Concert

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A classical music concert in the Rod Laver Arena, Melbourne, Australia, 2005 Classical spectacular10.jpg
A classical music concert in the Rod Laver Arena, Melbourne, Australia, 2005
Concert, by Italian baroque artist Bernardo Strozzi (circa 1630/1631) Bernardo Strozzi Kontsert.jpg
Concert, by Italian baroque artist Bernardo Strozzi (circa 1630/1631)
Julee Walker's flute recital at Texas A&M University-Commerce in 2015 Julee Walker flute recital (15892393673).jpg
Julee Walker's flute recital at Texas A&M University–Commerce in 2015
After the performance has ended; showing stage clutter such as microphone stands, drinks, cables, speakers (2013) Live music set.jpg
After the performance has ended; showing stage clutter such as microphone stands, drinks, cables, speakers (2013)

A concert is a live music performance in front of an audience. [1] The performance may be by a single musician, sometimes then called a recital, or by a musical ensemble, such as an orchestra, choir, or band. Concerts are held in a wide variety and size of settings, from private houses and small nightclubs, dedicated concert halls, arenas and parks to large multipurpose buildings, and even sports stadiums. Indoor concerts held in the largest venues are sometimes called arena concerts or amphitheatre concerts. Informal names for a concert include show and gig .

Contents

Regardless of the venue, musicians usually perform on a stage (if not actual then an area of the floor designated as such). Concerts often require live event support with professional audio equipment. Before recorded music, concerts provided the main opportunity to hear musicians play.

Concert of Joler Gan Band, Bangabandhu International Conference Centre (BICC) Concert of Joler Gan Band, Bangabndhu International Conference Centre (BICC).jpg
Concert of Joler Gan Band, Bangabandhu International Conference Centre (BICC)

History

While the first concerts didn't officially appear until the late 17th century, similar gatherings had been around throughout the 17th century at several European universities, such as Oxford and Cambridge. Officially, though, the first public concerts that required an admission were created by the English violinist, John Banister. [2] Over the next few centuries, concerts began to gain larger audiences, and classical symphonies were very popular. Finally, after World War 2, these events changed into the modern concerts that take place today. An example of an early, post-WW2 concert is the Moondog Coronation Ball. [3]

17th Century

The first known occurrence of concerts where people are charged admission took place at violinist John Banister's home in Whitefriars, London in 1672. 6 years later in 1678, a man by the name of Thomas Britton held weekly concerts in Clerkenwell. However, these concerts were different. Before, you had an admission that you paid upon entering the building where the concert was held but at Britton's concerts, patrons purchased a yearly subscription to come to the concerts. At 10 shillings a year, people could see as many concerts they wanted to.

In addition to holding concerts at certain venues, concerts also went to the people. In 17th century France, concerts were performed in the homes of the nobility, for only the nobility. Organized by Anne Danican Philidor, the first public concerts in France, and arguably the world, were the Concerts Spirituels. These concerts were held on religious holidays when the Opera was closed and served as a model for concert societies all over the world.

18th Century

In the late 18th century, music from the likes of Haydn and Mozart was brought and performed in English concerts. One notable work from Haydn performed at these concerts was his set of 12 symphonies, also referred to as the London Symphonies. Concerts reflecting the elegance of England during the time period were held at the gardens of Vauxhall, Ranelagh, and Marylebone. The musical repertoire performed at these events ranged from works composed by young Mozart, to songs that were popular in that time period.

A rock concert by the Manic Street Preachers at the First Direct Arena in Leeds, England, 2018 Manic Street Preachers at First Direct Arena, Leeds (2nd May 2018) 004.jpg
A rock concert by the Manic Street Preachers at the First Direct Arena in Leeds, England, 2018

Types

The nature of a concert varies by musical genre, individual performers, and the venue. Concerts by a small jazz combo or small bluegrass band may have the same order of program, mood, and volume—but vary in music and dress. In a similar way, a particular musician, band, or genre of music might attract concert attendees with similar dress, hairstyle, and behavior. For example, concert goers in the 1960s often had long hair (sometimes in dread lock form), sandals and inexpensive clothing made of natural fibers. Regular attendees to a concert venue might also have a recognizable style that comprises that venue's scene.

Recital

A recital is a concert by a soloist or small group which follows a program. It can highlight a single performer, sometimes accompanied by piano, or a performance of the works of a single composer, or a single instrument (organ recital). The invention of the solo piano recital has been attributed to Franz Liszt. [4] Also, a recital may have many participants, as for a dance recital. A dance recital is a presentation of choreographed moves for an audience, usually in an established performing arts venue, possibly competitively. Some dance recitals are seasonal.

Theatrical

Some performers or groups put on very elaborate and expensive shows. To create a memorable and exciting atmosphere and increase the spectacle, performers frequently include additional entertainment devices. These can include elaborate stage lighting, electronic imagery via (IMAG) system and/or pre-recorded video, inflatable sets, artwork or other set pieces, various special effects such as theatrical smoke and fog and pyrotechnics, and unusual costumes or wardrobe. Some singers, especially popular music, augment concert sound with pre-recorded accompaniment, back-up dancers, and even broadcast vocal tracks of the singer's own voice. Activities during these concerts can include dancing, sing-alongs, and moshing. Performers known for including these elements in their performances include: Pink Floyd, The Flaming Lips, Cher, Prince, Alice Cooper, Iron Maiden, Daft Punk, Lady Gaga, Jean Michel Jarre, Sarah Brightman, KISS, Gwar, Rammstein, Slipknot, Marilyn Manson, Muse, Nine Inch Nails, Madonna, Katy Perry, Kanye West, U2, Phish, and Arcade Fire.

Classical

Classical concerts embody two different styles of classical music — orchestral and choral. They are performed by a plethora of different groups in concert halls or other performing art venues. For orchestra, depending on the number of performers and the instruments used, concerts include chamber music, chamber orchestra, or symphony orchestra. Chamber orchestra is a small-scale orchestra containing between ten and forty members, mostly string instruments, and likely led by a conductor. Symphony orchestra, on the other hand, is a large-scale orchestra that can have up to eighty or more members, which is led by a conductor and is performed with instruments such as strings, woodwinds, brass instruments, and percussion. [5] For choral style pieces, concerts include Choral music, Opera, and musical theater. Each encompassing a variety of singers who are organized by a conductor or director. [6]

Venues

Jay Pritzker Pavilion is a bandshell in Chicago's Millennium Park 20090814 Pritzker Pavilion on Beethoven's 9th Day crop.JPG
Jay Pritzker Pavilion is a bandshell in Chicago's Millennium Park

There are a wide variety of concert venues that can range in size, location, and the type of music that is hosted at that particular venue. A concert hall is a concert venue which hosts mainly classical music such as a symphony, and they are often a part of a larger performing arts center. One of the most famous concert halls is Royal Albert Hall located in the United Kingdom. This venue hosts a wide variety of genres of music from classical concerts to pop concerts. An amphitheater is an uncovered circular or oval-shaped venue with tiers of seats surrounding the stage. Amphitheaters such as the well-known Red Rocks Amphitheatre, [7] located in Colorado, hosts mainly rock and pop concerts. Rock and pop concerts, however, are mainly held in sports stadiums and arenas such as Madison Square Garden because of the tendency for these stadiums to have a larger capacity.

After the outbreak of coronavirus (COVID-19), there are a lot of online concert venues to support artist. Some are live streamed like Jambase and others are pre-recorded and paid. Riffbook.org as The Hindu [8] says is one of the first such websites to come out of India to support independent artists. There are many such across the world.

Formats

Festivals

Donauinselfest is the world's largest music festival according to Guinness World Records Donauinselfest.jpg
Donauinselfest is the world's largest music festival according to Guinness World Records

Concerts involving a greater number of artists, especially those that last for multiple days, are known as festivals. Unlike other concerts, which typically remain in a single genre of music or work of a particular artist, festivals often cover a broad scope of music and arts. Due to their size, festivals are almost exclusively held outdoors. New platforms for festivals are becoming increasingly popular such as Jam Cruise, which is a festival held on a cruise ship, as well as Mayan Holidaze, which is a destination festival held in Tulum.

Tour

A concert tour is a series of concerts by an artist or group of artists in different cities, countries or locations. Often concert tours are named, to differentiate different tours by the same artist and associate a specific tour with a particular album or product (for example Ariana Grande: Sweetener World Tour). Especially in the popular music world, such tours can become large-scale enterprises that last for several months or even years, are seen by hundreds of thousands or millions of people, and bring in millions of dollars (or the equivalent) in ticket revenues.

Residency

A concert residency [9] or musical residency [10] is a series of live music concerts similar to a concert tour, but only performed at one location.

Revenue and attendance

The U2 360deg Tour U2 360 Zooropa Oakland.jpg
The U2 360° Tour

While admission to some concerts is free, it is common practice to charge money for concerts by selling admission tickets. Before the advent of recorded-music sales and mechanical royalties in the early 20th century, concerts were the primary source of revenue for musicians. Revenue from ticket sales typically goes to the performing artists, producers, venue, organizers and the brokers. In the case of benefit concerts, a portion of profits often go towards a charitable organization.

Additional revenue is also often raised through in-concert advertising, from free local concerts for local sponsorships to sponsorships from corporations during major tours e.g. 2009's "Vans' Warped Tour Presented by AT&T". Both Vans and AT&T would have paid significant amounts to have their company names included at the forefront in all marketing material for the Warped Tour.

Concessions and merchandise are also often sold during and after concerts; often by the venue in the case of the former, and by the performing band or artist in the case of the latter. [11]

As of 2017, Italian singer Vasco Rossi holds the record for the biggest attendance of a ticketed concert with a total of 220,000 tickets sold for his show at Enzo Ferrari Park, Modena, Italy on 1 July 2017. [12] [13] The record was previously held by Paul McCartney's 1990 concert with a paying audience of 185,000 in Maracanã Stadium, Rio de Janeiro. [14] Rod Stewart also holds the record for the biggest attendance in a free concert, with an estimated audience of 3.5 million during his 1994 New Year's Eve concert in Copacabana Beach, Rio de Janeiro. [15]

See also

Related Research Articles

Orchestra Large instrumental ensemble

An orchestra is a large instrumental ensemble typical of classical music, which combines instruments from different families, including bowed string instruments such as the violin, viola, cello, and double bass, brass instruments such as the horn, trumpet, trombone and tuba, woodwinds such as the flute, oboe, clarinet and bassoon, and percussion instruments such as the timpani, bass drum, triangle, snare drum, cymbals, and mallet percussion instruments each grouped in sections. Other instruments such as the piano and celesta may sometimes appear in a fifth keyboard section or may stand alone, as may the concert harp and, for performances of some modern compositions, electronic instruments.

The Pittsburgh Symphony Orchestra (PSO) is an American orchestra based in Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania. The orchestra's home is Heinz Hall, located in Pittsburgh's Cultural District.

Sydney Symphony Orchestra orchestra

The Sydney Symphony Orchestra (SSO) is an Australian symphony orchestra that was initially formed in 1908. Since its opening in 1973, the Sydney Opera House has been its home concert hall. Simone Young will be the orchestra's next chief conductor when she takes up the position in 2022.

The Tafelmusik Baroque Orchestra is a Canadian Baroque orchestra specializing in early music and based in Toronto. They often perform with choir and play period instruments.

Rehearsal practice performance

A rehearsal is an activity in the performing arts that occurs as preparation for a performance in music, theatre, dance and related arts, such as opera, musical theatre and film production. It is undertaken as a form of practising, to ensure that all details of the subsequent performance are adequately prepared and coordinated. The term "rehearsal" typically refers to ensemble activities undertaken by a group of people. For example, when a musician is preparing a piano concerto in their music studio, this is called "practicing", but when they practice the concerto with an orchestra, this is called a "rehearsal". The music rehearsal takes place in a music rehearsal space.

Music venue Any location used for a concert or musical performance

A music venue is any location used for a concert or musical performance. Music venues range in size and location, from a small coffeehouse for folk music shows, an outdoor bandshell or bandstand or a concert hall to an indoor sports stadium. Typically, different types of venues host different genres of music. Opera houses, bandshells, and concert halls host classical music performances, whereas public houses ("pubs"), nightclubs, and discothèques offer music in contemporary genres, such as rock, dance, country and pop.

Music of Budapest

Budapest is the capital and largest city of Hungary; it has long been an important part of the music of Hungary. Budapest's music history has included the composers Franz Liszt, Ernő Dohnányi, Zoltán Kodály and Béla Bartók and the opera composer Ferenc Erkel.

The National Youth Orchestras of Scotland (NYOS) provides a complete orchestral experience for its students aged between 8 and 25, through its pathway of orchestras, jazz bands, training ensembles and outreach programmes.

The Hartford Symphony Orchestra (HSO) is an American orchestra based in Hartford, Connecticut.

New Haven Symphony Orchestra

The New Haven Symphony Orchestra is an American symphony orchestra based in New Haven, Connecticut. The New Haven Symphony Orchestra gave its first concert in 1895 and is the fourth oldest orchestra in the United States. Today, the orchestra is made up of over 65 professionals, most of whom live and work in the Greater New Haven area. The NHSO is currently directed by Maestro Alasdair Neale and celebrated the 125th anniversary of its first concert on January 25, 2020.

Richard Durrant, Dip RCM, ARCM, FLCM is an English guitarist and composer. He studied guitar, cello, and composition at the Royal College of Music in London between 1981 and 1986. Since his debut at the Purcell Room, London in July 1986 Richard Durrant has gained an international reputation as one of the great guitarists of his generation. He has pursued both performance and composition in an unconventional career that has avoided categorisation and he has built a faithful, ever expanding audience who warm to his unpretentious manner and natural skills of communication. He is the only known guitar virtuoso who performs standing up.

Atsuko Seta is a Japanese classical pianist. She is particularly successful in Poland, especially in the southwest of the country, regularly performing with the Sudeten Philharmonic Orchestra in Walbrzych and in her native Japan and in Bulgaria. Seta is living in Poland as a Honorable Citizen of Szczawno-Zdroj city. Artistic Director of Chiangmai Ginastera International Music Festival. Honorary Professor of Payap University Thailand. Honorary Chairman of Japan Ginastera Association.

David Fung is a concert pianist.

Shanghai Symphony Orchestra orchestra

Shanghai Symphony Orchestra is an symphony orchestra in Shanghai, China. The music director is Yu Long.

Stephanie Ann Chase is an American classical violinist.

Orion Weiss American pianist

Orion Weiss is an American classical pianist.

Charlie Albright Pianist and Composer

Charlie Albright is an American-born classical pianist, composer, and improviser. He is an official Steinway Artist, 2014 Avery Fisher Career Grant Recipient, 2010 Gilmore Young Artist (2010) and former Young Concert Artist. He graduated from Harvard College (AB) and the New England Conservatory (MM) as the first classical pianist in the schools' five-year AB/MM Joint Program, was named the Leverett House Artist in Residence for 2011–2012, and was one of the 15 Most Interesting Seniors of the Harvard College Class of 2011. He graduated from the Juilliard School of Music with his post-graduate Artist Diploma (AD) in 2014.

Simon Francis Murphy is an international award-winning, Dutch based, Australian conductor and viola player with a focus on the music of the 18th and early 19th centuries.

Nikki Chooi is a Canadian classical violinist. He is the winner of the 2013 Michael Hill International Violin Competition in New Zealand. and Laureate of the 2012 Queen Elisabeth Music Competition. Nikki was a member of the cross-over ensemble, Time for Three, during the 2015/2016 season and subsequently served as Concertmaster of the Metropolitan Opera Orchestra in New York for the 2016/2017 season.

National Youth Orchestra of China

The National Youth Orchestra of China (NYO-China) is a full symphony youth orchestra composed of approximately 100 Chinese musicians aged 14 to 21 years old. Each season, students from all over China audition to participate in a two-week training residency before performing alongside a renowned soloist and conductor in premier venues throughout the world.

References

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  6. "Kinds of Concerts: How To Enjoy A Live Concert". naxos.com. Retrieved 2019-03-20.
  7. "Top 10 Music Venues in the United States". Atlanta Institute of Music and Media. Retrieved 2019-03-20.
  8. McIntyre, Hugh. "Forget Vegas, New York City Has Become The New Go-To City For Concert Residencies". forbes.com. Retrieved 4 December 2017.
  9. "Las Vegas Residencies: Here's Your Guide to Summer 2017". ew.com. Retrieved 4 December 2017.
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  13. "Arts and Media/Music Feats & Facts/Solo Rock Show Crowd". 25 May 2006. Archived from the original on 25 May 2006. Retrieved 9 December 2017.
  14. "Arts and Media/Music Feats & Facts/Huge Free Gig". 25 May 2006. Archived from the original on 25 May 2006. Retrieved 14 December 2017.