This article does not cite any sources . (June 2019) (Learn how and when to remove this template message)
Belarus is an Eastern European country with a rich tradition of folk and religious music. The country's folk music traditions can be traced back to the times of the Grand Duchy of Lithuania. The country's musical traditions spread with its people to countries like Russia, Canada, United States, Kazakhstan, Latvia and Ukraine . The people of Belarus were exposed mostly to Russian pop music during this period and also after independence in 1991. In 2002, however, Alexander Lukashenko has signed a decree requiring 50% of all FM broadcast music to be Belarusian in origin, and since January 1, 2005 the rule was made even stricter (75% of music broadcast each day must be Belarusian). However, it does not regulate the language of the songs, so most[ citation needed ] of the music which is broadcast is still in Russian.
Belarus, officially the Republic of Belarus, formerly known by its Russian name Byelorussia or Belorussia, is a landlocked country in Eastern Europe bordered by Russia to the northeast, Ukraine to the south, Poland to the west, and Lithuania and Latvia to the northwest. Its capital and most populous city is Minsk. Over 40% of its 207,600 square kilometres (80,200 sq mi) is forested. Its major economic sectors are service industries and manufacturing. Until the 20th century, different states at various times controlled the lands of modern-day Belarus, including the Principality of Polotsk, the Grand Duchy of Lithuania, the Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth, and the Russian Empire.
Eastern Europe is the eastern part of the European continent. There is no consistent definition of the precise area it covers, partly because the term has a wide range of geopolitical, geographical, cultural, and socioeconomic connotations. There are "almost as many definitions of Eastern Europe as there are scholars of the region". A related United Nations paper adds that "every assessment of spatial identities is essentially a social and cultural construct". One definition describes Eastern Europe as a cultural entity: the region lying in Europe with the main characteristics consisting of Greek, Byzantine, Eastern Orthodox, Russian, and some Ottoman culture influences. Another definition was created during the Cold War and used more or less synonymously with the term Eastern Bloc. A similar definition names the formerly communist European states outside the Soviet Union as Eastern Europe. The majority of historians and social scientists view such definitions as outdated or relegated, but they are still sometimes used for statistical purposes.
Folk music includes traditional folk music and the genre that evolved from it during the 20th-century folk revival. Some types of folk music may be called world music. Traditional folk music has been defined in several ways: as music transmitted orally, music with unknown composers, or music performed by custom over a long period of time. It has been contrasted with commercial and classical styles. The term originated in the 19th century, but folk music extends beyond that.
|Part of a series on|
|Closely related peoples|
|Languages and dialects|
Documentation of its music stretches back to at least the 15th century. Prior to that, skomorokhs were the major profession for musicians. A neumatic chant, called znamenny, from the word 'znamia', meaning sign or neume, used until the 16th century in Orthodox church music, followed by two hundreds of stylistic innovation that drew on the Renaissance and Protestant Reformation. In the 17th century, Partesnoe penie, part singing, became common for choruses, followed by private theaters established in cities like Minsk and Vitebsk.
A skomorokh was a medieval East Slavic harlequin, or actor, who could also sing, dance, play musical instruments and compose for oral/musical and dramatic performances. The etymology of the word is not completely clear. There are hypotheses that the word is derived from the Greek σκώμμαρχος ; from the Italian scaramuccia ; from the Arabic masẋara; and many others.
The Renaissance is a period in European history, covering the span between the 14th and 17th centuries and marking the transition from the Middle Ages to modernity. The traditional view focuses more on the early modern aspects of the Renaissance and argues that it was a break from the past, but many historians today focus more on its medieval aspects and argue that it was an extension of the middle ages.
Minsk is the capital and largest city of Belarus, situated on the Svislač and the Nyamiha Rivers. As the national capital, Minsk has a special administrative status in Belarus and is the administrative centre of Minsk Region (voblasć) and Minsk District (rajon). The population in January 2018 was 1,982,444, making Minsk the 11th most populous city in Europe. Minsk is the administrative capital of the Commonwealth of Independent States (CIS) and seat of its Executive Secretary.
In the 20th century, the first secondary education institute in Belarus was founded (1924) and the first operas ( Mikhas Podgorny by E. Tikotsky, In Virgin Forests of Polesie by Anatoly Bogatyrev and The Flower of Happiness by A. Turenkov) and ballets ( The Nightingale by M Kroshner).
Secondary education covers two phases on the International Standard Classification of Education scale. Level 2 or lower secondary education is considered the second and final phase of basic education, and level 3 (upper) secondary education is the stage before tertiary education. Every country aims to provide basic education, but the systems and terminology remain unique to them. Secondary education typically takes place after six years of primary education and is followed by higher education, vocational education or employment. Like primary education, in most countries secondary education is compulsory, at least until the age of 16. Children typically enter the lower secondary phase around age 11. Compulsory education sometimes extends to age 19.
Opera is a form of theatre in which music has a leading role and the parts are taken by singers, but is distinct from musical theater. Such a "work" is typically a collaboration between a composer and a librettist and incorporates a number of the performing arts, such as acting, scenery, costume, and sometimes dance or ballet. The performance is typically given in an opera house, accompanied by an orchestra or smaller musical ensemble, which since the early 19th century has been led by a conductor.
Anatoly Vasilyevich Bogatyrev was a Belarusian composer and music teacher, seen as one of the leaders of the national school of Belarusian music.
Popular Soviet Belarusian music was composed by several prominent bands, many of whom performed Belarusian folk music. Folk rock act Pesniary, formed in 1969 by guitarist Vladimir Mulyavin, became the most popular folk band of the Soviet Union, and often toured over Europe. Pesniary's example inspired Siabry and Verasy to follow their way. The tradition of Belarus as a centre of folk and folk rock music is continued today. Late 1970s saw more straightforward rock bands such as Suzorie [ citation needed ]
Pesniary was a popular Soviet Belarusian folk rock VIA. It was founded in 1969 by guitarist Vladimir Mulyavin. Before 1970 the band was known under the name Liavony (Лявоны).
Vladimir Georgievich Mulyavin was a Belarus-based Russian rock musician and the founder of the folk-rock band Pesniary.
Verasy (Верасы) was a musical band created in Belarus in 1971. It was created under the Belarusian State Philarmony, Minsk, director and composer Vasily Rainchik. Along with Pesnyary and Syabry, Verasy was one of major pop music groups in Belarus these times.
Belarus gained independence after the fall of the Soviet Union and new bands appeared, including N.R.M. (probably the best-known rock band of the late 1990s, and 2000s (decade), ULIS. Modern pop stars are also well-known, including Boris Moiseev and Lyapis Trubetskoy (though they tend to orient themselves toward Russia and Russian speakers). There are also electronic music performers like Autism, Energun 22, h.h.t.p., Dromos. Worth noting is Drum XTC performs live drum and bass. Around 2002 a new generation of electronic bands appeared, organized by Electrokids promo-group, including the groups like Randomajestiq, Stone People, Dreamlin, T-Trider, CherryVata and Koordinate of Wonders.
N.R.M. are a rock band from Minsk, Belarus, founded in 1981 as Mroja. They are considered to be the most popular rock band in the country. They perform in the Belarusian language, and are a rallying point for political opposition to the Belarusian government, despite being the target of a performance ban from 2006 to 2009.
Boris Mikhaylovich Moiseev is a Russian singer, choreographer, dancer, writer, actor, head of dance group and author of popular shows in Russia. Meritorious Artist of Russia (2006).
Lyapis Trubetskoy was a Belarusian rock band. It was named after comical hero from Ilya Ilf's and Yevgeny Petrov's novel "The Twelve Chairs", poet and potboiler Nikifor Lyapis, who used pseudonym Trubetskoy.
Rock music of Belarus arose in Perestroika times. Bands like Bi-2 (currently living in Russia), Lyapis Trubetskoy, Krama and ULIS were founded in the late 1980s or early 1990s. Though rock music has risen in popularity in recent years, the Belarusian government has attempted to limit the amount of popular music aired on the radio, in favour of traditional music of Belarus. These restrictions have encouraged some Belarusian bands to sign up to Russian labels and to tour more in neighbouring countries.
Bi-2 is a Russian alternative rock band, formed in the 80's in Bobruisk, Belarus. It was one of the most successful with many sales and chart-hits in Russia. Bi-2 was awarded MTV Russian Music Awards for Best Rock Act in 2007.
The tradition of Belarus as a centre of folk and folk rock music is continued today by Stary Olsa, Gods Tower, Vicious Crusade, Bristeil and Kriwi, among others. Stary Olsa is a Neo-Medieval music revivalist band that uses authentic instruments of the medieval Belarus (then part of Grand Duchy of Lithuania).
In 2003, Belarus took part in the Junior Eurovision Song Contest for the first time. Their participant, Volha Satsiuk, came in 4th place. In 2004 Belarus made it to the semifinals of the regular Eurovision Song Contest. The country was represented by a duo Aleksandra and Konstantin, who failed to reach the final. Nevertheless, they won the Junior Eurovision Song Contest 2005 the following year, with Ksenia Sitnik's song, 'My Vmeste'. Whilst the nation has never won the main contest, Belarusian-Norwegian singer-composer Alexander Rybak won for Norway in 2009, with his composition Fairytale earning a record score.
The Belarusian authorities promote folk or "Slavic" music at the country's top musical event—the state-sponsored Slavianski Bazaar in Vitebsk, an annual pop and folk music festival in Vitebsk. The biggest festival of Belarusian rock music takes place outside of Belarus, in Gródek, northeastern Poland, a small town some 40 kilometers east of Białystok—the center of Podlaskie Voivodeship, which is inhabited by a 200,000-strong Belarusian minority. The festival, held in July every year since 1990, is organized by the Belarusian Union of Students (BAS) in Poland. The official name of the event is the Music Festival of Young Belarus or Basovišča. Some rock music fans dubbed it "Belarusian Woodstock."
Mister X, a street punk band from Grodno, is well-known on the underground scene in Belarus as well as in Poland - largely thanks to its frontman, singer, and founder Igor Bantser, who is known not only for his musical skills but also for being fluent in Polish and being active on the political action scene aiming to promote the democratisation of the Republic of Belarus; he has also taken part in numerous protests and demonstrations in support of the Polish minority in West Belarus, which frequently faces repression from Alexander Lukashenko's government.
Belarusian rock has been developing since the early 1980s. The most important rock bands include Bonda, Krama, Mroja, ULIS, Novaje Nieba, Palac, Kriwi, Lyapis Trubetskoy, Verasy, Open Space, Neuro Dubel, Accent, and Otrazhenie.
The culture of Belarus is the product of a millennium of development under the impact of a number of diverse factors. These include the physical environment; the ethnographic background of Belarusians ; the paganism of the early settlers and their hosts; Eastern Orthodox Christianity as a link to the Byzantine literary and cultural traditions; the country's lack of natural borders; the flow of rivers toward both the Black Sea and the Baltic Sea; and the variety of religions in the region.
Natalia Yuryevna Podolskaya is a Belarusian singer who performed for Russia at the Eurovision Song Contest on 21 May 2005 and was ranked No. 15. In 2008, she became a Russian citizen.
Ksenia Mikhailovna Sitnik, sometimes also transliterated as Kseniya Sitnik or Xenia Sitnik, is a Belarusian singer. She represented Belarus in the Junior Eurovision Song Contest 2005, which she won with the self-penned song "My vmeste".
Polina Smolova is a pop singer and the country's entry for the Eurovision Song Contest 2006 with the song Mum, with which she took part in the Eurovision semi-final. She is one of the most famous Belarusian pop singers, coming up with very poetic and lyrical songs. Polina is an active participant of numerous concerts and pop-music festivals across Belarus and abroad. She won the Grand Prix at the Slavonic Bazaar 2005 music festival and an award at the Contest for Young Performers.
The International Festival of Arts "Slavic Bazaar in Vitebsk" is an annual festival held in Vitebsk, Belarus under the auspices of the Belarusian Government since 1992. Its main program is devoted to Slavic music. The main participants are artists from Russia, Belarus, Ukraine, countries of the former Yugoslavia, Poland and Bulgaria with guests from many other countries, both Slavic and non-Slavic. It is a member of the International Federation of Festival Organizations (FIDOF) since 1998.
Stary Olsa is a Belarusian medieval folk band, that plays medieval Ruthenian music of the Grand Duchy of Lithuania.
Dmitry Aleksandrovich Koldun is a pop singer from Minsk, Belarus.
The Belarus entry for the Eurovision Song Contest 2010 was organised by BTRC. It had been originally planned for ONT to take over after criticism over BTRC's selection methods. However, as ONT's application for the European Broadcasting Union (EBU), the Contest's organisers, had been rejected, BTRC again selected the Belarusian entry for the seventh year. An internal selection was held by the broadcaster after a public call for song submissions, and after 41 entries were received the band 3+2 were selected. The band performed the song "Butterflies" at the contest, having changed their song on 19 March from their initial choice "Far Away".
Krambambula is a Belarusian band from Minsk, started by Lavon Volski in 2001. The name of the band is derived from a popular Belarusian alcoholic tincture of the same name. The band performs humorous and satirical songs, often on an alcoholic theme. Krambambula was banned in Belarus from 2011 to 2017.
Siarhei Mikhalok is a Belarusian rock musician and actor. He was the frontman of the ska punk band Lyapis Trubetskoy that he dissolved on 1 September 2014. He is the frontman of the band Brutto now.
Yuri Navrotsky, better known by his stage name Uzari, is a Belarusian singer and songwriter. He represented Belarus in the Eurovision Song Contest 2015 along with Maimuna with the song "Time".
Naviband is a Belarusian band from Minsk. The band was founded by vocalist and guitarist Arciom Lukjanienka and vocalist and keyboardist Ksienija Žuk, but also features guitarist Aliaksandr Taboĺski, bassist Uladzislaŭ Čaščavik, and drummer Uladzimir Biehier. They represented Belarus in the Eurovision Song Contest 2017, with the song "Historyja majho žyccia" finishing in 17th place.
Medieval Classic Rock is the thirteenth studio album of the Belarusian band Stary Olsa playing medieval folk. The album contains cover versions of rock hits of the second half of the 20th century played on medieval instruments. The album was released on August 15, 2016 through the American label Cool Hat Records. It was created under the influence of YouTube users’ feedback who admitted that the band's cover version video of "One" by Metallica was a success.
Marina Vasilieva Starostenkova Osman, is a Belarusian classical and jazz concert pianist.
|Wikimedia Commons has media related to Music of Belarus .|