Marlin

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Marlin
Atlantic blue marlin.jpg
Atlantic blue marlin (Makaira nigricans)
Scientific classification Red Pencil Icon.png
Kingdom: Animalia
Phylum: Chordata
Class: Actinopterygii
Order: Istiophoriformes
Family:Istiophoridae
Rafinesque, 1810
Genera

A marlin is a fish from the family Istiophoridae, which includes about 10 species. It has an elongated body, a spear-like snout or bill, and a long, rigid dorsal fin which extends forward to form a crest. Its common name is thought to derive from its resemblance to a sailor's marlinspike. [1] Even more so than their close relatives, the scombrids, marlins are fast swimmers, reaching speeds of about 80 km/h (50 mph). [2]

A spear is a pole weapon consisting of a shaft, usually of wood, with a pointed head. The head may be simply the sharpened end of the shaft itself, as is the case with fire hardened spears, or it may be made of a more durable material fastened to the shaft, such as flint, obsidian, iron, steel or bronze. The most common design for hunting or combat spears since ancient times has incorporated a metal spearhead shaped like a triangle, lozenge, or leaf. The heads of fishing spears usually feature barbs or serrated edges.

Snout

A snout is the protruding portion of an animal's face, consisting of its nose, mouth, and jaw. In many animals, the equivalent structure is called a muzzle, rostrum, or proboscis. The wet furless surface around the nostrils of the nose of some animals is called the rhinarium. The rhinarium is often associated with a stronger sense of olfaction. The snout is considered a weak point on most animals: because of its structure, an animal can be easily stunned or knocked out, or even have its snout snapped by applying sufficient force.

Dorsal fin The fin on the dorsal.

A dorsal fin is a fin located on the back of most marine and freshwater vertebrates such as fishes, cetaceans, and the (extinct) ichthyosaur. Most species have only one dorsal fin, but some have two or three.

Contents

The larger species include the Atlantic blue marlin, Makaira nigricans, which can reach 5 m (16.4 ft) in length and 818 kg (1,803 lb) in weight [3] and the black marlin, Istiompax indica, which can reach in excess of 5 m (16.4 ft) in length and 670 kg (1,480 lb) in weight. They are popular sporting fish in tropical areas. The Atlantic blue marlin and the White marlin are endangered owing to overfishing. [4]

Atlantic blue marlin species of fish

The Atlantic blue marlin is a species of marlin endemic to the Atlantic Ocean. It is closely related to, and usually considered conspecific with, the Indo-Pacific blue marlin, then simply called blue marlin. Some authorities still consider both species distinct.

Black marlin species of fish

The black marlin is a species of marlin found in tropical and subtropical areas of the Indian and Pacific Oceans. With a maximum published length of 4.65 m (15.3 ft) and weight of 750 kg (1,650 lb), it is one of the largest marlins and also one of the largest bony fish. It is one of the fastest fish species as well, having been recorded unwinding fishing line at 105 km/h (65 mph). Black marlin are fished commercially and are also a highly prized game fish.

White marlin species of fish

White marlin, also known as Atlantic white marlin, marlin, skilligalee, is a species of billfish that lives in the epipelagic zone of the tropical and subtropical Atlantic Ocean. They are found between the latitudes of 45° N and 45° S in waters deeper than 100 m. Even though white marlin are found in bodies of water that are deeper than 100 m they tend to stay near the surface. White marlin have been found near banks, shoals, and canyons, but they are not limited to those locations. They prefer warm surface temperatures greater than 22 °C.

Classification

The marlins are perciform fish, most closely related to the swordfish and Scombridae.

Perciformes order of fishes

Perciformes, also called the Percomorpha or Acanthopteri, is an order or superorder of ray-finned fish. If considered a single order, they are the most numerous order of vertebrates, containing about 41% of all bony fish. Perciformes means "perch-like". This group comprises over 10,000 species found in almost all aquatic ecosystems.

Swordfish species of fish

Swordfish, also known as broadbills in some countries, are large, highly migratory, predatory fish characterized by a long, flat bill. They are a popular sport fish of the billfish category, though elusive. Swordfish are elongated, round-bodied, and lose all teeth and scales by adulthood. These fish are found widely in tropical and temperate parts of the Atlantic, Pacific, and Indian Oceans, and can typically be found from near the surface to a depth of 550 m (1,800 ft). They commonly reach 3 m (9.8 ft) in length, and the maximum reported is 4.55 m (14.9 ft) in length and 650 kg (1,430 lb) in weight.

Scombridae family of fishes

The Scombridae family of the mackerels, tunas, and bonitos includes many of the most important and familiar food fishes. The family consists of 51 species in 15 genera and two subfamilies. All species are in the subfamily Scombrinae, except the butterfly kingfish, which is the sole member of subfamily Gasterochismatinae.

Timeline of genera

QuaternaryNeogenePaleogeneHolocenePleistocenePlioceneMioceneOligoceneEocenePaleoceneMakairaIstiophorusTetrapterusPseudohistiophorusQuaternaryNeogenePaleogeneHolocenePleistocenePlioceneMioceneOligoceneEocenePaleoceneMarlin

In literature

A taxidermy marlin greets visitors to Dare County, North Carolina. Welcome to Dare County marlin - Stierch.jpg
A taxidermy marlin greets visitors to Dare County, North Carolina.

In the Nobel Prize-winning author Ernest Hemingway's 1952 novel The Old Man and the Sea , the central character of the work is an aged Cuban fisherman who, after 84 days without success on the water, heads out to sea to break his run of bad luck. On the 85th day, Santiago, the old fisherman, hooks a resolute marlin; what follows is a great struggle between man, sea creature, and the elements.

Nobel Prize Set of annual international awards, primarily 5 established in 1895 by Alfred Nobel

The Nobel Prize is a set of annual international awards bestowed in several categories by Swedish and Norwegian institutions in recognition of academic, cultural, or scientific advances.

Ernest Hemingway American author and journalist

Ernest Miller Hemingway was an American journalist, novelist, short-story writer, and noted sportsman. His economical and understated style—which he termed the iceberg theory—had a strong influence on 20th-century fiction, while his adventurous lifestyle and his public image brought him admiration from later generations. Hemingway produced most of his work between the mid-1920s and the mid-1950s, and he won the Nobel Prize in Literature in 1954. He published seven novels, six short-story collections, and two non-fiction works. Three of his novels, four short-story collections, and three non-fiction works were published posthumously. Many of his works are considered classics of American literature.

<i>The Old Man and the Sea</i> novel by Ernest Hemingway

The Old Man and the Sea is a short novel written by the American author Ernest Hemingway in 1951 in Cuba, and published in 1952. It was the last major work of fiction by Hemingway that was published during his lifetime. One of his most famous works, it tells the story of Santiago, an aging Cuban fisherman who struggles with a giant marlin far out in the Gulf Stream off the coast of Cuba.

Frederick Forsyth's story "The Emperor", in the collection No Comebacks , tells of a bank manager named Murgatroyd, who catches a marlin and is acknowledged by the islanders of Mauritius as a master fisherman.

Frederick Forsyth English novelist

Frederick McCarthy Forsyth, is an English author, journalist, spy, and occasional political commentator. He is best known for thrillers such as The Day of the Jackal, The Odessa File, The Fourth Protocol, The Dogs of War, The Devil's Alternative, The Fist of God, Icon, The Veteran, Avenger, The Afghan, The Cobra and The Kill List.

<i>No Comebacks</i> book by Frederick Forsyth

No Comebacks is a 1982 collection of ten short stories by Frederick Forsyth. Each story takes place in a different setting and ends with a plot twist. Several of them involve a central male character without any apparent strength who is put under pressure, but who does not give in.

Mauritius Island nation in the Indian Ocean

Mauritius, officially the Republic of Mauritius, is an island nation in the Indian Ocean. The main Island of Mauritius is located about 2,000 kilometres (1,200 mi) off the southeast coast of the African continent. The Republic of Mauritius also includes the islands of Rodrigues, Agalega and St. Brandon. The capital and largest city Port Louis is located on the main island of Mauritius.

See also

Related Research Articles

King mackerel species of fish

The king mackerel or kingfish is a migratory species of mackerel of the western Atlantic Ocean and Gulf of Mexico. It is an important species to both the commercial and recreational fishing industries.

Atlantic mackerel Atlantic fish

The Atlantic mackerel, also known as Boston mackerel, Norwegian mackerel, Scottish mackerel or just mackerel, is a species of mackerel found in the temperate waters of the Mediterranean Sea, the Black Sea, and the northern Atlantic Ocean, where it is extremely common and occurs in huge shoals in the pelagic zone down to about 200 m (660 ft). It spends the warmer months close to shore and near the ocean surface, appearing along the coast in spring and departing with the arrival of colder weather in the fall and winter months. During the fall and winter, it migrates out into deeper and more southern water, seeking warmer temperatures.

Yellowfin tuna species of fish

The yellowfin tuna is a species of tuna found in pelagic waters of tropical and subtropical oceans worldwide.

Atlantic sailfish species of fish

The Atlantic sailfish is a species of marine fish in the family Istiophoridae of the order Perciformes. It is found in the Atlantic Oceans and the Caribbean Sea, except for large areas of the central North Atlantic and the central South Atlantic, from the surface to depths of 200 m (656 ft). The Atlantic sailfish is related to the marlin.

Atlantic wreckfish species of fish

The Atlantic wreckfish, Polyprion americanus, is a marine, bathydemersal, and oceanodromous fish in the family Polyprionidae. It is found in the eastern and western Atlantic Ocean, western Indian Ocean, and the southwest Pacific Ocean. It is also known as stone bass, because it inhabits rocky ledges and wrecks. Polyprion moeone is now recognised as a junior synonym.

Billfish two families of fish, with bills

The term billfish refers to a group of predatory fish characterised by prominent bills, or rostra, and by their large size; some are longer than 4 m (13 ft). Billfish include sailfish and marlin, which make up the family Istiophoridae, and swordfish, sole member of the family Xiphiidae. They are apex predators which feed on a wide variety of smaller fish, crustaceans, and cephalopods. These two families are sometimes classified as belonging to the order Istiophoriformes, a group with origins in the Late Cretaceous around 71 million years ago with the two families diverging from one and another in the Late Miocene around 15 million years ago. However, they are also classified as being closely related to the mackerels and tuna within the suborder Scombroidei of the order Perciformes. However, the 5th edition of the Fishes of the World does recognise the Istiophoriformes as a valid order, albeit including the Sphyraenidae, the barracudas.

Wels catfish species of fish

The wels catfish, also called sheatfish, is a large species of catfish native to wide areas of central, southern, and eastern Europe, in the basins of the Baltic, Black, and Caspian Seas. It has been introduced to Western Europe as a prized sport fish and is now found from the United Kingdom east to Kazakhstan and China and south to Greece and Turkey. It is a scaleless freshwater fish recognizable by its broad, flat head and wide mouth. Wels catfish can live for at least fifty years.

Striped marlin species of fish

The striped marlin is a species of marlin found in tropical to temperate Indo-Pacific oceans not far from the surface. It is a desirable commercial and game fish with a record weight of 190 kg (420 lb) and a maximum length of 4.2 m (13.8 ft). The striped marlin' is a predator that hunts during the day in the top 100 m or so of the water column, often near the surface. One of their chief prey is sardines.

Marlin fishing

Marlin fishing is considered by some game fishermen to be a pinnacle of offshore game fishing, due to the size and power of the four marlin species and their relative rareness. Fishing for marlin captured the imagination of some sport fishermen in the 1930s, when well-known angler/authors Zane Grey, who fished for black, striped, and blue marlin in the Pacific, and Ernest Hemingway, who fished the Florida Keys, Bahamas and Cuba for Atlantic blue marlin and white marlin, wrote extensively about their pursuit and enthused about the sporting qualities of their quarry.

Pacific halibut species of fish

Hippoglossus stenolepis, the Pacific halibut, is a species of righteye flounder. This very large species of flatfish is native to the North Pacific and is fished by commercial fisheries, sport fishers, and subsistence fishers.

<i>Makaira</i> genus of fishes

Makaira is a genus of marlin in the Istiophoridae family. It includes the Atlantic blue, and Indo-Pacific blue marlins. In the past, the black marlin was also included in this genus, but today it is placed in its own genus, Istiompax.

Shortbill spearfish species of fish

The shortbill spearfish is a species of marlin native to the Indian and Pacific Oceans, with occasional records from the Atlantic Ocean. This species occurs in open waters not far from the surface. This species can reach a length of 230 cm (91 in), though most do not exceed 190 cm (75 in). The maximum recorded weight for this species is 52 kg (115 lb). It is of minor importance to commercial fisheries and is also a game fish.

European conger species of fish

The European conger is a species of conger of the family Congridae. It is the largest eel in the world and native to the northeast Atlantic, including the Mediterranean Sea.

Vermilion snapper species of fish

The vermilion snapper or beeliner is a species of snapper native to the western Atlantic Ocean from North Carolina to Bermuda including the Gulf of Mexico and the Caribbean Sea to Brazil. This species inhabits waters from 40 to 300 m where they can be found in large schools over substrates of sand, gravel, or rock. This species can reach a length of 60 cm (24 in), though most are around 35 cm (14 in). The greatest recorded weight for this species is 3.2 kg (7.1 lb). It is of minor importance to local commercial fisheries. The vermilion snapper is often sold as red snapper.

Indo-Pacific blue marlin species of fish

The Indo-Pacific blue marlin is a species of marlin belonging to the family Istiophoridae.

M. nigricans may refer to:

References

  1. Douglas Harper (November 2001). "marlin". Online Etymological Dictionary.
  2. Johnson, G .D. & Gill, A. C. (1998). Paxton, J. R. & Eschmeyer, W. N. (eds.). Encyclopedia of Fishes. San Diego: Academic Press. pp. 190–191. ISBN   0-12-547665-5.
  3. "Makaira nigricans, Blue marlin  : fisheries, gamefish". FishBase.
  4. https://ocean.si.edu/ocean-life/fish/tunas-and-marlins-officially-classified-threatened

Further reading

FishBase is a global species database of fish species. It is the largest and most extensively accessed online database on adult finfish on the web. Over time it has "evolved into a dynamic and versatile ecological tool" that is widely cited in scholarly publications.