International Federation of the Phonographic Industry

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International Federation of the Phonographic Industry
AbbreviationIFPI
MottoRepresenting the recording industry worldwide
Formation1933
Headquarters7 Air Street Piccadilly, London, United Kingdom
Chief executive
Frances Moore
Main organ
Main board of directors
Website ifpi.org

The International Federation of the Phonographic Industry (IFPI) is the organisation that represents the interests of the recording industry worldwide. It is a non-profit members' organisation registered in Switzerland and founded in Italy in 1933. It operates a Secretariat based in London, with regional offices in Brussels, Hong Kong, and Miami.

Contents

Function

IFPI's mission is to promote the value of recorded music, campaign for record producer rights, and expand the commercial uses of recorded music. [1] Its services to members include a legal policy programme, litigation, content protection, sales reporting for the recorded music market, insight and analysis and work in the areas of performance rights, technology and trade. [2]

Structure

IFPI is governed by its Main Board, a group including representatives from across the organisation's members (including major and independent record labels), representatives from certain IFPI National Groups and the organisation's CEO. [3] There are also two regional boards (the IFPI Asia/Pacific Regional Board and IFPI Latin America Regional Board) which oversee regional matters. [3]

Frances Moore is the current CEO. She was appointed the chief executive with a term effective from 1 July 2010. [4] She replaced John Kennedy OBE, who had headed the organisation since 2005 and was also one of the co-producers of Live Aid and Live8. [5]

Scope of influence

IFPI represents the recording industry worldwide with some 1,300 members in almost 60 countries and national groups or affiliated industry associations in 56 countries. [1] According to its criteria, IFPI membership is open to "a legal entity or person which is either a producer of phonograms or music videos, copies of which are made available to the public in reasonable quantities", [1] though the organisation does not define "reasonable quantities".

National groups and affiliate bodies include SNEP in France; BVMI in Germany; RIAJ in Japan; BPI in the UK; RIAA in the US; ARIA in Australia; Music Canada; AMPROFON in Mexico; Recorded Music New Zealand; Promusicae in Spain; FIMI in Italy and others. [6] Record labels can be members of both their local industry body and IFPI.

History

Members of the international phonographic industry formed IFPI at the industry's first international congress in Rome, Italy, held from 10–14 November 1933. [7] IFPI described its mission as representing "the interests of the recording industry worldwide in all fora" [8] by promoting legislation and copyrights [9] and "to protect the largely British-based recording industry" by promoting a global performance right in gramophone sound recordings. [10]

Phonogram copyrights established

The IFPI lobbied at the Rome Convention for the Protection of Performers, Producers of Phonograms and Broadcasting Organisations of 1961, which established an international standard for the protection of sound recordings, live performances and broadcasts. This Convention was opposed by trade groups representing authors and composers, who were concerned that establishing such "neighbouring rights" would undermine their own control over how their works were used and would result in prohibitively expensive licensing. [11] Pressure from United States-based broadcasters who didn't want to license the records they broadcast, among other factors, kept the United States from signing the Convention; the United States would not recognise a separate sound recording copyright until 1971. [12]

Phonogram copy protection efforts

In an effort to combat copyright violation, in 1971, the IFPI advocated for the Convention for the Protection of Producers of Phonograms Against Unauthorized Duplication of Their Phonograms (the Geneva Phonograms Convention), which 72 countries signed. [13]

In 1986, the ISO established the International Standard Recording Code (ISRC) standard, ISO 3901. In 1989, the IFPI was designated the registration authority for ISRC codes. ISRC codes "enable the use of copyright protected recordings and works to be controlled; facilitate the distribution and collection of royalties (performances, private copying); and assist in the fight against piracy". [14]

To further combat infringement of recorded works, the IFPI and the compact disc manufacturing industry introduced Source Identification (SID) codes in 1994. The SID codes are markings on optical discs such as compact discs (CD) and digital versatile discs (DVD) that identify the manufacturer, equipment, and master discs used to create each disc. There are two codes: the SID mastering code and the SID mould code. The SID mastering code identifies the manufacturing facility used to produce a master from which moulds are produced. The SID mould code identifies the plant where the disc was moulded (replicated). Since not all optical disc manufacturing facilities have the ability to both produce master discs and replicate discs, the SID mastering code and SID mould code on a given optical disc may or may not represent the same manufacturing facility. [15] :3,4

SID codes follow a standard format consisting of the letters "IFPI" followed by four or five hexadecimal digits. A number prefaced with "L" is a "mastering code", a serial number taken from a pool assigned by Philips to the manufacturer. The mastering code identifies the Laser Beam Recorder (LBR) signal processor or mould that produced a particular stamper or a glass master disc from which moulds are produced. Non-"L" numbers are "mould codes", which identify the manufacturer that replicated the disc. Phillips assigns the first 2 or 3 digits of the mould code and the remaining digits are a serial number assigned by that plant to its moulds. [15] :4,7

The Pirate Bay incidents

In mid-October 2007, after IFPI let the ifpi.com domain registration lapse, ownership of the ifpi.com domain was transferred to The Pirate Bay, a group which claimed it received the domain from an anonymous donor. [16] The group set up a Website under the domain titled "International Federation of Pirates Interests", a replacement backronym for IFPI. Ownership of the domain was returned to IFPI in late November, when a WIPO arbitration panel concluded that "the Disputed Domain Name is identical or confusingly similar to a trademark in which the [IFPI] has rights" and that the Pirate Bay's representative "registered and [was] using the Disputed Domain Name in bad faith" and failed to adequately rebut IFPI's contention that he "has no rights or a legitimate interest in the Disputed Domain Name". [17] The organisation's website www.ifpi.org was unaffected during the dispute.

In a separate incident, on 18 February 2009, the domain (ifpi.se) for the Swedish National Group, IFPI Sweden, was hacked by The Pirate Bay supporter(s). This occurred on the third day of the trial of the Pirate Bay founders in Sweden. The site was replaced with a short message directed at the Prosecutor Håkan Roswall and plaintiffs ("Warner Brothers etc"). It was signed "The New Generation". [18] Peter Sunde of Pirate Bay made an appeal on Twitter requesting that the hackers stop this defacement. [19]

On 19 April 2009, after the announcement of an unfavorable Swedish court decision against The Pirate Bay, the ifpi.org and ifpi.se domains were reportedly subjected to a DDoS attack. The British technology news and opinion website The Register and the copyright, file sharing and digital rights focused news site TorrentFreak speculated that the attacks were perpetrated by Pirate Bay supporters. [20] [21] [ citation needed ]

Milestones

Certifications and Awards

IFPI publishes three annual top 10 charts: Global Artist of the Year Award, Global Top Digital Single, and Global Top Album.

Launched in January 2014 [26] , the IFPI Global Artist of the Year award and chart was the first global chart to accurately capture the popularity of artists across streaming channels, alongside digital and physical album and singles sales. The independently verified [32] chart includes sales of albums – across digital, CD and vinyl formats; singles, both downloaded and physical; and streams across the calendar year. The chart includes all the music of each artist featured, not just one track or album. It uses album equivalent units to combine measurements of downloads, physical sales and streams.

The top 10 recording artist chart is published each year, with the number-one artist being presented with a physical award. The winners have been: One Direction in 2013, [26] Taylor Swift in 2014, [33] Adele in 2015, [34] Drake in 2016, [35] Ed Sheeran in 2017, [36] and Drake in 2018. [32]

The organisation also publishes the top performing global singles and albums each year. The most recent winners, for 2018 were Camila Cabello’s Havana [37] and soundtrack The Greatest Showman. [38]

Formerly, IFPI ran certifications called the IFPI Platinum Europe Awards and the IFPI Middle East Awards. The IFPI Platinum Europe Awards were founded in 1996. [22] They are awarded for actual retail sales (as opposed to shipments) of one million albums, in one of the following countries: Austria, Belgium, Bulgaria, Czech Republic, Denmark, Finland, France, Germany, Greece, Hungary, Iceland, Ireland, Italy, Luxembourg, Netherlands, Norway, Poland, Portugal, Russia, Serbia, Slovakia, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland, Turkey and United Kingdom. [39] The IFPI Middle East Awards were established in October 2009. [22] They are awarded for sales in either Lebanon or the Gulf Cooperation Council (GCC) countries, namely Bahrain, Kuwait, Oman, Qatar, Saudi Arabia and the United Arab Emirates. in the GCC, Gold certificate is awarded for sales of 3,000 units and Platinum for sales of 6,000 units. In Lebanon, Gold certificate is awarded for sales of 1,000 units and Platinum for sales of 2,000 units. [40]

See also

Related Research Articles

The International Standard Recording Code (ISRC) is an international standard code for uniquely identifying sound recordings and music video recordings. The code was developed by the recording industry in conjunction with the ISO technical committee 46, subcommittee 9, which codified the standard as ISO 3901 in 1986, and updated it in 2001.

Paul McCartney discography discography

The discography of English musician Paul McCartney consists of 25 studio albums, four compilation albums, seven live albums, 37 video albums, two extended plays, 99 singles, seven classical albums, two electronica albums, two box sets, and 74 music videos. Before his career as a solo artist, McCartney enjoyed success as a member of the rock band the Beatles. After their break-up in 1970, McCartney released his eponymous debut album McCartney, the 1971 single "Another Day" and Ram with wife Linda McCartney, all of which were commercial successes, with the latter being supported by his first number one single "Uncle Albert/Admiral Halsey". After Ram, the duo formed Wings and recorded music until 1981.

The Pirate Bay Website providing torrent files and magnet links

The Pirate Bay is an online index of digital content of entertainment media and software. Founded in 2003 by Swedish think tank Piratbyrån, The Pirate Bay allows visitors to search, download, and contribute magnet links and torrent files, which facilitate peer-to-peer (P2P) file sharing among users of the BitTorrent protocol.

Music industry companies and individuals that create and sell music and make money off of sales

The music industry consists of the companies and individuals that earn money by creating new songs and pieces and selling live concerts and shows, audio and video recordings, compositions and sheet music, and the organizations and associations that aid and represent music creators. Among the many individuals and organizations that operate in the industry are: the songwriters and composers who create new songs and musical pieces; the singers, musicians, conductors and bandleaders who perform the music; the companies and professionals who create and sell recorded music and/or sheet music ; and those that help organize and present live music performances.

British Phonographic Industry Trade association of the recorded music industry in the United Kingdom

The BPI Limited, commonly known as the British Phonographic Industry or BPI, is the British recorded music industry's trade association.

Recording Industry Association of Japan organization

The Recording Industry Association of Japan (RIAJ) is an industry trade group composed of Japanese corporations involved in the music industry. It was founded in 1942 as the Japan Phonogram Record Cultural Association, and adopted its current name in 1969.

The sound recording copyright symbol, represented by the graphic symbol ℗, is the copyright symbol used to provide notice of copyright in a sound recording (phonogram) embodied in a phonorecord. Present in Europe since at least the mid-1960s, the use of the symbol in United States copyright law after 1971 was codified at 17 U.S.C. § 402 and is specified internationally in the Convention for the Protection of Producers of Phonograms Against Unauthorized Duplication of Their Phonograms.

Asociación Mexicana de Productores de Fonogramas y Videogramas (AMPROFON) is a non-profit organization integrated by multinational and national record companies in Mexico. Established on April 3, 1963, it is a trade association of phonographic companies that represent more than 70 percent of the market in Mexico. AMPROFON is an associated member of the International Federation of the Phonographic Industry (IFPI).

IFPI Greece Representative of the Greek music industry

International Federation of the Phonographic Industry Greece, or simply IFPI Greece, is the Greek branch of the International Federation of the Phonographic Industry (IFPI) and is the official charts provider and recording sales certification body for Greece. The association publishes a Top-75 combined repertoire albums sales chart is compiled. The charts is published by IFPI Greece and sponsored by Cyta Hellas.

Recording Industry Association of America Trade organization representing the recording industry in the U.S.

The Recording Industry Association of America (RIAA) is a trade organization that represents the recording industry in the United States. Its members consist of record labels and distributors, which the RIAA says "create, manufacture and/or distribute approximately 85% of all legally sold recorded music in the United States". The RIAA headquarters is in Washington, D.C.

Pro-Música Brasil organization

Pro-Música Brasil (PMB), previously Associação Brasileira dos Produtores de Discos (ABPD), is an official representative body of the record labels in the Brazilian phonographic market.

Musiikkituottajat – IFPI Finland ry, or Musiikkituottajat for short,, IFPI Finland in English, is the umbrella organization of recording producers active in Finland, with 23 record labels as its members.

Recording Industry Association of Malaysia

Persatuan Industri Rakaman Malaysia (RIM) is a Malaysian non-profit music organisation, founded on 12 December 1978, as the Malaysian Association of Phonograph Producers (MAPP). In the end of the 1980s, it changed its name to Malaysian Association of Phonogram and Videogram Producers and Distributors (MAPV). It adopted its current name in 1996.

Asociación Colombiana de Productores de Fonogramas (ASINCOL) was a trade group representing the Colombian recording industry.

Countries blocking access to The Pirate Bay

This is a list of countries where at least one internet service provider (ISP) formerly or currently censors the popular file sharing website The Pirate Bay (TPB).

The Latvian Music Producers Association (LaMPA) is a National ISRC Agency of the International Federation of the Phonographic Industry with the task of representing the Latvian music industry for both national and international recording artists of all genres. Goals of the organisation are supporting Latvian artists and producers and promote development of Latvian music industry and export of music produced in Latvia, to promote and support creation of competitive music records and increase utilization of Latvian music by educating Latvian performers and producers, to officially represent Latvian music industry in Europe and international showcases, fairs and exhibitions, and to educate members of Latvian music industry about the issues of music export and global trends. The company also certifies albums and music videos based on unit sales and compiles the country's music chart.

The Global Recording Artist of the Year is an award presented by the International Federation of the Phonographic Industry (IFPI) to honor the most popular recording artist based on a total of album-equivalent units, which include music downloads, streaming and physical format sales. It has been awarded every year since January 2014, with British boy band One Direction becoming the first act to receive the accolade for Global Recording Artist of 2013. This success was attributed to the band's third studio album, Midnight Memories, which became the best-selling album of the year with sales of four million copies worldwide. The music videos for its singles, "Best Song Ever" and "Story of My Life", had been watched almost 200 million and over 100 million times, respectively, on YouTube up to that point. Taylor Swift was awarded the Global Recording Artist of 2014 after the commercial success of her fifth studio album, 1989. During the year, the album became the second global bestseller with sales of six million copies and spawned two international number-one singles, "Shake It Off" and "Blank Space".

References

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  3. 1 2 "Our Boards — IFPI — Representing the recording industry worldwide". www.ifpi.org. Retrieved 25 October 2019.
  4. "Frances Moore to be new CEO of IFPI" (Press release). IFPI. 24 June 2010. Retrieved 24 June 2010.
  5. "John Kennedy to succeed Jay Berman as Chairman and CEO of IFPI" (Press release). IFPI. 13 September 2004. Retrieved 2 July 2008.
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  7. Thalheim, Dr. R. (1938). "Der Schutz der Schallplatte nach italienischen Verordnung vom 18. February 1937.". Archiv für Urheber-, Film- und Theaterrecht. 11. Berlin: Julius Springer. p. 39.
  8. Drahos, Peter; Braithwaite, John (2002). Information Feudalism: Who Owns The Knowledge Economy?. Earthscan. pp. 181–182. ISBN   1-85383-917-5. The key actor in coordinating the industry's piracy strategy became its international trade association, the International Federation of the Phonographic Industry. Formed in 1933, its mission was to represent 'the interests of the recording industry worldwide in all fora'.
  9. Davies, Gillian (May 1984). Oral History of Recorded Sound (Abstract). British Library National Sound Archiv e. Retrieved 10 April 2008. IFPI founded in 1933 to deal with [r]ecord industry at inter-governmental level; promoting legislation; copyrights for industry worldwide.
  10. Frith, Simon (January 1988). "Copyright and the Music Business". 7 (1). Popular Music: 57. JSTOR   853076. IFPI was founded in 1933, in its own words, 'to protect the largely British-based recording industry', but, as Gavin McFarlane points out, its brief was more specifically 'to promote on a world-wide basis the performing right in gramophone records'...Cite journal requires |journal= (help)
  11. Drahos & Braithwaite (2002), p. 181: "Authors and composers became increasingly worried by copyright's technological turn. They saw it as compromising the artistic purity of copyright. At a more practical level, authors were worried that the recognition of a 'neighbouring right' in the form of a sound recording would undermine their control over the use of works as well as add to users' costs. Users would now have to pay additional licence fees to producers of sound recordings. It was the resistance of key author associations that helps to explain why it took more than 30 years for an international standard for the protection of sound recordings to emerge in the form of the Rome Convention of 1961."
  12. Drahos & Braithwaite (2002), p. 181: "The US did not join the Rome Convention. Aside from some constitutional issues, powerful broadcasting organisations in the US did not want to endanger a status quo in which they received records from the recording industry for free or at a discount. Domestically, the US did not recognise a separate copyright in sound recordings until 1971."
  13. Drahos & Braithwaite (2002), p. 181: "After its major lobbying effort on the Rome Convention [of 1961], IFPI began a campaign against piracy. It pushed for and obtained in 1971 the Convention for the Protection of Producers of Phonograms against Unauthorised Duplication of their Phonograms."
  14. ISRC Practical Guide, 3rd edition, 1998, International ISRC Agency, London.
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