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|Founded||28 February 1936|
|Blaise Fernandes, President & CEO|
The Indian Music Industry (IMI) is a trust that represents the recording industry distributors in India. It was founded on February 28, 1936 as Indian Phonographic Industry (IPI). It is the 2nd oldest music industry organization in the world that was involved in protecting copyrights of music producers and supporting growth of music entertainment industry. In 1994, it was renamed as Indian Music Industry (IMI) and represented India at the International Federation of the Phonographic Industry (IFPI). It is also registered with the West Bengal Societies Registration Act. All major music labels in India are part of this association. Record companies like Saregama India Ltd. (HMV), Universal Music (India), Tips Industries Limited, Venus, Sony Music Entertainment (India), Crescendo, Virgin Records, Magnasound, Milestone, Times Music and several other prominent national and regional labels are part of the IMI. The IMI represents over 75% of all legal music sales in India.
India, official name, the Republic of India,, is a country in South Asia. It is the seventh-largest country by area, the second-most populous country, and the most populous democracy in the world. Bounded by the Indian Ocean on the south, the Arabian Sea on the southwest, and the Bay of Bengal on the southeast, it shares land borders with Pakistan to the west; China, Nepal, and Bhutan to the north; and Bangladesh and Myanmar to the east. In the Indian Ocean, India is in the vicinity of Sri Lanka and the Maldives; its Andaman and Nicobar Islands share a maritime border with Thailand and Indonesia.
The music industry consists of the companies and individuals that earn money by creating new songs and pieces and selling live concerts and shows, audio and video recordings, compositions and sheet music, and the organizations and associations that aid and represent music creators. Among the many individuals and organizations that operate in the industry are: the songwriters and composers who create new songs and musical pieces; the singers, musicians, conductors and bandleaders who perform the music; the companies and professionals who create and sell recorded music and/or sheet music ; and those that help organize and present live music performances.
Copyright is the exclusive and assignable legal right, given to the creator of a literary or artistic work, to reproduce the work, usually for a limited time. This right is not absolute but subject to limitations such as fair use. Copyright only protects only the original expression of ideas, and not the underlying ideas themselves.
IMI has its registered office in Kolkata and Administrative office in Mumbai. It also has offices in New Delhi, Chennai, Bangalore and other major Indian cities working on the protection of rights of music producers and preventing music piracy. It has also been instrumental in launching the IMMIES music awards in collaboration with MTV.
Kolkata is the capital of the Indian state of West Bengal. Located on the east bank of the Hooghly River approximately 80 kilometres (50 mi) west of the border with Bangladesh, it is the principal commercial, cultural, and educational centre of East India, while the Port of Kolkata is India's oldest operating port and its sole major riverine port. The city is widely regarded as the "cultural capital" of India, and is also nicknamed the "City of Joy". According to the 2011 Indian census, it is the seventh most populous city; the city had a population of 4.5 million, while the suburb population brought the total to 14.1 million, making it the third-most populous metropolitan area in India. Recent estimates of Kolkata Metropolitan Area's economy have ranged from $60 to $150 billion making it third most-productive metropolitan area in India, after Mumbai and Delhi.
Mumbai is the capital city of the Indian state of Maharashtra. As of 2011 it is the most populous city in India with an estimated city proper population of 12.4 million. The larger Mumbai Metropolitan Region is the second-most-populous metropolitan area in India, with a population of 21.3 million as of 2016. Mumbai lies on the Konkan coast on the west coast of India and has a deep natural harbour. In 2008, Mumbai was named an alpha world city. It is also the wealthiest city in India, and has the highest number of millionaires and billionaires among all cities in India. Mumbai is home to three UNESCO World Heritage Sites: the Elephanta Caves, Chhatrapati Shivaji Maharaj Terminus, and the city's distinctive ensemble of Victorian and Art Deco buildings.
New Delhi is an urban district of Delhi which serves as the capital of India and seat of all three branches of the Government of India.
The Indian music industry is largely dominated by Indian film soundtracks, which account for nearly 80% of the country's music revenue, followed by Indi-pop. million Indians use music streaming services such as YouTube, Hungama, Gaana and Saavn. T-Series has the world's most-subscribed and most-viewed YouTube channel.As of 2014, the largest Indian music record label is T-Series with up to 35% share of the Indian market, followed by Sony Music India (the largest foreign-owned label) with up to 25% share, and then Zee Music (which has a partnership with Sony). As of 2017, 216
A record label, or record company, is a brand or trademark associated with the marketing of music recordings and music videos. Sometimes, a record label is also a publishing company that manages such brands and trademarks, coordinates the production, manufacture, distribution, marketing, promotion, and enforcement of copyright for sound recordings and music videos, while also conducting talent scouting and development of new artists, and maintaining contracts with recording artists and their managers. The term "record label" derives from the circular label in the center of a vinyl record which prominently displays the manufacturer's name, along with other information. Within the mainstream music industry, recording artists have traditionally been reliant upon record labels to broaden their consumer base, market their albums, and be both promoted and heard on music streaming services, radio, and television. Record labels also provide publicists, who assist performers in gaining positive media coverage, and arrange for their merchandise to be available via stores and other media outlets.
Super Cassettes Industries Private Limited, doing business as T-Series, is a music record label and film production company in India founded by Gulshan Kumar in 1983. It is primarily known for Bollywood music soundtracks and Indi-pop music. As of 2014, T-Series is India's largest music record label, with up to a 35% share of the Indian music market, followed by Sony Music India and Zee Music. T-Series also owns and operates the most-viewed and most-subscribed channel on YouTube, with over 105 million subscribers and 76 billion views as of July 2019. While best known as a music label, T-Series has also had some moderate success as a film production company.
Sony Music Entertainment India is the predominant record label operated by Sony in India. The company began operation in 1997, and it was the first record company in India to be 100% foreign-owned, with Sony being a Japanese corporation. Since December 2013, the company distributes Warner Music Group releases for Indian and SAARC market. Sony Music India is the largest foreign-owned music label in India, and the country's second largest record label overall with up to 25% share of the Indian music market, after the local Indian label T-Series, and ahead of Zee Music which Sony has a partnership with.
The industry was dominated by cassette tapes in the 1980s and 1990s. million units, including both legitimate and pirate sales. This made it the world's second largest cassette market, after the United States. By 1998, the industry had annual earnings of ₹12 billion ($291 million).In 1990, India had annual cassette sales of 180
In the early 2000s, 49 million cassettes (including 16 million pirate tapes) were sold every month. Later in the 2000s, the industry transitioned to online streaming, bypassing CD and digital downloads.
Digital distribution is the delivery or distribution of digital media content such as audio, video, software and video games. The term is generally used to describe distribution over an online delivery medium, such as the Internet, thus bypassing physical distribution methods, such as paper, optical discs, and VHS videocassettes. The term online distribution is typically applied to freestanding products; downloadable add-ons for other products are more commonly known as downloadable content. With the advancement of network bandwidth capabilities, online distribution became prominent in the 21st century, with prominent platforms such as Amazon Video, and Netflix's streaming service starting in 2007.
The Indian Music Industry has constituted different, prestigious awards to encourage and promote music. The approved scheme of gold/platinum disc standards effective for sound recordings of member companies released in one calendar year is as below:
Indian Music Industry does not maintain official music charts. Since 2010, newspaper The Times of India and radio channel Radio Mirchi, both owned by the Times Group, have maintained charts of various songs by category. For the album charts the industry considers the sales according to iTunes. For individual songs, there are various other charts such as provided by Saavn and Nokia MixRadio
The Times of India (TOI) is an Indian English-language daily newspaper owned by The Times Group. It is the third-largest newspaper in India by circulation and largest selling English-language daily in the world according to Audit Bureau of Circulations (India). It is the oldest English-language newspaper in India still in circulation, albeit under different names since its first edition published in 1838. It is also the second-oldest Indian newspaper still in circulation after the Bombay Samachar.
Radio Mirchi is a nationwide network of private FM radio stations in India. It is owned by the EntertainmentNetwork India Ltd (ENIL), which is one of the subsidiaries of The Times Group. mirchi is Hindi for Red Chilli. The tagline of Radio Mirchi is "Mirchi Sunnewaale Always Khush!".
iTunes is a media player, media library, Internet radio broadcaster, and mobile device management application developed by Apple Inc. It was announced on January 9, 2001. It is used to play, download, and organize digital multimedia files, including music and video, on personal computers running the macOS and Windows operating systems. Content must be purchased through the iTunes Store, whereas iTunes is the software letting users manage their purchases.
|Chart Name||Type||Number of songs/albums||Category||ref|
|"Mirchi Top 20"||songs||20||Bollywood|
|"Angrezi Top 20"||songs||20||International|
|"Tamil Top 20"||songs||20||Regional|
|"Kannada Top 20"||songs||20||Regional|
|"Telugu Top 20"||songs||20||Regional|
|"Malayalam Top 20"||songs||20||Regional|
|"Bengali Top 20"||songs||20||Regional|
India has separate scales for music recording certifications. Certifications are usually based on sales, like some other Asian countries. Like many other Asian countries, domestic repertoire accounts for the majority of the Indian music market. Like many other countries, sales requirements of music recording in India reduced due to music piracy, declining sales, and the rise of online streaming.
The following are the current certification levels, as of 2019.
Single and album units are measured in terms of Track Equivalent (TE) and Album Equivalent (AE) units, respectively, which are equivalent to the following media units.
|Media unit(s)||Track Equivalent (TE)||Album Equivalent (AE)|
|Digital track download(s)||1||10|
|Digital album download||N/A||1|
|Physical album sale||N/A||1|
|CRBT (caller ring-back tones) (30 days[ clarification needed ])||2||20|
Prior to the inclusion of music streaming in IMI certifications, the following certification levels were in use between 2007and 2013.
The following certification levels were in use between 2000and 2007.
The following certification levels were in use up until 2000.
|1||1983||Young Tarang||Zoheb Hassan, Biddu||Nazia Hassan, Zoheb Hassan, Sehba Akhtar, Amit Khanna||Nazia Hassan, Zoheb Hassan||40,000,000|
|2||1990||Aashiqui||Nadeem–Shravan||Sameer, Madan Pal, Rani Malik||Kumar Sanu, Anuradha Paudwal, Udit Narayan, Nitin Mukesh||20,000,000|
|1995||Bolo Ta Ra Ra..||Jawahar Wattal||Daler Mehndi||Daler Mehndi||20,000,000|
|Dilwale Dulhania Le Jayenge||Jatin–Lalit||Anand Bakshi||Lata Mangeshkar, Kumar Sanu, Udit Narayan, Asha Bhosle, Abhijeet, Manpreet Kaur, Pamela Chopra||20,000,000|
|5||1995||Billo De Ghar||Abrar-ul-Haq||Abrar-ul-Haq||Abrar-ul-Haq||16,000,000|
|6||1995||Bombay||A. R. Rahman||Vairamuthu, Mehboob, Veturi Sundararama Murthy||A. R. Rahman, Remo Fernandes, Suresh Peters, Swarnalatha, K. S. Chithra, Hariharan, Kavita Krishnamurthy, Udit Narayan, Annupamaa||15,000,000|
|7||1981||Disco Deewane||Zoheb Hassan, Biddu||Nazia Hassan, Zoheb Hassan, Anwar Khalid, Faruq Qaiser||Nazia Hassan, Zoheb Hassan||14,000,000|
|8||1997||Dil Toh Pagal Hai||Uttam Singh||Anand Bakshi||Lata Mangeshkar, Kumar Sanu, Udit Narayan, Asha Bhosle, Hariharan||12,500,000|
|9||1994||Hum Aapke Hain Kaun||Raamlaxman||Ravinder Rawal, Dev Kohli||Lata Mangeshkar, Kumar Sanu, S. P. Balasubramanyam, Udit Narayan, Sharda Sinha, Shailendra Singh||12,000,000|
|10||1996||Raja Hindustani||Nadeem–Shravan||Sameer||Kumar Sanu, Udit Narayan, Alka Yagnik, Suresh Wadkar, Sapna Awasthi, Alisha Chinai, Sapna Mukheree, Bela Salukhe||11,000,000|
|1930s||1939||Aadmi||Master Krishnarao||Munsi Aziz||Shanta Hublikar, Ram Marathe, Sundara Bai, Shahu Modhak||—||[ citation needed ]|
|1940s||1949||Barsaat||Shankar Jaikishan||Hasrat Jaipuri, Shailendra, Ramesh Shashtri, Akhilesh, Jalal Malahabadi||Lata Mangeshkar, Mohammed Rafi, Mukesh||—||[ citation needed ]|
|1950s||1951||Awaara||Shankar Jaikishan||Shailendra, Hasrat Jaipuri||Shamshad Begum, Mukesh, Lata Mangeshkar, Manna Dey, Mohammed Rafi||—|
|1960s||1964||Sangam||Shankar Jaikishan||Shailendra, Hasrat Jaipuri||Vyjayanthimala, Mukesh, Lata Mangeshkar, Mahendra Kapoor, Mohammed Rafi||—|
|1970s||1973||Bobby||Laxmikant–Pyarelal||Anand Bakshi, Vitthalbhai Patel||Lata Mangeshkar, Narendra Chanchal, Shailendra Singh, Manna Dey||1,000,000|
|1975||Sholay||R. D. Burman||Anand Bakshi, Salim-Javed||Kishore Kumar, Manna Dey, Lata Mangeshkar, Hema Malini, R. D. Burman||1,000,000|
|1980s||1983||Young Tarang||Zoheb Hassan, Biddu||Nazia Hassan, Zoheb Hassan, Sehba Akhtar, Amit Khanna||Nazia Hassan, Zoheb Hassan||40,000,000|
|1990s||1990||Aashiqui||Nadeem–Shravan||Sameer, Madan Pal, Rani Malik||Kumar Sanu, Anuradha Paudwal, Udit Narayan, Nitin Mukesh||20,000,000|
|1995||Bolo Ta Ra Ra..||Jawahar Wattal||Daler Mehndi||Daler Mehndi||20,000,000|
|Dilwale Dulhania Le Jayenge||Jatin–Lalit||Anand Bakshi||Lata Mangeshkar, Kumar Sanu, Udit Narayan, Asha Bhosle, Abhijeet, Manpreet Kaur, Pamela Chopra||20,000,000|
|2000s||2000||Mohabbatein||Jatin–Lalit||Anand Bakshi||Lata Mangeshkar, Udit Narayan, Shweta Pandit, Sonali Bhatawdekar, Ishaan||5,000,000|
|2010s||2010||Komaram Puli||A. R. Rahman||Chandrabose||A. R. Rahman, Vijay Prakash, Tanvi Shah, Shweta Mohan, Javed Ali, Shreya Ghoshal||760,000|
In the United States, the Recording Industry Association of America (RIAA) awards certification based on the number of albums and singles sold through retail and other ancillary markets. Other countries have similar awards. Certification is not automatic; for an award to be made, the record label must request certification. The audit is conducted against net shipments after returns, which includes albums sold directly to retailers and one-stops, direct-to-consumer sales and other outlets.
Music recording certification is a system of certifying that a music recording has shipped, sold, or streamed a certain number of units. The threshold quantity varies by type and by nation or territory.
Indian pop music, also known as Indi-pop, Indipop, I-pop, Hindi-pop, or Hindipop, refers to pop music produced in India that is independent from filmi soundtracks for Indian cinema, such as the music of Bollywood, which tends to be more popular. Indian pop is closely linked to Bollywood, Pakistani pop, Bangladeshi rock, and the Asian Underground scene of the United Kingdom.
American singer-songwriter Mariah Carey has released fifteen studio albums, one live album, three compilation albums, four greatest hits albums, one extended play, and one remix album. Carey is one of the best-selling music artists of all-time, having sold over 200 million records globally. She was presented with the Millennium Award at the 2000 World Music Awards for becoming the best-selling female artist of the millennium. According to the RIAA, she is the third best-selling female artist and sixteenth overall recording artist with shipments of 64 million albums in the US. She is also ranked as the best-selling female artist of the US Nielsen SoundScan era with album sales of 55.2 million. Her albums Mariah Carey, Music Box, Daydream, and The Emancipation of Mimi are among the top 100 certified albums according to the RIAA.
Nazia and Zoheb were a Pakistani pop duo from Karachi, Sindh formed in 1980. The group consisted of two siblings, Nazia Hassan and Zoheb Hassan, who were a singing sensation and pop icons in South Asia, Pakistan, India, Southeast Asia, and South America. They are regarded as pioneers of the Pakistani pop and Indi-pop scenes, and were one of the most successful Asian pop duos of all time, selling more than 65 million albums worldwide.
The Recording Industry Association of Japan (RIAJ) is an industry trade group composed of Japanese corporations involved in the music industry. It was founded in 1942 as the Japan Phonogram Record Cultural Association, and adopted its current name in 1969.
Biddu Appaiah is an Indian-born, England-based singer-songwriter, composer, and music producer – who composed and produced many worldwide hit records during a career spanning five decades. Considered one of the pioneers of disco, Euro disco, and Indian pop, he has sold millions of records worldwide, and has received Grammy and Ivor Novello awards for his work. He has been ranked at number 34 on NME 's "The 50 Greatest Producers Ever" list.
Qurbani is a 1980 Indian Hindi action film. It was produced and directed by Feroz Khan. The film stars Feroz Khan, Vinod Khanna, Zeenat Aman, Amjad Khan, Shakti Kapoor, Aruna Irani, Amrish Puri and Kadar Khan. It is an adaptation of the 1972 Italian film The Master Touch. Qurbani was famous for the Bollywood disco song "Aap Jaisa Koi", sung by Pakistani popstar Nazia Hassan and produced by Biddu.
Bollywood songs, more formally known as Hindi film songs or filmi songs, are songs featured in Bollywood films. Derived from the song-and-dance routines common in Indian films, Bollywood songs, along with dance, are a characteristic motif of Hindi cinema which gives it enduring popular appeal, cultural value and context. Hindi film songs form a predominant component of Indian pop music, and derive their inspiration from both classical and modern sources. Hindi film songs are now firmly embedded in North India's popular culture and routinely encountered in North India in marketplaces, shops, during bus and train journeys and numerous other situations. Though Hindi films routinely contain many songs and some dance routines, they are not musicals in the Western theatrical sense; the music-song-dance aspect is an integral feature of the genre akin to plot, dialogue and other parameters.
Nazia Hassan was a Pakistani pop singer-songwriter, lawyer and social activist. She started her music career at the age of 10, and became one of the most prominent singers in Pakistan and India. She enjoyed widespread popularity across South and Southeast Asia and has been called the "Queen of Pop" in South Asia. She, along with her brother Zoheb Hassan, went on to sell over 65 million records worldwide. Her English language single Dreamer Deewane made her the first Pakistani singer to make it to the British charts. In the middle of her successful singing career, Hassan earned degrees in economics and law at two prestigious London schools, Richmond, The American International University and the University of London.
Number Ones is a video album by American recording artist Michael Jackson. It was released on DVD on November 13, 2003 under the Epic Records record label, in conjunction with the promotion for Jackson's greatest hits album, of the same name. The DVD, which is Jackson's fourth DVD album, contained fifteen music videos, which were directed and produced by various people. It consists of music videos filmed and released by Jackson from 1979's Off the Wall to 2001's Invincible. As with the album, the DVD has four different covers.
Disco Deewane is a 1981 Indian pop–disco album by the Indian producer and composer Biddu sung by Pakistani duo Nazia and Zoheb, consisting of Nazia Hassan and her brother Zoheb Hassan. The music was mostly composed by Indian producer Biddu. It charted in fourteen countries worldwide and became the best-selling Asian pop record to-date. It changed trends in music across South Asia, where it broke sales records. In India, it sold 100,000 records within a day of its release in Mumbai alone, went Platinum within three weeks, and went Double-Platinum soon after. Disco Deewane went on to sell 14 million units worldwide.
Star/Boom Boom is the second music album of Pakistani pop brother-sister duo Nazia and Zoheb, released in 1982. The Bollywood film Star used the album's music as its soundtrack. The album was thus also released as Star, a Bollywood music soundtrack album. The album featured music composed by Indian producer Biddu.
Top Latin Albums is a record chart published by Billboard magazine and is labeled as the most important music chart for Spanish language, full-length albums in the American music market. Like all Billboard album charts, the chart is based on sales. Nielsen SoundScan compiles the sales data from merchants representing more than 90 percent of the U.S. music retail market. The sample includes sales at music stores, the music departments of electronics and department stores, direct-to-consumer transactions, and Internet sales of physical albums or digital downloads. A limited array of verifiable sales from concert venues is also tabulated. To rank on this chart, an album must have 51% or more of its content recorded in Spanish. Listings of Top Latin Albums are also shown on Telemundo's music page through a partnership between the two companies. Before this, the first chart regarding latin music albums in the magazine was published on December 30, 1972 issue. Then, all Latin music information was featured on the Latin Pop Albums chart, which began on June 29, 1985, and is still running along with the Regional Mexican Albums and Tropical Albums chart. The Latin Pop Albums chart features music only from the pop genre, while the Regional Mexican Albums chart includes information from different genres like duranguense, norteño, banda and mariachi, and the Tropical Albums includes different genres particularly salsa, merengue, bachata, and cumbia. In 2005, another chart; Latin Rhythm Albums was introduced in response to growing number of airplays from reggaeton. On the week ending January 31, 2017, Billboard updated the methodology to compile the Top Latin Albums chart into a multi-metric methodology to include track equivalent album units and streaming equivalent albums units.
Anirudh Ravichander is an Indian film composer and singer, who primarily works in Tamil. At 21, he made his debut in the Tamil industry. His debut song, "Why This Kolaveri Di", composed for the 2012 film 3, went viral across the globe, etching more than 175 million views on YouTube. He then went on to compose numerous hits and became one of the popular composers in South India.
Sholay' is stilt going strong. Polydor records has won a platinum disc for the sale of the 'Sholay' record