Oricon

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Oricon Inc.
株式会社オリコン
Holding company, owner of Oricon Entertainment Inc. [1]
Traded as JASDAQ:  4800
IndustryBroadcast of music entertainment
FoundedNovember 1967 (as Original Confidence) [1]
October 1, 1999 (as Oricon Direct Digital) [2]
June 2001 (as Oricon Global Entertainment)
July 2002 [2]
Headquarters Roppongi, Minato, Tokyo, Japan
Key people
Ko Koike: CEO
Ownersee List of Oricon's shareholders
Number of employees
198 (full-time workers, as of September 30, 2016) [3]
Parent Oricon Entertainment Inc. (October 1999 – June 2001)
Subsidiaries Oricon Entertainment Inc. (June 2001 – present)
Website Official Site of Oricon Inc.
Official Site of Oricon Charts

Oricon Inc.(株式会社オリコン,Kabushiki-gaisha Orikon), established in 1999, is the holding company at the head of a Japanese corporate group that supplies statistics and information on music and the music industry in Japan. It started as Original Confidence Inc.(株式会社オリジナルコンフィデンス,Kabushiki-gaisha Orijinaru Konfidensu), which was founded by Sōkō Koike in November 1967 and became known for its music charts. [1] Oricon Inc. was originally set up as a subsidiary of Original Confidence and took over the latter’s Oricon record charts in April 2002.

A holding company is a company that owns other companies' outstanding stock. A holding company usually does not produce goods or services itself; rather, its purpose is to own shares of other companies to form a corporate group. Holding companies allow the reduction of risk for the owners and can allow the ownership and control of a number of different companies.

A corporate group or group of companies is a collection of parent and subsidiary corporations that function as a single economic entity through a common source of control. The concept of a group is frequently used in tax law, accounting and company law to attribute the rights and duties of one member of the group to another or the whole. If the corporations are engaged in entirely different businesses, the group is called a conglomerate. The forming of corporate groups usually involves consolidation via mergers and acquisitions, although the group concept focuses on the instances in which the merged and acquired corporate entities remain in existence rather than the instances in which they are dissolved by the parent. The group may be owned by a holding company which may have no actual operations.

Statistics study of the collection, organization, analysis, interpretation, and presentation of data

Statistics is a branch of mathematics dealing with data collection, organization, analysis, interpretation and presentation. In applying statistics to, for example, a scientific, industrial, or social problem, it is conventional to begin with a statistical population or a statistical model process to be studied. Populations can be diverse topics such as "all people living in a country" or "every atom composing a crystal". Statistics deals with every aspect of data, including the planning of data collection in terms of the design of surveys and experiments. See glossary of probability and statistics.

Contents

The charts are compiled from data drawn from some 39,700 retail outlets (as of April 2011) and provide sales rankings of music CDs, DVDs, electronic games, and other entertainment products based on weekly tabulations. [4] Results are announced every Tuesday and published in Oricon Style by subsidiary Oricon Entertainment Inc. The group also lists panel survey-based popularity ratings for television commercials on its official website. [5]

History

Original Confidence Inc., the original Oricon company, was founded by the former Snow Brand Milk Products promoter Sōkō Koike in 1967. That November, the company began publishing a singles chart on an experimental:basis. Entitled Sōgō Geinō Shijō Chōsa(総合芸能市場調査) (it means "surveys of total entertainment markets"), this went official on January 4, 1968.

Snow Brand Milk Products one of the largest dairy companies in Japan

Snow Brand Milk Products Co., Ltd. is one of the largest dairy companies in Japan.

Like the preceding Japanese music charts provided by Tokushin Music Report which was started in 1962, [6] early Original Confidence was an exclusive information magazine only for the people who worked in the music industry. However, in the 1970s, Koike willingly advertised his company's charts to make its existence prevail among the Japanese public. Thanks to his intensive promotional efforts through multiple media including television programs, the hit parade became known by its abbreviation "Oricon" by the late 1970s.

The company shortened its name to Oricon in 1992 and was split into a holding company and several subsidiaries in 1999. Since Sōkō Koike's death, Oricon has been managed by the founder's relatives. In 2004, Hirakawachi 1-chome made Oricon history by reaching the 7th spot, making their debut, Enpitsu de tsukuru uta, the youngest J-pop male artists' album charted in the top 10.

J-pop, natively also known simply as pops, is a musical genre that entered the musical mainstream of Japan in the 1990s. Modern J-pop has its roots in traditional Japanese music, but significantly in 1960s pop and rock music, such as The Beatles and The Beach Boys, which led to Japanese rock bands such as Happy End fusing rock with Japanese music in the early 1970s. J-pop was further defined by new wave groups in the late 1970s, particularly electronic synth-pop band Yellow Magic Orchestra and pop rock band Southern All Stars.

Policy

Oricon monitors and reports on sales of CDs, DVDs, video games, and entertainment content in several other formats; manga and book sales were also formerly covered. Charts are published every Tuesday in Oricon Style and on Oricon’s official website. Every Monday, Oricon receives data from outlets, but data on merchandise sold through certain channels does not make it into the charts. For example, the debut single of NEWS, a pop group, was released only through 7-Eleven stores, which are not covered by Oricon, and its sales were not reflected in the Oricon charts. Oricon’s rankings of record sales are therefore not completely accurate. Before data was collected electronically, the charts were compiled on the basis of faxes that were sent from record shops.

7-Eleven Inc. is a Japanese-owned American international chain of convenience stores, headquartered in Dallas, Texas. The chain was known as Tote'm Stores until it was renamed in 1946. Its parent company since 2005, Seven-Eleven Japan Co., Ltd., operates, franchises, and licenses 67,480 stores in 17 countries as of December 2018. Seven-Eleven Japan is headquartered in Chiyoda, Tokyo and held by Seven & I Holdings Co., Ltd.. The most recent franchise agreement gives up to 59% of a franchise's gross profit to the company.

Controversy

In 2006, Oricon sued journalist Hiro Ugaya when he was quoted in a Saizo (or Cyso) magazine article as suggesting that Oricon was manipulating its statistics to benefit certain management companies and labels, specifically Johnny and Associates. Ugaya condemned the lawsuit as an example of a strategic lawsuit against public participation (SLAPP) in Japan. [7] The lawsuit, filed by Oricon on November 17, 2006, accused Ugaya of “mendacious comments” and demanded 50 million yen (318,000 euros) in damages. In the interview, Ugaya questioned the validity of Oricon’s hit chart on the grounds that its statistical methods were not transparent. Many NGOs, including Reporters Without Borders, denounced the lawsuit as a violation of free expression. A Tokyo District Court initially ordered Ugaya to pay 1 million yen (7,400 euros) in damages, but Ugaya appealed to the Tokyo high court. Oricon later dropped the charges, after a 33-month battle that laid waste to the reporter's life.[ citation needed ] No charge was laid against the journalist.

Oricon’s decision to drop the action is extremely unusual in Japan. According to Japanese supreme court figures, only 0.1 per cent of the cases closed in 2007 were terminated as a result of the plaintiff’s decision to abandon the claim. [8]

Shareholders

(as of March 31, 2012)

Charts

Current charts

Past charts

Artists' total sales revenue by year

YearArtist
1974 Yōsui Inoue [12]
1975
1976 Yumi Arai [13]
1977 Pink Lady [14] [15]
1978
1979 Alice [16]
1980 Yellow Magic Orchestra [17]
1981 Akira Terao [18]
1982 Off Course [19]
1983 Akina Nakamori [20]
1984 Seiko Matsuda [21]
1985Akina Nakamori [22] [23] [24]
1986
1987
1988 Hikaru Genji [25]
1989 Yumi Matsutoya
1990 Southern All Stars
1991 B'z
1992 CHAGE and ASKA
1993 ZARD
1994 TRF
1995
1996 Namie Amuro [26]
1997 GLAY [27] [28]
1998B'z [28] [29]
1999 Hikaru Utada [30] [31]
2000 Ayumi Hamasaki [32] [33] [33] [34]
2001
2002Hikaru Utada [31] [35]
2003Ayumi Hamasaki [36] [37]
2004Hikaru Utada [38] [39]
2005 ORANGE RANGE [40] [41]
2006 Kumi Koda [42] [43] [44] [45]
2007
2008 EXILE [46] [47]
2009 Arashi [12] [48] [49]
2010
2011 AKB48 [50] [51]
2012
2013 Arashi [52] [53] [54] [55] [56]
2014
2015
2016
2017
2018Namie Amuro [57]

See also

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References

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