Christian music industry

Last updated

The Christian music industry is a small part of the larger music industry, that focuses on traditional Gospel music, Southern gospel, contemporary Christian music, and alternative Christian music. It is sometimes called the gospel music industry, although this designation is not a limitation on the musical styles represented.

Music industry companies and individuals that create and sell music and make money off of sales

The music industry consists of the companies and individuals that earn money by creating new songs and pieces and selling live concerts and shows, audio and video recordings, compositions and sheet music, and the organizations and associations that aid and represent music creators. Among the many individuals and organizations that operate in the industry are: the songwriters and composers who create new songs and musical pieces; the singers, musicians, conductors and bandleaders who perform the music; the companies and professionals who create and sell recorded music and/or sheet music ; and those that help organize and present live music performances.

Gospel music is a genre of Christian music. The creation, performance, significance, and even the definition of gospel music varies according to culture and social context. Gospel music is composed and performed for many purposes, including aesthetic pleasure, religious or ceremonial purposes, and as an entertainment product for the marketplace. Gospel music usually has dominant vocals with Christian lyrics. Gospel music can be traced to the early 17th century, with roots in the black oral tradition. Hymns and sacred songs were often repeated in a call and response fashion. Most of the churches relied on hand clapping and foot stomping as rhythmic accompaniment. Most of the singing was done a cappella. The first published use of the term "gospel song" probably appeared in 1874. The original gospel songs were written and composed by authors such as George F. Root, Philip Bliss, Charles H. Gabriel, William Howard Doane, and Fanny Crosby. Gospel music publishing houses emerged. The advent of radio in the 1920s greatly increased the audience for gospel music. Following World War II, gospel music moved into major auditoriums, and gospel music concerts became quite elaborate.

Southern gospel music is a genre of Christian music. Its name comes from its origins in the Southeastern United States whose lyrics are written to express either personal or a communal faith regarding biblical teachings and Christian life, as well as to give a Christian alternative to mainstream secular music. Sometimes known as "quartet music" for its traditional "four men and a piano" set up, southern gospel has evolved over the years into a popular form of music across the United States and overseas, especially among baby boomers and those living in the Southern United States. Like other forms of music the creation, performance, significance, and even the definition of southern gospel varies according to culture and social context. It is composed and performed for many purposes, ranging from aesthetic pleasure, religious or ceremonial purposes, or as an entertainment product for the marketplace.

Contents

Christian artists generally use secular styles, pairing them with lyrics that display faith and spirituality to varying degrees. Generally speaking, the industry is influenced by mainstream culture. Musical trends, for instance, follow those of the secular scene, though usually a few years behind. [1] [2] [3] The Christian music industry carries the distinction of being the only music subculture whose content is labeled by its lyrical dimension rather than its music.[ citation needed ] Still, music within the industry is sold by its musical style rather than lyrical content.

Christian music's critics point to the divergent interests of commercialization and ministry, which have, according to some, polar opposite goals. Aspects of Christian music have long struggled to gain general acceptance, even within the Christian community. What some see as secularization and a lacking of direct theology, others see as artistic ministry. This opens up questions of the definition of "Christian music" that have lingered over the industry since its inception.

The Christian music industry experienced tremendous growth in the 1990s. Christian music sales grew to exceed those for classical, jazz, and new age music. [4] Even so, the Christian music industry has experienced the same issues as the general market in recent years.

History

The contemporary Christian music industry has roots in the late 1960s and early 1970s Jesus movement and its Jesus music artists. The Encyclopedia of Contemporary Christian Music points out three reasons that the Christian music industry developed as a parallel structure to the general music industry. [5] First, the Jesus movement produced a large number of bands in a very short period, which the general market was unable and/or unwilling to absorb. [5] This was in part due to a lack of appreciation for the ideology expressed by such artists. [5] Finally, Jesus music artists tended toward mistrust of secular corporations. [5] According to another critic, the industry in this period was defined by four characteristics: lack of audience acceptance for styles, inferior production, inefficient distribution, and lack of wide radio exposure. [3] Petra, for instance, struggled to find an audience for their hard rock sound, partially due to limited distribution to Christian bookstores. [6]

The Jesus movement was an Evangelical Christian movement beginning on the West Coast of the United States in the late 1960s and early 1970s and spreading primarily throughout North America, Europe, and Central America, before subsiding by the late 1980s. Members of the movement were called Jesus people, or Jesus freaks.

Jesus music, known as gospel beat music in the United Kingdom, is a style of Christian music that originated on the West Coast of the United States in the late 1960s and early 1970s. This musical genre developed in parallel to the Jesus movement. It outlasted the movement that spawned it and the Christian music industry began to eclipse it and absorb its musicians around 1975.

Petra (band)

Petra is a music group regarded as a pioneer of the Christian rock and contemporary Christian music genres. Formed in 1972, the band took its name from the Greek word for "rock". Though it disbanded formally in 2006, incarnations have played reunion shows in the years since and released two albums in November 2010, and in November 2017. In 2013, it reformed with a new drummer, Cristian Borneo, and recorded a new song titled "Holy is Your Name", before going back on tour.

Even so, the 1970s saw established corporations become involved in the Christian music market. Word Records, founded in 1951, was bought in 1976 by ABC. [7] Other music industry giants also got involved, CBS started a short-lived Christian label, Priority Records, and MCA also fielded a label, Songbird Records, for a time.

Word Records is a Christian faith-based entertainment company based in Nashville, Tennessee. It is owned by Curb Records and is a part of Word Entertainment.

ABC Records was an American record label founded in New York City in 1955. It originated as the main popular music label operated by the Am-Par Record Corporation. Am-Par also created the Impulse! jazz label in 1960. It acquired many labels before ABC was sold to MCA Records in 1979. ABC produced music in a variety of genres: pop, rock, jazz, country, rhythm and blues, soundtrack, gospel, and polka. In addition to producing records, ABC licensed masters from independent record producers, and purchased regionally released records for national distribution.

Columbia Records American record label; currently owned by Sony Music Entertainment

Columbia Records is an American record label owned by Sony Music Entertainment, a subsidiary of Sony Corporation of America, the North American division of Japanese conglomerate Sony. It was founded in 1887, evolving from the American Graphophone Company, the successor to the Volta Graphophone Company. Columbia is the oldest surviving brand name in the recorded sound business, and the second major company to produce records. From 1961 to 1990, Columbia recordings were released outside North America under the name CBS Records to avoid confusion with EMI's Columbia Graphophone Company. Columbia is one of Sony Music's four flagship record labels, alongside former longtime rival RCA Records, as well as Arista Records and Epic Records.

While the Jesus movement had ended by the 1980s, the Christian music industry was maturing and transforming into a multimillion-dollar enterprise. The early 1980s saw an increase Christian booksellers taking product, and an increase in sales followed, despite the recession. [6] As a percentage of gross sales, Christian music rose from 9% in 1976 to 23% in 1985. [6] By her 1982 release Amy Grant had saturated the Christian marketplace and made significant inroads into the general market. [6] Sandi Patti and Michael W. Smith also gained influence within Christian music, each playing significant roles in the development of the industry. [6]

Harder forms of Christian music, such as heavy metal, also began to gain acceptance. This is largely credited to Stryper, who had begun making inroads into the general market by 1985. [8] Still, rock and alternative acts faced a longer battle for acceptance than contemporary acts, as the form was opposed by prominent religious leaders such as Jimmy Swaggart and others on the Christian right. [9] [10] While in 1981 total gospel music industry revenues were approximately $180 million, only ten years later they would total $680 million, according to CCM Magazine. [11]

RIAA sales, 1995–2000
Year%$Source
19953.1381 [12]
19964.3538 [12]
19974.5549 [13]
19986.3836 [13]
19995.1744 [14]
20004.8688 [14]

According to RIAA data, market share for sales of Christian music albums more than doubled between 1993 and 1997. [15] In the 1990s the Christian music industry became the fastest growing segment of the music industry. [15] This was due to several factors, including consolidation of record labels, and independent Christian bookstores into chains. [6]

The Christian music industry began adopting SoundScan in 1995, although implementation was spotty even into the millennium. Even so, the adoption caused the visibility of Christian artists to increase significantly, and brought credibility to the industry as Christian albums became integrated into all Billboard charts. [6] [16] [17]

In 1985, 90% of Christian music sales originated at Christian bookstores. By 1995, that number had dropped to 64%, with general retailers taking 21%, and the remainder accountable through other methods, such as direct mail. [6] At that same time, the industry was estimated to gross $750 million, with $381 million in album sales. [18] In the late 1990s, general market retailers, especially big box stores such as Best Buy, Walmart, Target, and Blockbuster began carrying a wider selection of Christian music products. [19] By 2000 those stores had surpassed Christian retail in terms of the number of Christian albums sold, according to Soundscan numbers. [20] [21] This phenomenon was partially responsible for crossover successes. P.O.D., for example, sold 1.4 million albums in 2001, although sales at Christian retail outlets accounted for only 10%. [20]

The new millennium has brought challenges for the record industry as a whole, and these have affected the Christian music industry as well. [22] Contemporary worship music, a long time staple of the industry, began to gain significant market share in about the year 2000. [23] [24] By focusing on marketing worship music to youth culture, this genre became a growth driver despite the downturn in the general music industry. [25] [26] [27] [28]

"The money is just drying up.
And it's not being replaced."

John W. Styll, president, Gospel Music Association and longtime CCM publisher [22]

Growth continued until about 2003, [26] but has generally followed the trends of the larger music industry since that point. In 2009 a The New York Times op-ed placed the entire music industry on a "deathwatch," [29] pointing out that new forms of media, piracy, and new pricing options are driving gross sales down. In another example of parallelism, the Christian music industry has experienced largely the same phenomenon. In the Christian marketplace, music consumption has risen by as much as 30% since 2005, but overall album sales have dropped to about half of their 1999 levels. [22] However, some critics point out that the current downturn may have long term positive effects for the industry. John J. Thompson told Christianity Today that "The lack of monetary benefit has filtered out some of the people who should not have been doing this in the first place. If the people who are in it for the money are gone, it leaves more turf for those who had something a little bit loftier in mind." [22]

Criticisms

"Ghetto" assertion

Christian music is sometimes cited as a "ghetto," [3] [30] [31] meaning that the majority of artists in the industry are pigeonholed to operate solely in it. These artists are isolated from the mainstream public, to Christian media, including radio, magazines, and book stores. For many this is a conscious choice, however others, not content to stay in an isolated industry segment, attempt to "cross over" and gain acceptance in the general market. For many artists, being called Christian becomes a stigma. [32]

Name recognition in Christian music
ArtistFamiliarity
Amy Grant
 
70%
 
67%
BeBe and CeCe Winans
 
43%
 
13%
Sandi Patty
 
42%
 
13%
Carman
 
33%
 
9%
Michael W. Smith
 
30%
 
10%
dc Talk
 
26%
 
11%
Steven Curtis Chapman
 
26%
 
6%
A 1997 survey looked at familiarity with "well-known" Christian artists. Self-identified Christian music listeners in are shown in green, and the general public in red. [33]

A 1997 study revealed that a self-identified audience of "Christian music listeners" had what was considered a lacking recognition of Christian artists. [33] The survey was commissioned by the Christian Music Trade Association and Z Music Television. The study looked at several artists including Amy Grant, BeBe and CeCe Winans, Carman, Steven Curtis Chapman, dc Talk, Sandi Patty, and Michael W. Smith. At the time of the survey, each of these artists was active in Christian music and had been so for at least nine years, was a multiple Dove Award and/or Grammy Award winner, and had albums certified Gold or higher.

Even so, the survey found that the Christian music audience was no more familiar with artists in the field than they were with Hootie & The Blowfish, a popular act at that time. The study concluded that the word "Christian" was the problem, causing a stigma. "It's the label, not the music, that dissuades," one Christian music executive was quoted as saying, agreeing with the survey. [33]

Another aspect of the "ghetto" is that some artists have trouble gaining audience with Christians due to their non-conservative image. [34] Stryper is a well-known example. Stryper received large amounts of criticism from groups on the Christian right, who argue (among other things) that their image as rock stars contradict their espoused faith. One critic wrote that the marriage of secular and religious elements in "Christian music" "violates all that God has commanded in the Bible about separation." [35]

The "ghetto" has several effects, critics point out that the audience of such artists are often already Christians, thus limiting the impact of any supposed "evangelism." [36] Another is that artists sometimes have trouble appealing to and maintaining both secular and religious audiences. For example:

The problem, as summed by one critic, was that the music was too religious for secular audience, while simultaneously too aggressive for religious audiences. [30] [31] One critic describes the situation, stating that for a band "to be taken seriously outside the Christian scene, a band must stay far, far away from that scene." [44]

Mutemath, for instance sued their record label with the goal of removing their product from the Christian market. Their first release sold almost 30,000 copies, with "bulk of sales coming from the Christian market," according to Billboard. [45] The band had been placed in the Christian market by their record label largely because their lead singer, Paul Meany, was previously with the band Earthsuit, whose only major label release was released on a Christian label.

This caused the band to not get taken seriously by music critics, and by the release of their full-length album the band began expressing discontent with their situation. [46] Meany told Tucson Weekly "...we began to see ourselves getting pigeonholed into this particular world that we weren't necessarily proud to be associated with... We're not trying to preach through our music; we don't have some kind of evangelistic agenda with what we're doing... You know, you don't want to be ashamed of your faith and your beliefs, but you don't want to be marketed by that, either." [46]

On the other hand, some artists operate solely within the "ghetto" of Christian music, and find great success in doing so.

Downplayed religious content

An early Christian record label, Lamb & Lion Records (founded by Pat Boone) reported in 1978 that it was their goal to produce crossover artists, but they were limited by lack of distribution to the secular marketplace. [47] Both problems affected Christian labels into the 1990s. [36] "Since people don't understand [the term] 'the Blood of Jesus, '" stated a manager for Lamb & Lion, "...music that communicates must approach it another way. We've got to present a subtle but sensitive Christian message." [47] Lyrics with subdued religious content have become commonplace in the industry; One critic points out that the secular hit "Spirit in the Sky" "has more explicit religious references than do many recent Christian radio hits." [48]

Some critics have alleged that CCM often uses "minimal direct theology," and promotes a "Jesus is my boyfriend" image of God. [6] Using downplayed religious content in lyrics has allowed some artists to "cross over" and make significant impact into the general market. Some Christian bands are able to do this while maintaining their identity in the Christian market. For example, MercyMe, whose double platinum album Almost There produced the Christian and secular chart hit "I Can Only Imagine." However, the lyrics of the single, while Christian in nature, contain what one critic calls "rather vacuous theology." [30]

Sometimes "crossing over" creates ambiguity over whether an artist is Christian (a "Christian band"), [31] or the artist is composed of Christians and produces music that appeals to Christian music fans but doesn't cater to the Christian market ("Christians in a band"). [31] Such artists are:

In video

The trend continues when examining religious videos. Many Christian bands produce videos with rotation on MTV in mind, however, the images can lead to an ambiguous impression of the portrayal.

In 1982 MTV featured two videos, "Constantly Changing" and "It's Mad" (which was the first one to be featured), made by the Swedish Christian rock band Jerusalem to promote their 1981 release Warrior. [58] DeGarmo and Key was the first Christian band in the US whose video appeared on MTV, made a video for their single "Six, Six, Six" off their 1984 release Communication. While the video was shown on MTV for a short time, it was subsequently pulled for a scene which depicted the Antichrist engulfed in flames, which MTV described as "senseless violence." [59] Eventually the video was re-edited for MTV—however, the unedited version continued to play in Christian bookstores and on Christian television networks, like Trinity Broadcasting. [60] The video received a Dove award in a category created specially for it, "Gospel Music Visual Song" in 1985. [60]

Another artist, Brian Welch, whose solo debut was released to Christian markets, found their album pulled from some Christian bookstores after the music video for "Flush" was released. [61] The video is an interpretation of the authors personal experience with methamphetamine, before his religious conversion. At the time the album was pulled, Brian Welsh released a statement about the visual content of the video, relating its symbolism to his personal experiences of addiction and redemption. He also issued the following statement: "The video for 'Flush' is about crystal meth addiction and the crazy things anyone addicted to meth will do while they're high or to get their fix. Everything the models were doing in the video is what I was wrapped up in while I was addicted to meth... I believe I would be dead right now if I continued using meth, but instead, I chose to surrender my life to Christ and die to myself so He could share His resurrection with me... There is a huge message of hope on my CD and I believe those retailers that are pulling the CD from their shelves are robbing someone spiritually by taking it off of the shelves." [61]

Classification of videos on Z Music by content Z Music Television - Joe Gow Study.svg
Classification of videos on Z Music by content

A study of visual elements of Christian music videos on Z Music Television, a now defunct MTV-like channel for Christian music, found that almost one third of the channel's videos could be described as "Ambiguously Religious" at best (red area, right). [62] The conclusion was that the channel's programming was designed to make its Christian nature "apparent only to those willing to listen for it." [62]

Other arguments

Some critics describe the Christian music industry as being committed "to the goals and strategies of the commercial marketplace – industrial growth, increased market share, and greater profits." [3] This became more apparent in the 1980s and 1990s as the largest Christian record labels became subsidiaries of the "mainstream" labels (who are themselves owned by huge media conglomerates like Viacom and Time Warner). [31] [32] Others see the industry as taking on the roles traditionally reserved for the church. Concerts are the equivalent of religious services, and commodities symbols of faith. [63] Under these conditions "evangelism becomes rhetoric—justifying the propaganda value of the industry's work – not spiritual reality." [63] One critic comments that "perhaps the 'ghettoization' and parallel institutionalism of CCM manifests itself nowhere more apparently than at numerous Christian rock festivals." [30]

See also

Related Research Articles

Christian rock is a form of rock music that features lyrics focusing on matters of Christian faith, often with an emphasis on Jesus, typically performed by self-proclaimed Christian individuals. The extent to which their lyrics are explicitly Christian varies between bands. Many bands who perform Christian rock have ties to the contemporary Christian music labels, media outlets, and festivals, while other bands are independent.

Contemporary Christian music genre of modern popular music

Contemporary Christian music is a genre of modern popular music which is lyrically focused on matters concerned with the Christian faith. It formed as those affected by the 1960s Jesus movement revival began to express themselves in a more contemporary style of music than the hymns, Gospel and Southern gospel music that was prevalent in the church at the time. Today, the term is typically used to refer to pop, rock, or praise & worship styles.

DC Talk American Christian rap music trio

DC Talk is a Christian rap and rock trio. The group was formed at Liberty University in Lynchburg, Virginia in 1987 by Toby McKeehan, Michael Tait, and Kevin Max Smith. They released five major studio albums together: DC Talk (1989), Nu Thang (1990), Free at Last (1992), Jesus Freak (1995), and Supernatural (1998). In 2002, the Encyclopedia of Contemporary Christian Music called DC Talk "the most popular overtly Christian act of all time."

Christian metal, also known as white metal, Jesus metal or heavenly metal, is a form of heavy metal music usually defined by its message using song lyrics as well as the dedication of the band members to Christianity. Christian metal is typically performed by professed Christians principally for Christians who listen to heavy metal music and often produced and distributed through various Christian networks.

Resurrection Band American Christian rock band

Resurrection Band, also known as Rez Band or REZ, was a Christian rock band formed in 1972. They were part of the Jesus People USA Christian community in Chicago and most of its members have continued in that community to this day. Known for their blend of blues-rock and hard rock, Resurrection Band is credited as one of the forerunners of the Christian metal genre. Christianity Today called them "the most influential band in Christian music history." Following their debut in 1978, the band's greatest popularity was during the early 1980s, but later in the decade they received some crossover success when they had two music videos featured on MTV.

The Insyderz were a Christian ska-punk band from Detroit, Michigan. They formed in 1996 and disbanded in 2005. The band reformed in 2009, but have not been actively playing shows in the last few years. The Insyderz are one of the "big three" bands which represented the Christian ska scene, alongside the Supertones and Five Iron Frenzy.

Servant was a Christian rock group that grew out of the counter-culture Jesus Movement of the sixties and seventies. The band was founded in Victoria, British Columbia in 1976 by Jim Palosaari and performed to audiences throughout North America, Europe and Australia for over 12 years. Originally named "Higher Ground", the group later changed their name to Servant. The lyrics of their songs were known for challenging the Christian Church to turn back to social justice and caring for the poor.

Benny Hester American musician

Benny Ray Hester is an American musician, singer, songwriter and recording artist. He is perhaps best known for his songs "When God Ran" and "Nobody Knows Me Like You", and for producing the groundbreaking tween/teen music-driven sketch comedy and dance television series Roundhouse on Nickelodeon. Hester received a television Cable Ace Award for the song "I Can Dream" and a collection of nominations for writing and producing a featured original song for each weekly episode of Roundhouse during its successful four-year run. He has written and recorded more than 25 number one and top ten songs.

Sonicflood is an American contemporary worship music band from Nashville, Tennessee, that has been touted as "The Fathers of the Modern Worship Movement." The group took the name "Sonicflood", a reference to a line in the Book of Revelation, chapter 19, verse 6.

5 Minute Walk Record label

5 Minute Walk was an independent record label founded by Frank Tate in April 1995. Operations were based in Concord, California in the back offices of The Screem, a music club operated by Tate. They only carried Christian bands and considered themselves to be a Christian ministry. Most records were produced by Masaki Liu at Masaki's One Way Studio and executive produced by Frank Tate.

Frontline Records was a Christian rock record label founded in 1986 by James Kempner. The label focused primarily on modern rock, rap, dance-pop, and hip-hop. The label closed in the early 1990s, and then resurfaced in 2010 to re-release its music catalog, and that of related labels, digitally.

Squad Five-O is a punk rock band from Savannah, Georgia. Like their initial ska-punk stylings, their name was derived from a cross between the television shows Hawaii Five-O and The Mod Squad. Between 1997 and 2006 the band grew lyrically and in popularity, and also shifted its style significantly. Over the course of their career they moved from a very small indie Christian label to the major label Capitol Records and released five albums in the process.

Idle Cure was an arena rock band from Long Beach, California. The Encyclopedia of Contemporary Christian Music calls their sound "the best example of cloning a sound for Christian markets", likening it to that of Def Leppard's Pyromania. They targeted a youthful audience, distinguished by overtly evangelical religious lyrics.

Z Music Television

Z Music Television was a Christian-oriented cable television channel with a music video format similar to that of MTV, and, in its earliest days, direct marketing appeals similar to The Home Shopping Network. Their programming, largely music videos with some documentaries, interstitial "Z Buzz" news updates, and media related shows, was characterized as being aimed at "12-to 54-year olds." Unlike style oriented channels such as Country Music Television, they were not limited to a particular musical genre; they played the full spectrum of Contemporary Christian music from reggae to country music. Seven years after debuting as the first 24-hour channel to feature such music exclusively, Z Music Television closed in 2000.

Christian music festival festival featuring Christian music and entertainment

A Christian music festival is a music festival held by the Christian community, in support of performers of Christian music. The festivals are characterized by more than just music; many feature motivational speakers and evangelists, and include seminars on Christian spiritual and missions topics, service, and evangelism. They are often viewed as evangelical tools, and small festivals can draw 10 times the crowd of traditional revival meetings. While the central theme of a Christian festival is Jesus Christ, the core appeal of a Christian music festival remains the artists and their music. Critics point out that the dichotomy of business and religious interests can be problematic for Christian festivals. In similar ways as the Christian music industry in general, festivals can be drawn away from their central theme and gravitate toward commercialization and mainstream acts in an attempt to draw crowds.

Christian ska is a form of Christian alternative rock, and subgenre of ska and ska-punk which is lyrically oriented toward contemporary Christian music. Though ska did not constitute a genre within the Christian music industry until after third wave ska had peaked in the general market, Christian ska continued to thrive independently into the early 2000s.

Johnny Q. Public was a Christian alternative rock band from Springfield, Missouri. Although their sound was wholly modern, it was influenced by bands such as Led Zeppelin and Cream. In addition to their music they were known for their Charismatic theology, which they would dramatically display through audience participation at their live shows.

Pamplin Music record label

Pamplin Music was an independent Christian record label founded in 1995 by Robert B. Pamplin Jr. The label was a subunit of Pamplin Entertainment and in turn Pamplin Communications, which was already established in the Christian media marketplace through book stores and video products.

Urban/contemporary gospel is a modern form of Christian music that expresses either personal or a communal belief regarding Christian life, as well as to give a Christian alternative to mainstream secular music. Musically, it follows the trends in secular urban contemporary music.

References

  1. Powell 2002 , "dc Talk" p. 239.Quote: "Of course the Christian market was a few years behind the rest of the world... it always is." [original emphasis]
  2. Urbanski, David (July 1997). "One Crazy Summer". CCM Magazine . 20 (1): 24–32. ISSN   1524-7848.
  3. 1 2 3 4 Forbes 2000 , "Evangelicals and Popular Music: The Contemporary Christian Music Industry" pp. 105–109
  4. "GMA Industry Overview 2008" (PDF). Christian Music Trade Association.
  5. 1 2 3 4 Powell 2002 , "Introduction" pp. 9–13.
  6. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 Cusic 2002 , Part Four, pp. 279–386
  7. Mount, Daniel J. (2005). A City on a Hilltop? The History of Contemporary Christian Music. p. 50. Archived from the original on February 3, 2007. Retrieved February 12, 2007.
  8. Hale, Mark (1993). "2869". Headbangers (First edition, second printing ed.). Ann Arbor, Michigan: Popular Culture, Ink. p. 336. ISBN   1-56075-029-4.
  9. "Christian Rock Wars: Evangelist Jimmy Swaggart Tells Why He Hates Today's Christian Rock". CCM Magazine . 7 (12): 14–17. June 1985. ISSN   1524-7848.
  10. "Articles / Christian Music". Dial-the-Truth Ministries.
  11. Gascon, Ana (December 1991). "A Music Video Network That Needs To Be Zeen". CCM Magazine . 14 (6): 12. ISSN   1524-7848.
  12. 1 2 Warren, Lindy (December 22, 1997). "Top 15 Impact-makers in 1997". CCM Update. OCLC   22937802.
  13. 1 2 Gillespie, Natalie Nichols (March 29, 1999). "Gospel Music Sees Record-setting RIAA Numbers". CCM Update. OCLC   22937802.
  14. 1 2 Warren, Lindy (March 19, 2001). "RIAA Consumer Report: Christian Music Marketshare Declines in 2000". CCM Update. OCLC   22937802.
  15. 1 2 Gillespie, Natalie Nichols (March 17, 1997). "Gospel Is Fastest-Growing Genre". CCM Update. OCLC   22937802.
  16. Brasher, Joan (July 12, 1999). "Christian Music's Mid-Year Sales Jump 21 Percent". CCM Update. OCLC   22937802.
  17. Akins, Debra (1995). "The Year in Review: 1995 Broke New Ground for Christian Music". CCM Update. OCLC   22937802.
  18. "God's Own Country". The Economist. 336 (7928). August 19, 1995.
  19. Warren, Lindy (January 26, 1998). "CMTA Launches Dove Retail, Radio Campaign, Wal-Mart to expand Christian music sections". CCM Update. OCLC   22937802.
  20. 1 2 Connor, Lizza (January 7, 2002). "Christian Music Sales Set Record for 2001: Gap between general-market and Christian retailers widest in SoundScan history". CCM Update. OCLC   22937802.
  21. Warren, Lindy (November 19, 2001). "General-market Competition Focus for CBA Expo 2002". CCM Update. OCLC   22937802.
  22. 1 2 3 4 Geil, Mark (June 2, 2009). "Music in Recession". Christianity Today . ISSN   0009-5753.
  23. Feinberg, Margaret (April 15, 2000). "Modern Worship Is Exploding". Christian Retailing. 46 (8): 45–56.
  24. McCabe, Ginny (July 1999). "Praise & Worship Music Changing for the Millennium". CBA Marketplace. 32 (7): 222.
  25. Price, Deborah Evans (May 1, 1999). "Worship Music Targets Youth". Billboard . 111 (18). ISSN   0006-2510.
  26. 1 2 "Gospel and Christian". Billboard . 118 (13): 35–37. April 1, 2006. ISSN   0006-2510.
  27. Price, Deborah Evans (February 15, 2003). "Praise and Worship Genre Blessed With Global Growth". Billboard . 115 (7). ISSN   0006-2510.
  28. Riddle, Melissa (May 29, 2000). "Modern Worship Music Booms: Labels scramble to meet demand". CCM Update. OCLC   22937802.
  29. Blow, Charles M. (July 31, 2009). "Swan Songs?". The New York Times . p. A17. Retrieved September 23, 2009.
  30. 1 2 3 4 Nichols 2008 , Chapter 5: "Jesus on Vinyl" pp. 122 – 146
  31. 1 2 3 4 5 Howard 1999 , p. 9
  32. 1 2 Hendershot 2004 , pp. 39–84
  33. 1 2 3 "Consumer Survey Reveals Potential Markets for Christian Music". CCM Update. May 26, 1997. OCLC   22937802.
  34. Kyle 2006 , "If You Can't Beat 'em Join 'em" pp. 281–286
  35. Pyle, Hugh (1985). The Truth About Rock Music. Murfreesboro, Tennessee: Sword of the Lord Publishers. ISBN   0-87398-839-6.
  36. 1 2 Romanowski, William D. (Fall 1992). "Roll Over Beethoven, Tell Martin Luther The News: American Evangelicals and Rock Music". Journal of American Culture. Bowling Green State University. 15 (3): 79–82. doi:10.1111/j.1542-734X.1992.t01-1-00079.x.
  37. 1 2 Powell 2002 , "Randy Matthews" pp. 566–569.
  38. Rabey, Steve (December 1980). "Randy Matthews... The Long Road To Now". CCM Magazine . 3 (6): 14. ISSN   1524-7848.
  39. 1 2 3 Powell 2002 , "Bob Dylan" pp. 277 – 286.
  40. Powell 2002 , "Larry Norman" pp. 633–641.
  41. "Christian Rock's 'Father' Dies: icon Larry Norman was often estranged from the industry". Christianity Today . 52 (4): 13. April 2008. ISSN   0009-5753.
  42. Jeffries, Vincent. "Upon This Rock". Allmusic. Retrieved April 26, 2009.
  43. Thompson, John J. (April 2008). "Remembering Larry Norman". CCM Magazine . 24 (9): 42. ISSN   1524-7848.
  44. Moll, Rob (June 2006). "Rock Un-Solid: When Christian bands bite the hands that praised them". Christianity Today .
  45. Martens, Todd (March 11, 2006). "A question of faith: buzz band Mutemath, preferring secular rock, sues Warner". Billboard Magazine . 118 (11).
  46. 1 2 Holub, Annie (January 19, 2006). "Church and State: Mutemath fights the machine at Warner Bros". Tucson Weekly .
  47. 1 2 Hortegas, Steve (May 1978). "H-E-R-E-S'S Christian Show Biz!". Eternity. 29 (5).
  48. Alfonso 2002 , "Contemporary Christian music: A History" pp. 11–29.
  49. "Dove Award Recipients for Hard Music Recorded Song". Gospel Music Association. Archived from the original on January 6, 2002. Retrieved November 15, 2006.
  50. "Dove Award Recipients for Hard Music Album". Gospel Music Association. Archived from the original on April 6, 2002. Retrieved November 15, 2006.
  51. Winters, Kelly (2005). "Project 86". In Pilchak, Angela M. (ed.). Contemporary Musicians. Volume 52. Farmington Hills, Michigan: Gale Group. pp. 129–130. ISBN   0-7876-8065-6. ISSN   1044-2197.
  52. Gonzales, Ron (May 28, 2004). "Wide range of music inspires Project 86". Albuquerque Journal . p. 2D.
  53. Dodd, Jason (May – June 2000). "Hard and Fast". 7ball (30): 51–52. ISSN   1082-3980.
  54. DiBase, John (April 23, 2007). "I want Rival Factions". Jesus Freak Hideout. Retrieved October 23, 2008.
  55. "Switchfoot steps toward stardom". The Boston Globe . January 9, 2004. Archived from the original on January 23, 2005. Retrieved August 9, 2006.
  56. "Question and Answer with Switchfoot's Jon Foreman". October 13, 2004. Archived from the original on February 8, 2013. Retrieved August 9, 2006.
  57. "Rocking for Jesus". June 30, 2006. Archived from the original on July 6, 2006. Retrieved August 9, 2006.
  58. "A Cable Music First? Lamb & Lion act to be seen and heard on MTV". Billboard. Billboard Magazine. 88 (?): 43. November 20, 1982.
  59. "MTV Rejects DeGarmo and Key Video, Cites 'Violent' Scene". MusicLine. CCM Communications. 2 (9): 3, 15. February 1985. ISSN   0746-7656.
  60. 1 2 "DeGarmo and Key Video Airs on MTV". MusicLine. CCM Communications. 3 (1): 3. May 1985. ISSN   0746-7656.
  61. 1 2 "Ex-Korn guitarist Brian "Head" Welch defends 'controversial' video". Blabbermouth.net . September 25, 2008. Retrieved November 1, 2008.
  62. 1 2 3 Gow, Joe (Summer 1999). "Rockin', Rappin', and Religion: Programming Strategy on Z Music Television". Popular Music and Society. Bowling Green State University Popular Press. 23 (2): 17. doi:10.1080/03007769908591730. ISSN   0300-7766.
  63. 1 2 Forbes 2000 , "Evangelicals and Popular Music: The Art World of Contemporary Christian Music" pp. 109–115

Sources

Further reading

Industry organizations

Other