Music of Serbia

Last updated

Music of Serbia has a variety of traditional music, which is part of the wider Balkan tradition, with its own distinctive sound and characteristics.

Contents

Music of the Middle Ages

Serb from Herzegovina sings to gusle Hercegovac pjeva uz gusle.JPG
Serb from Herzegovina sings to gusle

Church music was performed throughout medieval Serbia by choirs or individual singers. The songs performed at the time were derived from the Octoechos (Osmoglasnik), a collection of religious songs dedicated to Jesus. Composers from this era include nun Jefimija, monks Kir Stefan the Serb, Isaiah the Serb, and Nikola the Serb, who together belong to the "Serbo-Byzantine school".

Oktōēchos is the eight-mode system used for the composition of religious chant in Byzantine, Syriac, Armenian, Georgian, Latin and Slavic churches since the Middle Ages. In a modified form the octoechos is still regarded as the foundation of the tradition of monodic chant in the Byzantine Rite today.

Jesus The central figure of Christianity

Jesus, also referred to as Jesus of Nazareth and Jesus Christ, was a first-century Jewish preacher and religious leader. He is the central figure of Christianity. Most Christians believe he is the incarnation of God the Son and the awaited Messiah (Christ) prophesied in the Old Testament.

Jefimija, secular name Jelena Mrnjavčević, daughter of Vojihna and widow of Jovan Uglješa Mrnjavčević is considered the first female Serbian poet, famous in Serbian medieval literature are her Lament for a Dead Son and Encomium of Prince Lazar. The laments, a strictly feminine form of lyric, is common to some Slavic languages, and long narrative laments are intimately connected with heroic epic songs.

Aside from church music, the medieval era in Serbia included traditional music, about which little is known, and court music. During the Nemanjić dynasty era musicians played an important role at the royal court, and were known as sviralnici, glumci and praskavnici.[ citation needed ] The rulers known for the musical patronage included Emperor Stefan Dušan and Despot Đurađ Branković. Medieval musical instruments included horns, trumpets, lutes, psalteries, drums and cymbals. Traditional folk instruments include the gajde, kaval, dajre, diple, tamburitza, gusle, tapan (davul), sargija, ćemane (kemenche), zurla (zurna), and frula among others.

Nemanjić dynasty

The Nemanjić was the most prominent dynasty of Serbia in the Middle Ages. The princely, royal and imperial house produced Twelve Serbian monarchs between 1166 and 1371.

Stefan Dušan Emperor of Serbia 1331–1355

Stefan Uroš IV Dušan, known as Dušan the Mighty, was the King of Serbia from 8 September 1331 and Emperor and autocrat of the Serbs, Bulgarians, Greeks and Albanians from 16 April 1346 until his death. Dušan conquered a large part of southeast Europe, becoming one of the most powerful monarchs of the era. Under Dušan's rule, Serbia was the major power in the Balkans, and a multi-lingual empire that stretched from the Danube in the north to the Gulf of Corynth in the south, with its capital in Skopje. He enacted the constitution of the Serbian Empire, known as Dušan's Code, perhaps the most important literary work of medieval Serbia.

Sung Serbian epic poetry has been an integral part of Serbian and Balkan music for centuries. In the highlands of Serbia and Montenegro these long poems are typically accompanied on a one-string fiddle called the gusle, and concern themselves with themes from history and mythology.

Serbian epic poetry

Serb epic poetry is a form of epic poetry created by Serbs originating in today's Serbia, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Croatia, Macedonia and Montenegro. The main cycles were composed by unknown Serb authors between the 14th and 19th centuries. They are largely concerned with historical events and personages. The instrument accompanying the epic poetry is the gusle.

Montenegro Republic in Southeastern Europe

Montenegro is a country in Southeast Europe on the Adriatic Sea. It borders Bosnia and Herzegovina to the northwest; Serbia and Kosovo to the east, Albania to the south and Croatia to the west. Montenegro has an area of 13,812 square kilometres and a population of 620,079. Its capital Podgorica is one of the twenty-three municipalities in the country. Cetinje is designated as the Old Royal Capital.

The gusle(Serbian Cyrillic: гусле, Bulgarian: гусла, Albanian: lahuta) is a single-stringed musical instrument traditionally used in the Dinarides region of Southeastern Europe. The instrument is always accompanied by singing; musical folklore, specifically epic poetry.

After the Ottoman conquest of Serbia, music was enriched with oriental influences. From Habsburg rule, Serbia was enriched by Western music.

Ottoman Empire Former empire in Southeast Europe, Western Asia and North Africa

The Ottoman Empire, historically known to its inhabitants and the Eastern world as Rome (Rûm), and known in Western Europe as the Turkish Empire or simply Turkey, was a state that controlled much of Southeast Europe, Western Asia and North Africa between the 14th and early 20th centuries. It was founded at the end of the 13th century in northwestern Anatolia in the town of Söğüt by the Oghuz Turkish tribal leader Osman I. Although initially the dynasty was of Turkic origin, it was thoroughly Persianised in terms of language, culture, literature and habits. After 1354, the Ottomans crossed into Europe, and with the conquest of the Balkans, the Ottoman beylik was transformed into a transcontinental empire. The Ottomans ended the Byzantine Empire with the 1453 conquest of Constantinople by Mehmed the Conqueror.

Classical music

Stevan Stojanovic Mokranjac Mokranjac.jpg
Stevan Stojanović Mokranjac

Composer and musicologist Stevan Stojanović Mokranjac is considered one of the most important founders of modern Serbian music. [1] Born in 1856, Mokranjac taught music, collected Serbian traditional songs and did the first scholarly research on Serbian music. He was also the director of the first Serbian music school and one of the founders of the Union of Singing Societies. His most famous works are the Song Wreaths, also known as Garlands.

Musicology is the scholarly analysis and research-based study of music. Musicology departments traditionally belong to the humanities, although music research is often more scientific in focus. A scholar who participates in musical research is a musicologist.

There are more than 100 music schools in Serbia, including 70 primary music schools, 30 secondary music schools and 6 university music departments.

During the 19th and 20th centuries numerous bands, both military and civilian, contributed to the development of music culture in Belgrade and other Serbian cities and towns. Prior to Mokranjac's era, Serbia's representatives of the Romantic period were world-renowned violinist Dragomir Krancevic (1847–1929), pianist Sidonija Ilic, pianist and composer Jovanka Stojković and opera singer Sofija Sedmakov who achieved success performing in opera houses of Germany in the 1890s. For example, the promenade concert tradition was first established by The Serbian Prince Band founded in 1831, and its first conductor was Joseph Shlezinger, who composed music for the band based on traditional Serbian songs. This was a period when the first choral societies, then mostly sung in German and Italian language, were being organized. Later, the first Serbian language works for choirs were written by Kornelije Stanković.

The Serbian composers Petar Konjović, Stevan Hristić and Miloje Milojević, all born in the 1880s, were the most eminent composers of their generation. They maintained the national expression and modernized the romanticism into the direction of impressionism.

The best-known composers born around 1910 studied in Europe, mostly in Prague. Ljubica Marić, Stanojlo Rajicić, Milan Ristić took influence from Schoenberg, Hindemith and Haba, rejecting the "conservative" work of prior Serbian composers, seeing it as outdated and the wish for national expression was outside their interest. [2]

Other famous classical Serbian composers include Isidor Bajić, Stanislav Binički and Josif Marinković.

Serbian folk music

Ethno music

Serbian gusle Serbian Gusle.jpg
Serbian gusle
Excerpt of an accordion performance at the Pokrajinski festival of Sombor in 2010.
Frula can be heard in this performance of a Serb folk song.

The ethno genre encompasses both vocal and non-vocal (instrumental) music. Instruments include bagpipes, flutes, horns, trumpets, lutes, psalteries, drums and cymbals such as: Frula (woodwind), Diple (dvojanka, woodwind), Gajde (bagpipe), Zurna (woodwind), Duduk (woodwind), Tambura (lute), Tamburitza (lute), Gusle (lute), Kaval (šupeljka, lute), Davul ( tapan , goč, drum), Bouzouki ( šargija , lute), Tarambuke (drum). Balkanika, Balkanopolis, Dvig, Slobodan Trkulja, Belo Platno, Teodulija, Kulin Ban are known Serbian musical groups that use traditional Balkan musical instruments and perform traditional songs and songs based on traditional music elements.

Old folk

The Serbian folk music is both rural (izvorna muzika) and urban (starogradska muzika) and includes a two-beat dance called kolo , which is a circle dance with almost no movement above the waist, accompanied by instrumental music made most often with an accordion, but also with other instruments: frula (traditional kind of a recorder), tamburica, or accordion. The Kolos usually last for about 5–13 minutes. Modern accordionists include Mirko Kodić and Ljubiša Pavković. Some kolos are similar to the Hungarian csárdás in that they are slow at the onset and gradually increase their speed until reaching a climax towards the end.

Famous performers of Serbian folk music are Predrag Gojković Cune, Predrag Živković Tozovac, Miroslav Ilić, Lepa Lukić, Vasilija Radojčić, Šaban Bajramović, Staniša Stošić, Toma Zdravković and others. Yugoslav singer, actress and writer, Olivera Katarina, has performed music of various genres, varying from Serbian traditional to pop music, and in numerous languages. She held 72 consecutive concerts in Paris Olympia.

New folk

During the 70s Serbian folk music started to use elements from oriental music, distancing from the original sound, style that is titled novokomponovana muzika ("newly composed music"). Soon many neo-folk singers emerged: Šaban Šaulić, Jašar Ahmedovski, Kemal Malovčić, Mitar Mirić, Nada Topčagić, Šeki Turković, Ipče Ahmedovski, Ljuba Aličić, Zorica Brunclik, Marinko Rokvić and others. Serbian folk scene was not homogeneous nor uniform. On one hand, following Western models, Vesna Zmijanac was creating a star-image, being sex-symbol, fashionista and gay icon as well. On the other hand, singers like Vera Matović, for example, have created folk subgenre, sort of rural folk, singing about works in field, domestic animals and themes from Serbian village. Louis was combining Serbian folk music with jazz. Their albums were sponsored and songs were broadcast on the Radio Television of Serbia, which led to domination of this genre.

Balkan brass

Goran Bregovic performing live with his orchestra Zespol Piesni i Tanca Slask i Goran Bregovic 013.jpg
Goran Bregović performing live with his orchestra

Brass bands, known as trubači (Serbian Cyrillic : трубачи, "the trumpeters") are extremely popular, especially in Central and Southern Serbia where Balkan Brass Band originated. The trumpet was initially used as a military instrument to wake and gather soldiers and announce battles during First Serbian Uprising in the 19. century, but later took on the role of entertainment during downtime, as soldiers used it to transpose popular folk songs. When the war ended and the soldiers returned to the rural life, the music entered civilian life and eventually became a music style, accompanying special occasions such as slavas, baptisms, harvests, births and funerals. In 1831 the first official military band was formed by Prince Miloš Obrenović. Roma people have also adopted the tradition and enhanced the music, and today most of the best performers are Roma. The best known Serbian Brass musicians are Fejat Sejdić, and Boban Marković and are also the biggest names in the world of modern brass band bandleaders. Guča trumpet festival is one of the most popular and biggest music festivals in Serbia [3] is a five-day annual festival with 300 000 visitors.

Pop-folk, colloquially known as turbo-folk (a term coined by rock musician Rambo Amadeus), music emerged in the 80s and reached its peak as the 90s subculture during the Yugoslav wars, the breakup of Yugoslavia and the regime of Slobodan Milošević. It contains Serbian folk music as the basis with added elements from rock, pop and electronic dance music. The songs are also under the influence of Greek, Turkish and Bulgarian folk music. Although very popular both in Serbia and its region, turbo-folk is often criticised and referred to as distasteful and grotesque. Some of the most popular Serbian performers belong to this genre, such as Lepa Brena, Dragana Mirković, Ceca, Aca Lukas, Jelena Karleuša, Indira Radić, Saša Matić, Seka Aleksić, Đani and Milica Pavlović. Most of the turbo-folk singers were signed to Grand Production at one point in their careers due to its former dominance over the music scene.

Pop music

Marija Serifovic, the winner of Eurosong in 2007. ESC 2007 Serbia - Marija Serifovic - Molitva.jpg
Marija Šerifović, the winner of Eurosong in 2007.

Pioneers of pop music in Serbia are considered to have performed before and during the Second World War. At the end of the 1950s schlager singers such as Lola Novaković and Đorđe Marjanović appeared on the music scene, achieving great success. Since then, Serbian pop has been under the influence of the western scene. Although quite popular, pop music, like other commercial genres, has always been overshadowed in popularity by folk music. Some of the most prominent pop acts in Serbian through out the years have included Zdravko Čolić, Aska, Bebi Dol, Zana, Tap 011, Željko Joksimović, Vlado Georgiev, Aleksandra Radović, Jelena Karleuša, Emina Jahović, Jelena Tomašević, Nataša Bekvalac, Ana Nikolić and many others. Marija Šerifović is noted as the only Serbian Eurovision winner, as she won it in 2007 with the song Molitva .

Rock music

As a member of the Non-Aligned Movement, Socialist Federal Republic of Yugoslavia, of which Serbia was a part, was far more open to western influences compared to the other socialist states. The western-influenced pop and rock music was socially accepted, the Yugoslav rock scene was well developed and covered in the media, which included numerous magazines, radio and TV shows. Following the breakup of Yugoslavia due to civil war, its rock scene also ceased to exist, but saw moderate revival in the 2000s. The most notable Serbian rock acts are Bajaga i Instruktori, Đorđe Balašević, Disciplina Kičme, Ekatarina Velika, Električni Orgazam, Galija, Idoli, Kerber, Korni Grupa, Laboratorija Zvuka, Partibrejkers, Pekinška Patka, Piloti, Pop Mašina, Rambo Amadeus, Riblja Čorba, Smak, Šarlo Akrobata, YU Grupa, Van Gogh, and others.

Jazz

Jazz in Serbia appears in the 1920s when Markus Blam formed first jazz orchestra Studentski Micky Jazz. Jazz music was played mostly in salons and clubs, but it is also known that jazz orchestras toured in spas over the Serbia. This style of music has been present on the radio as well as in specialized magazines. Radio Belgrade started to work in 1929, every night after 22:30h Radio Jazz Orchestra played popular songs. First jazz society in Serbia was set up in 1953, but to the development of jazz the most contributed hosting famous musicians, among whom was Louis Armstrong in 1959 and 1960. The first Serbian musicians to rise to international fame were Mladen Guteša who worked for famous musicians such as Lee Konitz, Benny Goodman and others and Duško Gojković. These two entered The 1956 Encyclopedia Yearbook of Jazz of Leonard Feather. Other prominent names of Serbian jazz include Bora Roković who composed jazz suite The Human Piano, Mihailo Živanović, Branislav Kovačev, Branko Pejaković, Milan Lulić, Boris Jojić, Jovan Miković and others. [4] Among the most popular singers of jazz and blues in Serbia was Šaban Bajramović known as King of Romani music, who was included in the Time magazines list of top 10 blues singers in the world. [5] Vladan Mijatovic (Jazz pianist) is the young ambassador of the Serbian Jazz music in North America.

Hip-hop

Serbian hip hop emerged in the early 80s among the b-boy crews. The first Serbian Hip Hop record release was the Degout EP by The Master Scratch Band, which was released by Jugoton in 1984. However, Serbian hip-hop scene wasn't developed until the late 90s when hip-hop groups started to break out from the underground. Best known rappers and hip-hop collectives include Gru, Bad Copy, Beogradski sindikat and Marčelo. Artists such as Elitni Odredi, Rasta and Coby reached mainstream success by switching to more commercial sound and appealing to the wider audience. Bassivity and later Bassivity Digital have been the biggest regional hip-hop recording labels.

Festivals

Exit is an award-winning summer music festival which is held at the Petrovaradin Fortress in the city of Novi Sad, officially proclaimed as the "Best Major European Festival" at the EU Festival Awards. Other festivals include Belgrade Beer Fest in Belgrade, Gitarijada in Zaječar, Nišville in Niš and Guča Trumpet Festival in Guča.

In the town of Guča, near the city of Čačak is an annually held brass band festival called Guča trumpet festival in the Dragačevo region of western Serbia with 600,000 visitors per year. Other popular festivals include Rock festivals Belgrade Beer Fest and Gitarijada, and Jazz festival Nišville.

See also

Related Research Articles

The music of Croatia, like the divisions of the country itself, has two major influences: Central European, present in central and northern parts of the country including Slavonia, and Mediterranean, present in coastal regions of Dalmatia and Istria.

Music of North Macedonia

The music of North Macedonia refers to all forms of music associated with the Republic of North Macedonia. It has much in common with the music of neighbouring Balkan countries, yet it remains overall distinctive in it's rhythm and sound.

Turbo-folk is a fusion genre of popular music blending Serbian folk music with other genres such as pop, rock, electronic or even hip-hop. It has similar styles in Greece (Skyladiko), Bulgaria (Chalga), Romania (Manele) and Albania (Tallava). Having mainstream popularity in Serbia, and although closely associated with Serbian performers, the genre is widely popular in Croatia, Slovenia, Bosnia and Herzegovina, North Macedonia, Bulgaria and Montenegro.

Guča Place in Moravica District, Serbia

Guča is a small town in Serbia. It is situated in the Lučani municipality, Moravica District. The population of the town is 3,710 people (2011). Guča is a three-hour bus journey from Belgrade. It is famous for its yearly trumpet festival, attended by several hundred thousand visitors each year.

Balkan music is a type of music found in the Balkan region of southeastern Europe. The music is characterised by complex rhythm. Famous bands in Balkan music were Taraf de Haïdouks, Fanfare Ciocarlia, and No Smoking Orchestra.

Music of Kosovo is part of the European culture and refers to the music of the Kosovan people, dominated by the music of Kosovo Albanians which constitute the majority of population, and to a lesser extent the inactive music of small minority groups within the Republic of Kosovo.

Stevan Mokranjac Serbian composer

Stevan Stojanović, known as Stevan Mokranjac was a Serbian composer and music educator. Born in Negotin in 1856, Mokranjac studied music in Belgrade, Munich, Rome and Leipzig while in his twenties. Later, he became the conductor of the Belgrade Choir Society and founder of the Serbian School of Music and the first Serbian string quartet, in which he played the cello. He left Belgrade at the beginning of World War I and moved to Skopje, where he died on 28 September 1914.

Kornelije Kovač Serbian musician

Kornelije "Bata" Kovač is a Serbian composer.

Šaban Bajramović singer-songwriter

Šaban Bajramović, nicknamed Šabi (Шаби), was a Serbian vocalist and recording artist of Romani ethnicity. He was one of the most internationaly critically acclaimed Romani musicians. Due to his eminent impact on music in Eastern Europe, he was dubbed the "King of Romani music".

Guča Trumpet Festival

The Guča Trumpet Festival, also known as the Dragačevski Sabor, is an annual brass band festival held in the town of Guča, near the city of Čačak, in the Dragačevo region of western Serbia. Guča is a three-hour bus ride from Belgrade.

Balkan brass

Balkan brass, popularly known by the Serbian name Truba, is a distinctive style of music originating in the Balkan region as a fusion between military music and folk music. In recent years, it has become popular in a techno-synth fusion throughout Europe, and in pop music in the Anglo-American sphere and throughout the world. Songs like Worth It by Fifth Harmony have brought the style to a new audience. In traditional form, it is popular throughout the Balkans, especially in Serbia, North Macedonia, Bulgaria, Moldova and Romania, although the turbo-folk variety attracts larger audiences. The energetic and fast beats encourage dance and are egalitarian, often resulting in participation by the entire audience; this unpretentious relationship with audiences, highly charged energy and loud and joyful performances by highly skilled musicians has contributed to its successes. Fans of bands inspired by Balkan bands, such as Gogol Bordelo, often state that it is a type of music better experienced than listened to.

Darko Dimitrov Macedonian record producer

Darko Dimitrov is a Macedonian record producer, songwriter, arranger and record executive. Highly acclaimed for revitalising the Yugoslavian mainstream pop music scene, which also influenced the surrounding Balkan countries, he also received international recognition for working with many popular foreign artists.

Vladimir Graić is a Serbian composer of popular, film and television music. Among other pieces, he composed the song Molitva, performed by Marija Šerifović, which won the 2007 Eurovision Song Contest.

Petar i Zli Vuci

Petar i Zli Vuci were a former Yugoslav new wave/ska band from Belgrade, notable as the participant of the Artistička radna akcija project.

Dušan Radić was a Serbian composer, university professor, and a full member of the Serbian Academy of Sciences and Arts.

Music of the Old Serbia is a debut vinyl album by Ensemble Renaissance, released in 1983 on the PGP RTB label. It is also Ensemble's first album with early music of Serbia. They will revisit the theme of Serbian Medieval songs and dances on the Roots of the Balkan, and some of the material from this album will be remastered on the Music of Old Serbia - Chants from 14th to the 18th century dedicated exclusively to the Medieval Serbian chant. The A side of the record deals with the earliest attested Serbian composers belonging to the Serbo-Byzantine musical style while the B side contains secular and ritual songs and dances. Most of the material was taken from the books by the Serbian ethnomusicologists Dimitrije Stefanović, Živojin Stanković, Kosta Manojlović, Đorđe Karaklajić (unpublished), and others.

<i>Roots of the Balkan</i> 2002 studio album by Ensemble Renaissance

Roots of the Balkan is the 15th album by Ensemble Renaissance, released in 2002 on the Classic Produktion Osnabrück label in Germany and Serbia. It is Ensemble's fifth album with early music of Serbia. It is also their most complete and mature work on the theme of early Serbian ethnomusicology. Presented on this album are secular and ritual dances, songs and melodies from the entire territory of Serbia, the oldest being from the time of Nemanjić dynasty, Ottoman period, up to the 19th century. Just like Renaissance's previous works from the same field, most of the material was taken from the books by famous Serbian ethnomusicologists Dimitrije Stefanović, Živojin Stanković, Kosta Manojlović, Stevan Stojanović Mokranjac, Đorđe Karaklajić (unpublished), and others.

Mihailo Živanović Serbian musician

Mihailo Živanović, known as Mika-Žuti (Yellow), was a prominent and one of the most inventive and best Serbian and Yugoslav clarinetist, saxophonist, a very prolific composer, conductor of RTB Light Music Orchestras and arranger.

Serbian pop is the pop music scene of Serbia. During the 1940s, 1950s 1960s, 1970s and the 1980s, while Serbia was a constituent republic of Socialist Federal Republic of Yugoslavia, Serbian pop scene was a part of the SFR Yugoslav pop scene.

Milomir Miljanić

Milomir Miljanić, nicknamed Miljan (Миљан), is a Montenegrin folk singer. Initially a guslar, he was the 5-time national champion before turning to pop-music in 2005. He is known for his traditional folk songs, which are mainly on patriotic and love themes. His hits include Gledaj, Orle and Izbeglica.

References

  1. "Stevan Mokranjac, composer". Serbian Music. Serbian Unity Congress. Archived from the original on 2007-09-27. Retrieved 2013-09-22. Even though many say that the stimulus Mokranjac gave to Serbian music was more important than his compositions, many musicians who sing or listen to his works state that the true Mokranjac is exemplified in the Song Wreaths. ... From the moment they were composed, Mokranjac's Song Wreaths played an important role in singing societies.
  2. Serbian and Greek Art Music: A Patch to Western Music History , p. 81, at Google Books
  3. "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 2011-07-02. Retrieved 2011-06-21.CS1 maint: archived copy as title (link)
  4. Počeci džeza u Jugoslaviji
  5. "Nišvil": Džindžer Bejkeru uručena nagrada "Šaban Bajramović"

Further reading