Physical Review

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Physical Review commenced publication in July 1893, organized by Cornell University professor Edward Nichols and helped by the new president of Cornell, J. Gould Schurman. The journal was managed and edited at Cornell in upstate New York from 1893 to 1913 by Nichols, Ernest Merritt, and Frederick Bedell. The 33 volumes published during this time constitute Physical Review Series I.

The American Physical Society (APS), founded in 1899, took over its publication in 1913 and started Physical Review Series II. The journal remained at Cornell under editor-in-chief G. S. Fulcher from 1913 to 1926, before relocating to the location of editor John Torrence Tate, Sr. [note 1] at the University of Minnesota. In 1929, the APS started publishing Reviews of Modern Physics , a venue for longer review articles.

During the Great Depression, wealthy scientist Alfred Loomis anonymously paid the journal's fees for authors who could not afford them. [1]

After Tate's death in 1950, the journals were managed on an interim basis still in Minnesota by E. L. Hill and J. William Buchta until Samuel Goudsmit and Simon Pasternack were appointed and the editorial office moved to Brookhaven National Laboratory on Eastern Long Island, New York. In July 1958, the sister journal Physical Review Letters was introduced to publish short articles of particularly broad interest, initially edited by George L. Trigg, who remained as editor until 1988.

In 1970, Physical Review split into sub-journals Physical Review A, B, C, and D. A fifth member of the family, Physical Review E, was introduced in 1993 to a large part to accommodate the huge amount of new research in nonlinear dynamics. Combined, these constitute Physical Review Series III.

The editorial office moved in 1980 to its present location across the expressway from Brookhaven National Laboratory. Goudsmit retired in 1974 and Pasternack in the mid-1970s. Past Editors in Chief include David Lazarus (1980–1990; University of Illinois at Urbana–Champaign), Benjamin Bederson (1990–1996; New York University), Martin Blume (1996–2007; Brookhaven National Laboratory), and Gene Sprouse (2007–2015; SUNY Stony Brook). The current Editor in Chief is Michael Thoennessen, whose term began in September 2017. [2]

To celebrate the hundredth anniversary of the journal, a memoir was published jointly by the APS and AIP. [3]

In 1998, the first issue of Physical Review Special Topics: Accelerators and Beams was published, and in 2005, Physical Review Special Topics: Physics Education Research was launched. In January 2016 the names of both journals were changed to remove "Special Topics". [4] Physical Review also started an online magazine, Physical Review Focus , in 1998 to explain and provide historical context for selected articles from Physical Review and Physical Review Letters. This was merged into Physics in 2011. The Special Topics journals are open access; Physics Education Research requires page charges from the authors, but Accelerators and Beams does not. Though not fully open access, Physical Review Letters also requires an author page charge, although this is voluntary. The other journals require such a charge only if manuscripts are not prepared in one of the preferred formats. [5] Since 2011, authors can pay an article processing charge to make their papers open access. [6] Such papers are published under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 License (CC-BY). [7] Physical Review Letters celebrated their 50th birthday in 2008. [8] The APS has a copyright policy to permit the author to reuse parts of the published article in a derivative or new work, including on Wikipedia. [9]

The APS has an online publication entitled Physics, [10] aiming to help physicists and physics students to learn about new developments outside of their own subfield. This now includes the general-interest articles that appeared as Physical Review Focus. A short-lived journal, also called Physics, was published by Pergamon Press and Physics Publishing Co. from 1964 through 1968, with the goal of printing "a selection of papers which are worth the attention of all physicists." [11] The four volumes of this journal were eventually made freely available online by the APS under the alternative title Physics Physique Физика , reflecting how the title was originally printed on the journal covers and how it was sometimes referred to in the years since. [12] [13] [14]

It also publishes Physical Review X, [15] an online-only open access journal. It is a peer-reviewed journal that publishes, as timely as possible, original research papers from all areas of pure, applied, and interdisciplinary physics. In 2014 Physical Review Applied [16] began publishing research across all aspects of experimental and theoretical applications of physics, including their interactions with other sciences, engineering, and industry. In 2016 the APS launched Physical Review Fluids "to include additional areas of fluid dynamics research", [17] and in 2017 it launched Physical Review Materials "to fill a gap" in the coverage of materials research. [18] In 2019 Physical Review Research was launched to provide a broad fully open-access journal at about the same selectivity level as the older A - E journals. [19] In 2020, PRX Quantum was launched to provide a home for and connection between the numerous research communities that make up quantum information science and technology, spanning from pure science to engineering to computer science and beyond. [19]


Journal ISO 4 abbreviationEditor(s) Impact factor (2020)PublishedScopeISSNWebsite
Physical Review Letters Phys. Rev. Lett. Hugues Chaté
Robert Garisto
Samindranath Mitra
Reinhardt B. Schuhmann
9.1611958–presentThe full range of applied, fundamental, and interdisciplinary physics research topics ISSN   0031-9007 (print)
ISSN   1079-7114 (web)
Physical Review X Phys. Rev. X Jean-Michel Raimond
M. Cristina Marchetti
Ling Miao
15.7622011–presentPRX covers the full spectrum of subject areas in physics and pays particular attention to innovative interdisciplinary research of wide impact ISSN   2160-3308 (web)
PRX Quantum PRX Quantum Stephen Bartlett
2020–presentPRX Quantum publishes research in quantum information science and technology, spanning from pure science to engineering to computer science and beyond. ISSN   2691-3399 (web)
Reviews of Modern Physics Rev. Mod. Phys. Randall Kamien
A. H. Castro Neto
54.4941929–presentThe full range of applied, fundamental, and interdisciplinary physics research topics ISSN   0034-6861 (print)
ISSN   1539-0756 (web)
Physical Review A [note 2] Phys. Rev. A Jan Michael Rost
Thomas Pattard
Gordon W. F. Drake
3.1401970–present Atomic, molecular, and optical physics, foundations of quantum mechanics and quantum information ISSN   1050-2947 (print)
ISSN   1094-1622 (web)
Physical Review B [note 2] Phys. Rev. B Laurens W. Molenkamp
Anthony M. Begley
4.0361970–presentThe full range of condensed matter, materials physics, and related subfields ISSN   1098-0121 (print)
ISSN   1550-235X (web)
Physical Review CPhys. Rev. C Benjamin F. Gibson
Christopher Wesselborg
3.2961970–presentExperimental and theoretical results in all aspects of nuclear physics ISSN   0556-2813 (print)
ISSN   1089-490X (web)
Physical Review DPhys. Rev. D Mirjam Cvetič
Urs M. Heller
5.2961970–presentExperimental and theoretical results in all aspects of particle physics, field theory, gravitation, and cosmology ISSN   1550-7998 (print)
ISSN   1550-2368 (web)
Physical Review E Phys. Rev. E Eli Ben-Naim
Dirk Jan Bukman
2.5291993–present Statistical, nonlinear, biological and soft matter physics ISSN   1539-3755 (print)
ISSN   1550-2376 (web)
Physical Review ResearchPhys. Rev. Res. Nicola Spaldin
Jian-Wei Pan
Raissa D’Souza
Juan-José Liétor-Santos
2019–presentAll research topics of interest to the physics community ISSN   2643-1564 (web)
Physical Review Accelerators and BeamsPhys. Rev. Accel. Beams Frank Zimmermann
Francesco Ruggiero
1.6391998–presentAll topics in accelerator science, applications, and technology ISSN   2469-9888 (web)
Physical Review Applied Phys. Rev. Appl. Stephen R. Forrest
Julie Kim-Zajonz
4.9852014–presentAll aspects of experimental and theoretical applications of physics ISSN   2331-7019 (web)
Physical Review FluidsPhys. Rev. Fluids John Kim
L. Gary Leal
2.5372016–presentAll aspects of fluid dynamics research ISSN   2469-990X (web)
Physical Review MaterialsPhys. Rev. Mater. Chris Leighton
Athanasios Chantis
3.9892017–presentWide range of topics on materials research ISSN   2475-9953 (web)
Physical Review Physics Education ResearchPhys. Rev. Phys. Ed. Res. Charles Henderson
Paula Heron
2.5822005–presentExperimental and theoretical physics education research ISSN   2469-9896 (web)
Physics Physics Jessica Thomas 2008–presentAll of Physics ISSN   1943-2879 (web)
Physical Review, Series IPhys. Rev.1893–1912All of Physics
Physical Review, Series II [note 2] Phys. Rev.1913–1969All of Physics
Physics Physique Физика [note 3] Philip Warren Anderson
B. T. Matthias

See also


  1. Not to be confused with his son, the number theorist John Torrence Tate Jr.
  2. 1 2 3 Volumes 133-140 of the Series II in years 1964 and 1965 were split into issues A and B. Later they were unified into a single series again. [20] They are different from Phys. Rev. A and B of the third series. For example "Phys. Rev. 133 A1 (1964)" is an article of Ser. II, while "Phys. Rev. A 1 1 (1970) is of Phys. Rev. A.
  3. Perhaps most noteworthy for publishing Bell's theorem in 1964.

Related Research Articles

The American Physical Society (APS) is a not-for-profit membership organization of professionals in physics and related disciplines, comprising nearly fifty divisions, sections, and other units. Its mission is the advancement and diffusion of knowledge of physics. The society publishes more than a dozen scientific journals, including the prestigious Physical Review and Physical Review Letters, and organizes more than twenty science meetings each year. APS is a member society of the American Institute of Physics. Since February 2015 the organization is led by chief executive officer Kate Kirby.

Physical Review Letters (PRL), established in 1958, is a peer-reviewed, scientific journal that is published 52 times per year by the American Physical Society. As also confirmed by various measurement standards, which include the Journal Citation Reports impact factor and the journal h-index proposed by Google Scholar, many physicists and other scientists consider Physical Review Letters to be one of the most prestigious journals in the field of physics.

Tom Kibble British physicist

Sir Thomas Walter Bannerman Kibble, was a British theoretical physicist, senior research investigator at the Blackett Laboratory and Emeritus Professor of Theoretical Physics at Imperial College London. His research interests were in quantum field theory, especially the interface between high-energy particle physics and cosmology. He is best known as one of the first to describe the Higgs mechanism, and for his research on topological defects. From the 1950s he was concerned about the nuclear arms race and from 1970 took leading roles in promoting the social responsibility of the scientist.

François Englert Belgian theoretical physicist

François, Baron Englert is a Belgian theoretical physicist and 2013 Nobel prize laureate.

<i>Physical Review B</i> Academic journal

Physical Review B: Condensed Matter and Materials Physics is a peer-reviewed, scientific journal, published by the American Physical Society (APS). The Editor of PRB is Laurens W. Molenkamp. It is part of the Physical Review family of journals. The current Editor in Chief is Michael Thoennessen. PRB currently publishes over 4500 papers a year, making it one of the largest physics journals in the world.

C. R. Hagen

Carl Richard Hagen is a professor of particle physics at the University of Rochester. He is most noted for his contributions to the Standard Model and Symmetry breaking as well as the 1964 co-discovery of the Higgs mechanism and Higgs boson with Gerald Guralnik and Tom Kibble (GHK). As part of Physical Review Letters 50th anniversary celebration, the journal recognized this discovery as one of the milestone papers in PRL history. While widely considered to have authored the most complete of the early papers on the Higgs theory, GHK were controversially not included in the 2013 Nobel Prize in Physics.

Jonathan Dowling Irish-American physicist specializing in quantum technology

Jonathan P. Dowling was an Irish-American researcher and professor in theoretical physics, known for his work on quantum technology, particularly for exploiting quantum entanglement for applications to quantum metrology, quantum sensing, and quantum imaging.

Daniel Amihud Lidar is the holder of the Viterbi Professorship of Engineering at the University of Southern California, where he is a Professor of Electrical Engineering, Chemistry, Physics & Astronomy. He is the Director and co-founder of the USC Center for Quantum Information Science & Technology (CQIST) as well as Scientific Director of the USC-Lockheed Martin Quantum Computing Center, notable for his research on control of quantum systems and quantum information processing.

Physical Review E is a peer-reviewed, scientific journal, published monthly by the American Physical Society. The main field of interest is collective phenomena of many-body systems. It is currently edited by Uwe C. Täuber. While original research content requires subscription, editorials, news, and other non-research content is openly accessible.

Pierre C. Hohenberg was a French-American theoretical physicist, who worked primarily on statistical mechanics. Hohenberg studied at Harvard, where he earned his bachelor's degree in 1956 and a master's degree in 1958, and his doctorate in 1962. From 1962 to 1963, he was at the Institute for Physical Problems in Moscow, followed by a stay at the École Normale Supérieure in Paris. From 1964 to 1995 he was at Bell Laboratories in Murray Hill. From 1985 to 1989, he was director of the department of theoretical physics and from 1989 to 1995 was "Distinguished Member of Technical Staff". From 1974 to 1977, he was also professor of theoretical physics at the TU München, where he had previously been a 1972–1973 guest professor. From 1995 to 2003 he was "Deputy Provost of Science and Technology" at Yale University. Subsequently, he was the Yale "Eugene Higgins Adjunct Professor of Physics and Applied Physics". Hohenberg was additionally from 1963 to 1964 and again in 1988 guest professor in Paris and in 1990–1991 a Lorentz-Professor in Leiden. In 2004 he became Senior Vice Provost of Research at New York University, a position held until 2011, when he stepped down to join the Physics Department as Professor. In 2012 he became Emeritus Professor of Physics at NYU.

Padma Kant Shukla

Padma Kant Shukla was a distinguished pProfessor and first International Chair of the Physics and Astronomy Department of Ruhr-University Bochum in Germany. He was also the director of the International Centre for Advanced Studies in Physical Sciences at Ruhr-University Bochum. He held a Ph.D. in Physics from Banaras Hindu University in Varanasi, India and a second doctorate in Theoretical Plasma Physics from Umeå University in Sweden.

Physical Review A is a monthly peer-reviewed scientific journal published by the American Physical Society covering atomic, molecular, and optical physics and quantum information. The current Editor is Jan M. Rost.

Alexandre Bouzdine French and Russian theoretical physicist

Alexandre Bouzdine (Buzdin) is a French and Russian theoretical physicist in the field of superconductivity and condensed matter physics. He was awarded the Holweck Medal in physics in 2013 and obtained the Gay-Lussac Humboldt Prize in 2019 for his theoretical contributions in the field of coexistence between superconductivity and magnetism.

John F. Brady (chemical engineer)

John Francis Brady is an American chemical engineer and the Chevron Professor of Chemical Engineering and Mechanical Engineering at the California Institute of Technology. He is a fluid mechanician and creator of the Stokesian dynamics method for simulating suspensions of spheres and ellipsoids in low Reynolds number flows. He is an elected fellow of the American Physical Society, a fellow of the Society of Rheology, as well as a member of the National Academy of Sciences, the National Academy of Engineering, and the American Academy of Arts and Sciences.

Elihu Abrahams was a theoretical physicist, specializing in condensed matter physics. He is mostly notable for his work on electron transport in disordered systems.

Paul Benioff American physicist of quantum computing

Paul A. Benioff is an American physicist who helped pioneer the field of quantum computing. Benioff is best known for his research in quantum information theory during the 1970s and 80s that demonstrated the theoretical possibility of quantum computers by describing the first quantum mechanical model of a computer. In this work, Benioff showed that a computer could operate under the laws of quantum mechanics by describing a Schrödinger equation description of Turing machines. Benioff's body of work in quantum information theory has continued on to the present day and has encompassed quantum computers, quantum robots, and the relationship between foundations in logic, math, and physics.

<i>Physics Physique Физика</i> Scientific journal, 1964-1968

Physics Physique Физика, also known as various punctuations of Physics, Physique, Fizika, and as Physics for short, was a scientific journal published from 1964 through 1968. Founded by Philip Warren Anderson and Bernd T. Matthias, who were inspired by wide-circulation literary magazines like Harper's, the journal's original goal was to print papers of interest to scientists in all branches of physics. It is best known for publishing John Stewart Bell's paper on the result now known as Bell's theorem. Failing to attract sufficient interest as an unspecialized journal, Physics Physique Физика soon focused on solid-state physics before folding altogether in 1968. The four volumes of this journal were eventually made freely available online by the American Physical Society.

Francesca Ferlaino is an Italian-Austrian experimental physicist known for her research on quantum matter. She is a professor of physics at the University of Innsbruck.


  1. Conant, Jennet (2002). Tuxedo Park . New York: Simon & Schuster. p.  106. ISBN   978-0-684-87287-2.
  2. Voss, David (June 2017). "Michael Thoennessen Appointed New APS Editor in Chief". American Physical Society.
  3. Hartman, Paul (1994). A Memoir on The Physical Review: A History of the First Hundred Years. New York: American Physical Society & American Institute of Physics. p. 212. ISBN   978-1-56396-282-0.
  4. Renaming the APS Special Topics Series, American Physical Society, December 31, 2015
  5. "Submission guidelines". March 2008.
  6. APS Open Access announcement, American Physical Society, 15 February 2011
  7. Details of Creative Commons license
  8. "Physical Review Letters Celebrates 50 Years". American Physical Society. 2014-02-13.
  9. Gene D. Sprouse (1 October 2008). "APS now leaves copyright with authors for derivative works". American Physical Society.
  10. "Physics". American Physical Society.
  11. Anderson, P. W.; Matthias, B. T. (1964-07-01). "Editorial foreword". Physics Physique Fizika. 1 (1): i. doi: 10.1103/PhysicsPhysiqueFizika.1.i . ISSN   0554-128X.
  12. Wick, David (1995), "Bell's Theorem", The Infamous Boundary, Springer New York, pp. 92–100, doi:10.1007/978-1-4612-4030-3_11, ISBN   978-0-387-94726-6
  13. "Physics. Physique. Fizika". Physics. Physique. Fizika. 1964. ISSN   0554-128X. OCLC   1370169.
  14. Kaiser, David (2014-11-14). "Opinion | Is Quantum Entanglement Real?". The New York Times . ISSN   0362-4331 . Retrieved 2020-02-09.
  15. "Physical Review X". American Physical Society.
  16. "Physical Review Applied". American Physical Society.
  17. "Physical Review Fluids". American Physical Society.
  18. "Physical Review Materials". American Physical Society.
  19. 1 2 "PRX Quantum". American Physical Society.
  20. "The Physical Review. Second Series. A". American Physical Society. 1964. "The Physical Review. Second Series. B". National Institute of Informatics. 1964. Retrieved 2016-12-28.
Index of freely available volumes

The term of copyright on volumes published before 1924 has expired. Most of these volumes are available online for free in their entirety: