Tour promoter

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Tour promoters (also known as concert promoters or talent buyers) are the individuals or companies responsible for organizing a live concert tour or special event performance. The tour promoter makes an offer of employment to a particular artist, usually through the artist’s agent or music manager. The promoter and agent then negotiate the live performance contract. The majority of live performance contracts are drawn up using the American Federation of Musicians (AFM) standard contract format known as the AFM Performance Agreement.

Concert tour series of concerts by a single artist in different venues

A concert tour is a series of concerts by an artist or group of artists in different cities, countries or locations. Often concert tours are named to differentiate different tours by the same artist and to associate a specific tour with a particular album or product. Especially in the popular music world, such tours can become large-scale enterprises that last for several months or even years, are seen by hundreds of thousands or millions of people, and bring in millions of dollars in ticket revenues. A performer who embarks on a concert tour is called a touring artist.

A talent agent, or booking agent, is a person who finds jobs for actors, authors, film directors, musicians, models, professional athletes, writers, screenwriters, broadcast journalists, and other professionals in various entertainment or broadcast businesses but also agents. In addition, an agent defends, supports and promotes the interest of their clients. The way old talent agencies specialize, either by creating departments within the agency or developing entire agencies that primarily or wholly represent one specialty. For example, there are modeling agencies, commercial talent agencies, literary agencies, voice-over agencies, broadcast journalist agencies, sports agencies, music agencies and many more.

Contract agreement having a lawful object entered into voluntarily by multiple parties

A contract is a legally-binding agreement which recognises and governs the rights and duties of the parties to the agreement. A contract is legally enforceable because it meets the requirements and approval of the law. An agreement typically involves the exchange of goods, services, money, or promises of any of those. In the event of breach of contract, the law awards the injured party access to legal remedies such as damages and cancellation.



Included among the tour promoter’s various job responsibilities are: (1) obtaining venue, concert hall, theater, nightclub or arena bookings; (2) pricing the event or tour; and (3) providing air, sea or land transportation (optional). However the promoter must have upfront cash and or sponsorship financing to pay for advertising the tours of the artists. Such advertising costs, usually referred to as a Media or Promotional Kit, commonly include television and radio advertisements, posters, newspaper and magazine adverts, online marketing and so on.

Music venue any location used for a concert or musical performance

A music venue is any location used for a concert or musical performance. A music venue range in size and location, from an outdoor bandshell or bandstand or a concert hall to an indoor sports stadium. Typically, different types of venues host different genres of music. Opera houses, bandshells, and concert halls host classical music performances, whereas public houses, nightclubs, and discothèques offer music in contemporary genres, such as rock, dance, country and pop.

Nightclub entertainment venue which usually operates late into the night

A nightclub, music club or club, is an entertainment venue and bar that usually operates late into the night. A nightclub is generally distinguished from regular bars, pubs or taverns by the inclusion of a stage for live music, one or more dance floor areas and a DJ booth, where a DJ plays recorded music. The upmarket nature of nightclubs can be seen in the inclusion of VIP areas in some nightclubs, for celebrities and their guests. Nightclubs are much more likely than pubs or sports bars to use bouncers to screen prospective clubgoers for entry. Some nightclub bouncers do not admit people with informal clothing or gang apparel as part of a dress code. The busiest nights for a nightclub are Friday and Saturday night. Most clubs or club nights cater to certain music genres, such as house music or hip hop.

Arena enclosed area designed to showcase theater, musical performances, or sporting events

An arena, is an enclosed area, often circular or oval-shaped, designed to showcase theatre, musical performances, or sporting events. It is composed of a large open space surrounded on most or all sides by tiered seating for spectators, and may be covered by a roof. The key feature of an arena is that the event space is the lowest point, allowing maximum visibility. Arenas are usually designed to accommodate a large number of spectators.

Promoter compensation

There are no figures available concerning how much an average concert promoter makes annually. Like most music industry professions, compensation depends on the level of success possessed by the artist the promoter works with, location, and what a given market will bear. The promoter assumes all the financial risk in putting on a show, so compensation also depends on how successful the promoter is at negotiating with vendors and creating sold-out shows. Additionally, in-depth knowledge of their operating market and audience characteristics are critical success factors for any tour promoter. [1]

Music industry companies and individuals that create and sell music

The music industry consists of the companies and individuals that earn money by creating new songs and pieces and selling live concerts and shows, audio and video recordings, compositions and sheet music, and the organizations and associations that aid and represent music creators. Among the many individuals and organizations that operate in the industry are: the songwriters and composers who create new songs and musical pieces; the singers, musicians, conductors and bandleaders who perform the music; the companies and professionals who create and sell recorded music and/or sheet music ; and those that help organize and present live music performances.

Industry overview

The rise of large corporation mega-promoters over the past ten years has made it much more difficult for aspiring tour promoters to break into the industry. Live Nation (previously known as Clear Channel Entertainment) is the number one concert promoter in the world according to figures released by Pollstar Magazine in 2006. The Beverly Hills, California-based corporation accounted for about $1.3 billion in concert box-office sales during 2005, according to Billboard magazine's tracking. Anschutz Entertainment Group (AEG Live) was ranked second with $417 million, followed by House of Blues (HOB Entertainment) at number three with $245 million. On July 5, 2006, Live Nation purchased HOB Entertainment for $350 million, further expanding their market share in the live-music business. [2]

Beverly Hills, California City in California

Beverly Hills is a city located in Los Angeles County, California, United States. Beverly Hills is surrounded by the cities of Los Angeles and West Hollywood.

Anschutz Entertainment Group company

The Anschutz Entertainment Group (AEG) is an American worldwide sporting and music entertainment presenter and a subsidiary of The Anschutz Corporation. It is the world's largest owner of sports teams and sports events. Under the AEG Live brand, it is the world's second largest presenter of live music and entertainment events after Live Nation. AEG Live was started in 2002.

House of Blues company

House of Blues is a chain of live music concert halls and restaurants in major markets throughout the United States. House of Blues' first location, in Cambridge, Massachusetts' Harvard Square, was opened in 1992 by Isaac Tigrett, co-founder of Hard Rock Cafe, and Dan Aykroyd, co-star of the 1980 film The Blues Brothers.

While average ticket prices jumped to roughly $57 in 2005, the number of tickets sold for the 100 biggest tours dipped 3.5%, to 36.3 million. [2] Some fans have complained to government officials, particularly after they found tickets to the same concerts or sporting events available - sometimes at many times the face value - on secondary sellers like and TicketsNow minutes after the public sale began. After hearing from some would-be ticket buyers, the Missouri attorney general announced the state was suing three ticket resellers on charges they violated state consumer protection laws. That same day, the Arkansas attorney general said he was seeking documents from five resellers. And the attorney general’s office in Pennsylvania is also looking into the ticket sale business after receiving several hundred complaints over the recent sale of tickets for a Hannah Montana concert in Pittsburgh. [3]

Missouri State of the United States of America

Missouri is a state in the Midwestern United States. With over six million residents, it is the 18th-most populous state of the Union. The largest urban areas are St. Louis, Kansas City, Springfield, and Columbia; the capital is Jefferson City. The state is the 21st-most extensive in area. In the South are the Ozarks, a forested highland, providing timber, minerals, and recreation. The Missouri River, after which the state is named, flows through the center of the state into the Mississippi River, which makes up Missouri's eastern border.

In most common law jurisdictions, the attorney general or attorney-general is the main legal advisor to the government. The plural is attorneys general (traditional) or attorney generals.

Arkansas State of the United States of America

Arkansas is a state in the southern region of the United States, home to over 3 million people as of 2018. Its name is of Siouan derivation from the language of the Osage denoting their related kin, the Quapaw Indians. The state's diverse geography ranges from the mountainous regions of the Ozark and the Ouachita Mountains, which make up the U.S. Interior Highlands, to the densely forested land in the south known as the Arkansas Timberlands, to the eastern lowlands along the Mississippi River and the Arkansas Delta.

Live Nation and Ticketmaster

On December 21, 2007, Live Nation announced it would acquire the software and services to ramp up its ticket-selling operation, potentially positioning the company to compete directly with its longtime contractor, Ticketmaster. [4]

Ticketmaster Entertainment, Inc. is an American ticket sales and distribution company based in Beverly Hills, California, with operations in many countries around the world. In 2010 it merged with Live Nation to become Live Nation Entertainment. As a primary ticket outlet, most US ticket sales for US venues are fulfilled at Ticketmaster's two main fulfillment centers located in Charleston, West Virginia, and Pharr, Texas. Typically, Ticketmaster's clients (promoters) control their events, and Ticketmaster acts as an agent, selling the tickets that the clients make available to them.

Live Nation, the largest concert promoter, and Ticketmaster Entertainment, the No. 1 ticket seller, announced merger on February 10, 2009. Then on January 25, 2010 the U.S. Department of Justice approved the merger with terms that include that Ticketmaster sell Paciolan, its ticketing and software services unit, to Comcast's sports and entertainment firm or "another buyer suitable to the department."

Ticketmaster must also license its software to Anschutz Entertainment Group (AEG), the company’s largest customer. With a copy of the Ticketmaster software, AEG will be able to market an attractive ticketing system to venues, according to the DOJ; under the settlement terms, both companies will be able to compete head-to-head with Ticketmaster. [5]

College concert market

Colleges can provide "dedicated fans, an excellent testing ground, eager workers, [and] loyal fans." The college market provides a network of new potential fans that artists, labels, agents, and managers could focus on for promotion. The major record labels have departments dedicated to college promotion and hire students as representatives for all the artists on these labels. Sony Music Entertainment has a college marketing department, which promotes records released by Sony and by their independent label affiliates. Other music marketing companies such as Cornerstone Promotion focus on college marketing. Cornerstone Promotion hires representatives from colleges all around the country to implement small scale marketing campaigns on their campuses. Artists began breaking into the college market in the 1990s. Billboard Magazine published articles dating back to the early-mid nineties urging artists and agents to take advantage of the college market. Artists such as Dave Matthews Band and R.E.M. played college shows to increase their presence in the college market in the nineties. Billboard Magazine has emphasized the extent to which college concerts can help an artist in multiple articles.


There are numerous degree programs and academic courses focusing on concert promotion and venue management. Some of these are full degree programs, while others are certificates offered for post-graduate studies. For example, New York University offers a Certificate in Meeting, Conference, and Event Management, and a Certificate in Sports Marketing. [6]

See also


  1. MusicBizAdvice Q&A Archived 2009-01-15 at the Wayback Machine . January 2008
  2. 1 2 Big Promoter of Concerts to Acquire House of Blues, New York Times . July 6, 2006
  3. In the Race to Buy Concert Tickets, Fans Keep Losing, New York Times . October 6, 2007
  4. Top Concert Promoter Sets Up a Challenge to Ticketmaster New York Times . December 21, 2007
  5. Reagan, Gillian. "Ticketmaster And Live Nation Get Approval As One Giant Music Monster". Business Insider. Retrieved 12 October 2012.
  6. New York University Archived 2007-10-10 at the Wayback Machine .

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