early 2000s, but by the 2010s it had been largely superseded by more modern standards. Almost all modern handset internet browsers now fully support HTML, so they do not need to use WAP markup for web page compatibility, and therefore, most are no longer able to render and display pages written in WML, WAP's markup language.

SAINT is computer software used for scanning computer networks for security vulnerabilities, and exploiting found vulnerabilities.

SharePoint Web application platform

SharePoint is a web-based collaborative platform that integrates with Microsoft Office. Launched in 2001, SharePoint is primarily sold as a document management and storage system, but the product is highly configurable and usage varies substantially among organizations.

An intranet portal is the gateway that unifies access to enterprise information and applications on an intranet. It is a tool that helps a company manage its data, applications, and information more easily through personalized views. Some portal solutions are able to integrate legacy applications, objects from other portals, and handle thousands of user requests. In a corporate enterprise environment, it is also known as an enterprise portal.

The following outline is provided as an overview of and topical guide to web design and web development, two very related fields:

References

  1. "What is Web Development? - Definition from Techopedia". Techopedia.com. Retrieved 2018-12-07.
  2. Campbell, Jennifer (2017). Web Design: Introductory. Cengage Learning. p. 27.
  3. Bureau of Labor Statistics, U.S. Department of Labor. "Information Security Analysts, Web Developers, and Computer Network Architects". Occupational Outlook Handbook, 2012-13 Edition. Retrieved 2013-01-17.