International Federation of the Phonographic Industry

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International Federation of the Phonographic Industry
AbbreviationIFPI
MottoRepresenting the recording industry worldwide
Formation1933
Headquarters7 Air Street Piccadilly, London, United Kingdom
Chief executive
Frances Moore
Main organ
Main board of directors
Website ifpi.org

The International Federation of the Phonographic Industry (IFPI) is the organisation that represents the interests of the recording industry worldwide. It is a non-profit members' organisation registered in Switzerland and founded in Italy in 1933. It operates a Secretariat based in London, with regional offices in Brussels, Hong Kong, and Miami.

The secretariat of an organization is the department that fulfils its central administrative or general secretary duties. The term is especially associated with governments and intergovernmental organizations such as the United Nations, although some non-governmental organizations also refer to their administrative department as their secretariat. The building or office complex that houses such a department may also be referred to as its secretariat or secretariat building.

Brussels Capital region of Belgium

Brussels, officially the Brussels-Capital Region, is a region of Belgium comprising 19 municipalities, including the City of Brussels, which is the capital of Belgium. The Brussels-Capital Region is located in the central portion of the country and is a part of both the French Community of Belgium and the Flemish Community, but is separate from the Flemish Region and the Walloon Region. Brussels is the most densely populated and the richest region in Belgium in terms of GDP per capita. It covers 161 km2 (62 sq mi), a relatively small area compared to the two other regions, and has a population of 1.2 million. The metropolitan area of Brussels counts over 2.1 million people, which makes it the largest in Belgium. It is also part of a large conurbation extending towards Ghent, Antwerp, Leuven and Walloon Brabant, home to over 5 million people.

Hong Kong East Asian city

Hong Kong, officially the Hong Kong Special Administrative Region of the People's Republic of China, is a special administrative region on the eastern side of the Pearl River estuary in southern China. With over 7.4 million people of various nationalities in a 1,104-square-kilometre (426 sq mi) territory, Hong Kong is one of the most densely populated places in the world.

Contents

Function

It states its mission is to promote the value of recorded music, safeguard the rights of record producers, and expand the commercial uses of recorded music. [1] Its services to members include legal policy advice (lobbying), copyright enforcement, litigation and regulatory affairs, market research, and communications support.

Structure

The IFPI appointed Frances Moore the chief executive with a term effective from 1 July 2010. [2] She replaced John Kennedy OBE, who had headed the organisation since 2005 and was also one of the co-producers of Live Aid and Live8. [3]

John Kennedy is a British entertainment lawyer whose career has been largely in the record industry.

Live Aid 1985 benefit concert

Live Aid was a dual-venue benefit concert held on Saturday 13 July 1985, and an ongoing music-based fundraising initiative. The original event was organised by Bob Geldof and Midge Ure to raise funds for relief of the ongoing Ethiopian famine. Billed as the "global jukebox", the event was held simultaneously at Wembley Stadium in London, England, United Kingdom and John F. Kennedy Stadium in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, United States.

The IFPI is currently based in Piccadilly in the City of Westminster in London, England.

City of Westminster City and borough in London

The City of Westminster is an Inner London borough that also holds city status. It occupies much of the central area of Greater London including most of the West End. Historically in Middlesex, it is to the west of the ancient City of London, directly to the east of the Royal Borough of Kensington and Chelsea, and its southern boundary is the River Thames. The London borough was created with the 1965 establishment of Greater London. Upon its creation, it inherited the city status previously held by the smaller Metropolitan Borough of Westminster from 1900, which was first awarded to Westminster in 1540.

Scope of influence

IFPI represents the recording industry worldwide with some 1,400 members in 66 countries and affiliated industry associations in 45 countries. [1] According to the IFPI, "any company, firm or person producing sound recordings or music videos which are made available to the public in reasonable quantities is eligible for membership of IFPI", [1] though the company does not specify what "reasonable quantities" actually means.

National groups and affiliate bodies include SNEP in France, Bundesverband Musikindustrie in Germany, RIAJ in Japan, BPI in the UK and RIAA in the US. Although recognised as an "affiliated group", the RIAA on its own website specifically notes that IFPI administers programs "for a number of countries, excluding the United States". [4] Record labels can be members of both their local industry body and IFPI.

British Phonographic Industry Trade association of the recorded music industry in the United Kingdom

The BPI Limited, commonly known as the British Phonographic Industry or BPI, is the British recorded music industry's trade association.

History

Members of the international phonographic industry formed the IFPI at the industry's first international congress in Rome, Italy, held from 10–14 November 1933 [5] and registered its head office in Zurich, Switzerland. [6] The IFPI described its mission as representing "the interests of the recording industry worldwide in all fora" [7] by promoting legislation and copyrights [8] and "to protect the largely British-based recording industry" by promoting a global performance right in gramophone sound recordings. [9]

Phonogram copyrights established

The IFPI lobbied at the Rome Convention for the Protection of Performers, Producers of Phonograms and Broadcasting Organisations of 1961, which established an international standard for the protection of sound recordings, live performances and broadcasts. This Convention was opposed by trade groups representing authors and composers, who were concerned that establishing such "neighbouring rights" would undermine their own control over how their works were used and would result in prohibitively expensive licensing. [10] Pressure from United States-based broadcasters who didn't want to license the records they broadcast, among other factors, kept the United States from signing the Convention; the United States would not recognise a separate sound recording copyright until 1971. [11]

Phonogram copy protection efforts

In an effort to combat copyright violation, in 1971, the IFPI advocated for the Convention for the Protection of Producers of Phonograms Against Unauthorized Duplication of Their Phonograms (the Geneva Phonograms Convention), which 72 countries signed. [12]

In 1986, the ISO established the International Standard Recording Code (ISRC) standard, ISO 3901. In 1989, the IFPI was designated the registration authority for ISRC codes. ISRC codes "enable the use of copyright protected recordings and works to be controlled; facilitate the distribution and collection of royalties (performances, private copying); and assist in the fight against piracy". [13]

To further combat infringement of recorded works, the IFPI and the compact disc manufacturing industry introduced Source Identification (SID) codes in 1994. The SID codes are markings on optical discs such as compact discs (CD) and digital versatile discs (DVD) that identify the manufacturer, equipment, and master discs used to create each disc. There are two codes: the SID mastering code and the SID mould code. The SID mastering code identifies the manufacturing facility used to produce a master from which moulds are produced. The SID mould code identifies the plant where the disc was moulded (replicated). Since not all optical disc manufacturing facilities have the ability to both produce master discs and replicate discs, the SID mastering code and SID mould code on a given optical disc may or may not represent the same manufacturing facility. [14] :3,4

SID codes follow a standard format consisting of the letters "IFPI" followed by four or five hexadecimal digits. A number prefaced with "L" is a "mastering code", a serial number taken from a pool assigned by Philips to the manufacturer. The mastering code identifies the Laser Beam Recorder (LBR) signal processor or mould that produced a particular stamper or a glass master disc from which moulds are produced. Non-"L" numbers are "mould codes", which identify the manufacturer that replicated the disc. Phillips assigns the first 2 or 3 digits of the mould code and the remaining digits are a serial number assigned by that plant to its moulds. [14] :4,7

The Pirate Bay incidents

In mid-October 2007, after the IFPI let the ifpi.com domain registration lapse, ownership of the ifpi.com domain was transferred to The Pirate Bay, a group which claimed it received the domain from an anonymous donor. [15] The group set up a Website under the domain titled "International Federation of Pirates Interests", a replacement backronym for IFPI. Ownership of the domain was returned to the IFPI in late November, when a WIPO arbitration panel concluded that "the Disputed Domain Name is identical or confusingly similar to a trademark in which the [IFPI] has rights" and that the Pirate Bay's representative "registered and [was] using the Disputed Domain Name in bad faith" and failed to adequately rebut the IFPI's contention that he "has no rights or a legitimate interest in the Disputed Domain Name". [16] The organisation's website www.ifpi.org was unaffected during the dispute.

In a separate incident, on 18 February 2009, the Swedish ifpi.se domain was hacked by The Pirate Bay supporter(s). This occurred on the third day of the trial of the Pirate Bay founders in Sweden. The site was replaced with a short message directed at the Prosecutor Håkan Roswall and plaintiffs ("Warner Brothers etc"). It was signed "The New Generation". [17] Peter Sunde of Pirate Bay made an appeal on Twitter requesting that the hackers stop this defacement. [18]

On 19 April 2009, after the announcement of an unfavorable Swedish court decision against The Pirate Bay, the ifpi.org and ifpi.se domains were reportedly subjected to a DDoS attack. The British technology news and opinion website The Register and the copyright, file sharing and digital rights focused news site TorrentFreak speculated that the attacks were perpetrated by Pirate Bay supporters. [19] [20] [ citation needed ]

Record sales certification

The IFPI awards two album sales certifications, the IFPI Platinum Europe Awards and the IFPI Middle East Awards.

The IFPI Platinum Europe Awards were founded in 1996. [21] They are awarded for actual retail sales (as opposed to shipments) of one million albums, in one of the following countries: Austria, Belgium, Bulgaria, Czech Republic, Denmark, Finland, France, Germany, Greece, Hungary, Iceland, Ireland, Italy, Luxembourg, Netherlands, Norway, Poland, Portugal, Russia, Serbia, Slovakia, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland, Turkey and United Kingdom. [22] An archive of past winners is available online. [21]

The IFPI Middle East Awards were established in October 2009. [21] They are awarded for sales in either Lebanon or the Gulf Cooperation Council (GCC) countries, namely Bahrain, Kuwait, Oman, Qatar, Saudi Arabia and the United Arab Emirates. in the GCC, Gold certificate is awarded for sales of 3,000 units and Platinum for sales of 6,000 units. In Lebanon, Gold certificate is awarded for sales of 1,000 units and Platinum for sales of 2,000 units. [23] An archive of past winners through 2010 is also available online. [21]

See also

Related Research Articles

Music recording certification System of certifying that a music recording has shipped, sold, or streamed a certain number of units

Music recording certification is a system of certifying that a music recording has shipped, sold, or streamed a certain number of units. The threshold quantity varies by type and by nation or territory.

A trade association, also known as an industry trade group, business association, sector association or industry body, is an organization founded and funded by businesses that operate in a specific industry. An industry trade association participates in public relations activities such as advertising, education, political donations, lobbying and publishing, but its focus is collaboration between companies. Associations may offer other services, such as producing conferences, networking or charitable events or offering classes or educational materials. Many associations are non-profit organizations governed by bylaws and directed by officers who are also members.

The International Standard Recording Code (ISRC) is an international standard code for uniquely identifying sound recordings and music video recordings. The code was developed by the recording industry in conjunction with the ISO technical committee 46, subcommittee 9, which codified the standard as ISO 3901 in 1986, and updated it in 2001.

Philippine Association of the Record Industry organization

The Philippine Association of the Record Industry is a non-profit and private trade organization, that represents the recording industry distributors in the Philippines.

The sound recording copyright symbol, represented by the graphic symbol ℗, is the copyright symbol used to provide notice of copyright in a sound recording (phonogram) embodied in a phonorecord. Present in Europe since at least the mid-1960s, the use of the symbol in United States copyright law after 1971 was codified at 17 U.S.C. § 402 and is specified internationally in the Convention for the Protection of Producers of Phonograms Against Unauthorized Duplication of Their Phonograms.

Asociación Mexicana de Productores de Fonogramas y Videogramas (AMPROFON) is a non-profit organization integrated by multinational and national record companies in Mexico. Established on April 3, 1963, it is a trade association of phonographic companies that represent more than 70 percent of the market in Mexico. AMPROFON is an associated member of the International Federation of the Phonographic Industry (IFPI).

<i>Good Copy Bad Copy</i> 2007 film

Good Copy Bad Copy is a 2007 documentary film about copyright and culture in the context of Internet, peer-to-peer file sharing and other technological advances, directed by Andreas Johnsen, Ralf Christensen, and Henrik Moltke. It features interviews with many people with various perspectives on copyright, including copyright lawyers, producers, artists and filesharing service providers.

IFPI Greece Representative of the Greek music industry

International Federation of the Phonographic Industry Greece, or simply IFPI Greece, is the Greek branch of the International Federation of the Phonographic Industry (IFPI) and is the official charts provider and recording sales certification body for Greece. The association publishes a Top-75 combined repertoire albums sales chart is compiled. The charts is published by IFPI Greece and sponsored by Cyta Hellas.

Copyright infringement Intellectual property violation

Copyright infringement is the use of works protected by copyright law without permission for a usage where such permission is required, thereby infringing certain exclusive rights granted to the copyright holder, such as the right to reproduce, distribute, display or perform the protected work, or to make derivative works. The copyright holder is typically the work's creator, or a publisher or other business to whom copyright has been assigned. Copyright holders routinely invoke legal and technological measures to prevent and penalize copyright infringement.

Pro-Música Brasil organization

Pro-Música Brasil (PMB), previously Associação Brasileira dos Produtores de Discos (ABPD), is an official representative body of the record labels in the Brazilian phonographic market.

Recording Industry of South Africa South African record industry trade association

The Recording Industry of South Africa (RiSA) is a trade association that represents the collective interests of producers of music sound recordings, major and independent record labels in South Africa. Formerly known as the Association of the South African Music Industry (ASAMI) it was established in the 1970s. The association consists of approximately 2,000 members, including the big four record labels, Sony Music, Universal Music, EMI and Warner Bros. Records.

The Indian Music Industry (IMI) is a trust that represents the recording industry distributors in India. It was founded on February 28, 1936 as Indian Phonographic Industry (IPI). It is the 2nd oldest music industry organization in the world that was involved in protecting copyrights of music producers and supporting growth of music entertainment industry. In 1994, it was renamed as Indian Music Industry (IMI) and represented India at the International Federation of the Phonographic Industry (IFPI). It is also registered with the West Bengal Societies Registration Act. All major music labels in India are part of this association. Record companies like Saregama India Ltd. (HMV), Universal Music (India), Tips Industries Limited, Venus, Sony Music Entertainment (India), Crescendo, Virgin Records, Magnasound, Milestone, Times Music and several other prominent national and regional labels are part of the IMI. The IMI represents over 75% of all legal music sales in India.

Recording Industry Association of Malaysia

Persatuan Industri Rakaman Malaysia (RIM) is a Malaysian non-profit music organisation, founded on 12 December 1978, as the Malaysian Association of Phonograph Producers (MAPP). In the end of the 1980s, it changed its name to Malaysian Association of Phonogram and Videogram Producers and Distributors (MAPV). It adopted its current name in 1996.

Polish Society of the Phonographic Industry organization

The Polish Society of the Phonographic Industry is the organization that represents the interests of the music industry in Poland, and the Polish chapter of the International Federation of the Phonographic Industry (IFPI). Founded in 1991, it is authorized by the Polish Ministry of Culture and National Heritage to act as a rights management organization in the field of phonogram and videogram producers' rights. ZPAV publishes the Polish Music Charts and awards music recording sales certifications. It also issues the Fryderyk annual award for Polish music.

The Association of Venezuelan Phonograph Producers (APFV) is an industry trade group composed of Venezuelan corporations involved in the music industry. It was founded in 1993 as the Association of Venezuelan Phonograph Producers, and adopted its current name in 1993.

The Latvian Music Producers Association (LaMPA) is a National ISRC Agency of the International Federation of the Phonographic Industry with the task of representing the Latvian music industry for both national and international recording artists of all genres. Goals of the organisation are supporting Latvian artists and producers and promote development of Latvian music industry and export of music produced in Latvia, to promote and support creation of competitive music records and increase utilization of Latvian music by educating Latvian performers and producers, to officially represent Latvian music industry in Europe and international showcases, fairs and exhibitions, and to educate members of Latvian music industry about the issues of music export and global trends. The company also certifies albums and music videos based on unit sales and compiles the country's music chart.

References

  1. 1 2 3 "IFPI's Mission". IFPI . Retrieved 18 May 2010.
  2. "Frances Moore to be new CEO of IFPI" (Press release). IFPI. 24 June 2010. Retrieved 24 June 2010.
  3. "John Kennedy to succeed Jay Berman as Chairman and CEO of IFPI" (Press release). IFPI. 13 September 2004. Retrieved 2 July 2008.
  4. "RIAA: Gold & Platinum: History". riaa.org. Archived from the original on 10 July 2009. Retrieved 31 March 2009.
  5. Thalheim, Dr. R. (1938). "Der Schutz der Schallplatte nach italienischen Verordnung vom 18. February 1937.". Archiv für Urheber-, Film- und Theaterrecht. 11. Berlin: Julius Springer. p. 39.
  6. "Introduction of the RIT (IFPI Taiwan)". Archived from the original on 21 May 2009. Retrieved 21 April 2009.
  7. Drahos, Peter; Braithwaite, John (2002). Information Feudalism: Who Owns The Knowledge Economy?. Earthscan. pp. 181–182. ISBN   1-85383-917-5. The key actor in coordinating the industry's piracy strategy became its international trade association, the International Federation of the Phonographic Industry. Formed in 1933, its mission was to represent 'the interests of the recording industry worldwide in all fora'.
  8. Davies, Gillian (May 1984). Oral History of Recorded Sound (Abstract). British Library National Sound Archiv e. Retrieved 10 April 2008. IFPI founded in 1933 to deal with [r]ecord industry at inter-governmental level; promoting legislation; copyrights for industry worldwide.
  9. Frith, Simon (January 1988). "Copyright and the Music Business". 7 (1). Popular Music: 57. JSTOR   853076. IFPI was founded in 1933, in its own words, 'to protect the largely British-based recording industry', but, as Gavin McFarlane points out, its brief was more specifically 'to promote on a world-wide basis the performing right in gramophone records'...
  10. Drahos & Braithwaite 2002, p. 181: "Authors and composers became increasingly worried by copyright's technological turn. They saw it as compromising the artistic purity of copyright. At a more practical level, authors were worried that the recognition of a 'neighbouring right' in the form of a sound recording would undermine their control over the use of works as well as add to users' costs. Users would now have to pay additional licence fees to producers of sound recordings. It was the resistance of key author associations that helps to explain why it took more than 30 years for an international standard for the protection of sound recordings to emerge in the form of the Rome Convention of 1961."
  11. Drahos & Braithwaite 2002, p. 181: "The US did not join the Rome Convention. Aside from some constitutional issues, powerful broadcasting organisations in the US did not want to endanger a status quo in which they received records from the recording industry for free or at a discount. Domestically, the US did not recognise a separate copyright in sound recordings until 1971."
  12. Drahos & Braithwaite 2002, p. 181: "After its major lobbying effort on the Rome Convention [of 1961], IFPI began a campaign against piracy. It pushed for and obtained in 1971 the Convention for the Protection of Producers of Phonograms against Unauthorised Duplication of their Phonograms."
  13. ISRC Practical Guide, 3rd edition, 1998, International ISRC Agency, London.
  14. 1 2 "SID Code Implementation Guide" (PDF). IFPI. International Federation of the Phonographic Industry. Retrieved 10 January 2012.
  15. Ernesto (12 October 2007). "Anti-Piracy Organization Domain IFPI.com Now Owned by The Pirate Bay". TorrentFreak. Retrieved 10 April 2008.
  16. "WIPO Arbitration and Mediation Center Administrative Panel Decision: IFPI Secretariat, IFPI International Federation of the Phonographic Industry v. Peter Kopimi Sunde aka Brokep (Case No. D2007-1328)". 19 November 2007. Retrieved 10 April 2008.
  17. "Screenshot of translated message, original in Swedish". Archived from the original on 27 March 2009.
  18. "Technology = "Whoever is hacking, please stop doing that"". New Scientist. Reed Business Information. 201 (2697): 17.
  19. Leyden, John (20 April 2009). "Music industry sites DDoSed after Pirate Bay verdict" . Retrieved 20 April 2009.
  20. "Ernesto Van Der Sar" (20 April 2009). "IFPI Site Under Attack by Pirate Bay Supporters" . Retrieved 20 April 2009.
  21. 1 2 3 4 "IFPI Awards". ifpi.org. Archived from the original on 29 July 2010. Retrieved 16 May 2011. IFPI Middle East Awards
  22. "Platinum Europe Awards – Terms and Conditions". ifpi.org. Retrieved 16 May 2011.
  23. "IFPI MIDDLE EAST AWARD APPLICATION FORM" (PDF). ifpi.org. October 2009. Retrieved 16 May 2011.