Concert tour

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Audience view of Madonna's 2008 Sticky & Sweet Tour in the national stadium of Santiago, Chile. Sticky And Sweet Tour 2008 Santiago Chile.JPG
Audience view of Madonna's 2008 Sticky & Sweet Tour in the national stadium of Santiago, Chile.

A concert tour (or simply tour) is a series of concerts by an artist or group of artists in different cities, countries or locations. Often concert tours are named to differentiate different tours by the same artist and to associate a specific tour with a particular album or product. Especially in the popular music world, such tours can become large-scale enterprises that last for several months or even years, are seen by hundreds of thousands or millions of people, and bring in millions of dollars in ticket revenues. A performer who embarks on a concert tour is called a touring artist. [1] [2]

Contents

Different segments of longer concert tours are known as "legs". [3] The different legs of a tour are denoted in different ways, dependent on the artist and type of tour, but the most common means of separating legs are dates (especially if there is a long break at some point), countries and/or continents, or different opening acts. In the largest concert tours it has become more common for different legs to employ separate touring production crews and equipment, local to each geographical region.[ citation needed ] Concert tours are often administered on the local level by concert promoters or by performing arts presenters. Usually, small concert tours are managed by a road manager whereas large concert tours are managed by a tour manager.

Logistics

The main challenge in concert tours is how to move the performance's logistics from one venue to another venue, especially for a transcontinental tour. Tour logistics should be very organized and everything has to happen on time and in the right order as planned. [4] Autoweek magazine estimated 30 to 50 trucks were required by Taylor Swift's 1989 World Tour to bring all the stage, sound equipment, instruments, props, and clothes. [5] When Beyoncé visited the United Kingdom with her 2016 Formation World Tour, it took seven Boeing 747 air freighters and a fleet of more than 70 trucks to get her stage set and other gear to the venues. The logistics phase of that tour didn't include transportation of the backstage staff, musicians, performers, and the singer herself. [6]

Themes

Majority of concert tours are part of promotional campaign to support an album release. [7] [8] Hence, new songs from the respective album are included on its tour's setlist. [9] Some tours are known as "greatest hits tours" or "reunion tour" without any new material or specific album release, [10] [11] such as Fleetwood Mac's 2009 Unleashed tour and No Doubt's 2009 Summer Tour. [12] [13] In another case, artists embark on a concert tour to celebrate the anniversary of their past albums, such as U2's 2017 tour to mark the 30th anniversary of The Joshua Tree (1987) and Janet Jackson's 2019 tour to commemorate the 30th anniversary of Janet Jackson's Rhythm Nation 1814 (1989). [14] [15]

Farewell tour

A farewell tour is a concert tour intended to signal the retirement of a singer, a disbanding of a band, or the end of a show's run. Many of the tours end up not being the last tour, with frequent regroupings, or revivals of shows. [16] [17] [18] Luciano Pavarotti's 2004 tour and Kenny Rogers's 2015–2017 tour are examples of farewell tours which were the last to be staged before their death. [19] [20]

Revenue

As of 2019, the highest-grossing concert tour of all time is Ed Sheeran's ÷ Tour, supporting the album of the same name, which ran from 2017 to 2019 had gross revenues of $775.6 million. [21] In second place is the U2 360° Tour, with a gross of $736,137,344. [22] The third-highest-grossing concert tour of all time is The Rolling Stones' A Bigger Bang Tour, which earned approximately $558 million between 2005 and 2007. [23] Madonna's Sticky & Sweet Tour, which earned $408 million in 2008 and 2009 was the highest-earning tour by a female artist. [24] According to the 2014 report from Billboard Boxscore, five acts having made over US$1 billion in touring since 1990 were The Rolling Stones, U2, Bruce Springsteen, Madonna and Bon Jovi. [25]

Global touring revenue reported to Billboard Boxscore exceeded $5.5 billion in 2016. [26] Due to the collapse of record sales in the 21st century, concert tours have become a major income for recording artists. [27] Besides the tickets, touring also generates money from the sales of merchandise and meet-and-greet packages. [28] [29] However, the touring business suffered in the early 2020s due to the COVID-19 pandemic. Pollstar estimated the total lost revenue for the industry in 2020 at more than $30 billion. [30]

Response

The mobility of concert tours requires a lot of costs, time, and energy. British singer Adele expressed her unhappiness of concert tours, saying "Touring is a peculiar thing, it doesn't suit me particularly well. I'm a real homebody and I get so much joy in the small things." [31] A concert residency concept is offered as an alternative to performers who just need to stay in one venue and the fans come to see them. [32] American singer Lady Gaga, who cancelled the 2018 European leg of her Joanne World Tour, signed for a Las Vegas residency to help manage her fibromyalgia illness, which can be exacerbated by touring. [33]

The 2015 study by charity Help Musicians UK found that over 60% of musicians suffered from depression or other psychological issues, with touring an issue for 71% of respondents. [34]

See also

Related Research Articles

Madonna American singer, songwriter, and actress

Madonna Louise Ciccone is an American singer, songwriter, and actress. Referred to as the "Queen of Pop", she is regarded as one of the most influential figures in popular culture. Madonna is noted for her continual reinvention and versatility in music production, songwriting, and visual presentation. She is also known for pushing the boundaries of artistic expression in mainstream music while remaining completely in charge of every aspect of her career. Her works, which incorporate social, political, sexual, and religious themes, have generated both critical acclaim and controversy.

Blond Ambition World Tour 1990 concert tour by Madonna

The Blond Ambition World Tour was the third concert tour by American singer Madonna. It supported her fourth studio album Like a Prayer (1989), and the soundtrack album to the 1990 film Dick Tracy, I'm Breathless. The 57-show tour began on April 13, 1990, in Chiba, Japan, and concluded on August 5, 1990, in Nice, France. Additionally, it marked Madonna's first concerts in Sweden and Spain. Originally planned as the Like a Prayer World Tour, it was supposed to be sponsored by soft drink manufacturer Pepsi. However, the company cancelled the contract following the controversy surrounding the music video of "Like a Prayer".

<i>Drowned World Tour 2001</i> (video) 2001 video by Madonna

Drowned World Tour 2001 is the fifth video album by American singer-songwriter Madonna. It was released on November 13, 2001, by Warner Music Vision, Warner Reprise Video, and Maverick Records to accompany Madonna's second greatest hits album GHV2. The video chronicles a live date from Madonna's Drowned World Tour, which visited Europe and North America, grossing over US $76.8 million in total. It was recorded at The Palace of Auburn Hills in Auburn Hills, Michigan on August 26, 2001 and was originally broadcast live on HBO as Madonna Live! Drowned World Tour 2001.

Confessions Tour 2006 concert tour by Madonna

The Confessions Tour was the seventh concert tour by American singer-songwriter Madonna, launched in support of her tenth studio album, Confessions on a Dance Floor (2005). The tour began in Inglewood on May 21, 2006, and ended in Tokyo on September 21 of the same year. Visiting Eurasia and North America, it marked Madonna's thirteen-year return to Japan and her overall first concerts in Wales, Denmark, Czech Republic and Russia.

All for You Tour

The All for You Tour was the fourth concert tour by American recording artist Janet Jackson, in support of her seventh album All for You (2001). The show was designed by Mark Fisher and Jackson. It was originally scheduled to start in Vancouver, Canada, but due to problems transporting technical equipment across the Canada–United States border, the first show took place in Portland, Oregon. The tour trekked through North America throughout the summer and ended with a final show in Honolulu, Hawaii which was broadcast by HBO.

Lost Highway Tour

The Lost Highway Tour was a worldwide concert tour by American rock band Bon Jovi in support of their 10th studio album, Lost Highway. It took place from October 2007 to July 2008. Originally planned as a 2008 greatest hits tour, the tour was changed to promote Lost Highway after the album's worldwide success, reaching No. 1 in several countries when released in June 2007.

México En La Piel Tour

México En La Piel Tour was a concert tour performed by Luis Miguel in support of his albums México en la Piel and Grandes Éxitos during 2005–2006, and later his album Navidades during 2006–2007. On this tour, Luis Miguel performed his recent pop songs, his newest Mexican songs, and also his back-catalogue. Two press conferences were held to present the album México en la Piel – one in the National Art Museum (MUNAL) of Mexico City and another in Madrid. In late 2006, Luis Miguel presents his album Navidades in New York City.

Sticky & Sweet Tour 2008–2009 concert tour by Madonna

The Sticky & Sweet Tour was the eighth concert tour by American singer Madonna. Staged to promote her eleventh studio album, Hard Candy (2008), it began in August 2008 and was her first tour under a new recording and business deal with Live Nation. The tour was announced in February 2008, with dates for European and North American venues revealed. Though initially planned, the tour did not visit Australia due to financial problems and the financial recession. Costume designer Arianne Phillips designed the costumes, supported by a number of famous designers and brands. The stage for the main show was planned similarly to that of her previous 2006 Confessions Tour. After the tour concluded in 2008, Madonna announced plans of playing a second European leg in 2009 to play in territories she either had never been to or had not played for a long time.

Wrecking Ball World Tour

The Wrecking Ball World Tour was a concert tour by Bruce Springsteen and the E Street Band to promote Springsteen's seventeenth studio album, Wrecking Ball, which was released on March 5, 2012. It was the first tour for the E Street Band without founding member Clarence Clemons, who died on June 18, 2011. The worldwide tour in support of the album, which ended in September 2013, reached 26 countries, the most ever for one of Springsteen's tours. The tour was resumed in January 2014 however this time it was to promote his new album, High Hopes and went under that album's name.

Because We Can (concert tour)

Because We Can was a concert tour by American rock band, Bon Jovi. The tour was in support of the band's twelfth studio album What About Now. The tour was named after the lead single from What About Now. All five major continents were visited during the 2013 tour. The tour saw the band travel to Wales for the first time in 12 years since their 2001 One Wild Night Tour and was also the first time in 18 years since their 1995 These Days Tour that the band returned to Africa for two dates in South Africa. Furthermore, the tour also saw the band travel to Cologne performing in the RheinEnergieStadion also for the first time in 12 years since their 2001 tour, this tour was the first time in the band's 30-year history that they visited Bulgaria and Poland. The tour ranked 1st on Pollstar's annual "Top 100 Mid Year Worldwide Tours". It earned $142.1 million from 60 shows. At the end of 2013, the tour placed 1st on Pollstar's "Top 100 Worldwide Tours", grossing $259.5 million from 102 shows.

The 1989 World Tour 2015 concert tour by Taylor Swift

The 1989 World Tour was the fourth concert tour by American singer-songwriter Taylor Swift, in support of her fifth studio album, 1989 (2014). Swift announced the tour's first dates in North America, Europe, Japan, and Oceania in November and December 2014. She announced additional dates for Singapore and China in June 2015, and a final announcement of the third show in Melbourne was made the following month.

Rebel Heart Tour 2015–16 worldwide concert tour by Madonna

The Rebel Heart Tour was the tenth concert tour by American singer Madonna, staged in support of her 13th studio album, Rebel Heart (2015). Comprising 82 shows, the tour visited North America, Asia, Europe and Oceania. It began on September 9, 2015, in Montreal, Canada, at the Bell Centre and concluded on March 20, 2016, in Sydney, Australia at Allphones Arena. The tour was officially announced on March 1, 2015, through Madonna's website and was led by Live Nation Entertainment's Global Touring Division, helmed by Arthur Fogel; this was the fifth collaboration between Madonna and Live Nation as well as her third tour to be promoted by the company. Additionally, the tour marked the singer's first visits to Taiwan, Thailand, Hong Kong, Macau, Philippines, Singapore, and New Zealand, and was her first to visit Australia since The Girlie Show World Tour (1993).

The Joshua Tree Tours 2017 and 2019 Concert tours by U2 in 2017 and 2019

The Joshua Tree Tour 2017 and The Joshua Tree Tour 2019 were two worldwide concert tours by rock band U2 commemorating the 30th anniversary of their 1987 album The Joshua Tree. The 2017 tour visited stadiums over four legs: North America from May to July and in September, Europe from July to August, and Latin America in October. The 2019 tour visited Oceania and Asia in November and December, marking the band's first ever concerts in South Korea, Singapore, the Philippines, and India. The band played the whole Joshua Tree album during the concerts, which included their first live performances of the song "Red Hill Mining Town". It was the first time the group toured in promotion of an album from their back catalogue, rather than a new release. As part of the tour, U2 headlined the Bonnaroo Music Festival in Manchester, Tennessee, in June 2017.

Taylor Swifts Reputation Stadium Tour 2018 concert tour by Taylor Swift

Taylor Swift's Reputation Stadium Tour was the fifth concert tour and first all-stadium tour by American singer-songwriter Taylor Swift, in support of her sixth studio album Reputation (2017). The tour began on May 8, 2018, in Glendale and concluded on November 21, 2018, in Tokyo, consisting of 53 shows. The tour received 2.55 million attendees and grossed $345.7 million in revenue, becoming Swift's most successful tour to date, the third highest grossing female concert tour of all time, and the highest-grossing concert tour in United States and North American history.

All the Light Above It Too World Tour

The All the Light Above It Too World Tour is a concert tour by American musician Jack Johnson. The tour was set to help Johnson promote his 7th studio album, All the Light Above It Too. On February 9, 2017, the tour was announced with the release of Johnson's song "Fragments", from the film "The Smog of the Sea." The tour's first date was for him to perform at Huntington Bank Pavilion on June 1, 2017. Johnson then announced more tour dates on July 14, 2017 along with the lead single of the album, "My Mind Is for Sale." The South American leg of the tour was later announced when Johnson released his third single from the album, "You Can't Control It." The day before the album was released on September 7, 2017, Johnson announced the Australian Leg of the tour. On December 10, 2017, the European leg of the tour was announced, along with more US dates due to demand.

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