|Cultural origins||Late 1970s and early 1980s, Los Angeles and New York City|
Glam metal (also known pejoratively as hair metal and often used synonymously with pop metal) is a subgenre of heavy metal, which features pop-influenced hooks and guitar riffs, and borrows from the fashion of 1970s glam rock.
Heavy metal is a genre of rock music that developed in the late 1960s and early 1970s, largely in the United Kingdom. With roots in blues rock, psychedelic rock, and acid rock, the bands that created heavy metal developed a thick, massive sound, characterized by highly amplified distortion, extended guitar solos, emphatic beats, and overall loudness. The genre's lyrics and performance styles are sometimes associated with aggression and machismo.
Pop music is a genre of popular music that originated in its modern form in the United States and United Kingdom during the mid-1950s. The terms "popular music" and "pop music" are often used interchangeably, although the former describes all music that is popular and includes many diverse styles. "Pop" and "rock" were roughly synonymous terms until the late 1960s, when they became increasingly differentiated from each other.
A hook is a musical idea, often a short riff, passage, or phrase, that is used in popular music to make a song appealing and to "catch the ear of the listener". The term generally applies to popular music, especially rock, R&B, hip hop, dance, and pop. In these genres, the hook is often found in, or consists of, the chorus. A hook can be either melodic or rhythmic, and often incorporates the main motif for a piece of music.
Glam metal is influenced by music acts like Alice Cooper, Cheap Trick, Kiss, and Van Halen. It arose in the late 1970s and early 1980s in the United States, particularly on the Los Angeles Sunset Strip music scene, pioneered by bands such as Mötley Crüe, Ratt, Quiet Riot, Twisted Sister, Stryper, Def Leppard, Bon Jovi, and Dokken. It was also popular throughout the mid-late 1980s and early 1990s bringing to prominence bands including Poison, Skid Row, Cinderella and Warrant. Glam metal is associated with flashy clothing, makeup and notable for an overall androgynous aesthetic. Poison, for example, have long shaggy or backcombed hair, accessories, metal studs, leather, and make-up during their live performances.
Alice Cooper is an American singer, songwriter, and actor whose career spans over 50 years. With his distinctive raspy voice and a stage show that features guillotines, electric chairs, fake blood, deadly snakes, baby dolls, and dueling swords, Cooper is considered by music journalists and peers alike to be "The Godfather of Shock Rock". He has drawn equally from horror films, vaudeville, and garage rock to pioneer a macabre and theatrical brand of rock designed to shock people.
Cheap Trick is an American rock band from Rockford, Illinois, formed in 1973. The band's classic lineup consisted of vocalist Robin Zander, guitarist Rick Nielsen, bassist Tom Petersson, and drummer Bun E. Carlos.
Kiss is an American rock band formed in New York City in January 1973 by Paul Stanley, Gene Simmons, Peter Criss, and Ace Frehley. Well known for its members' face paint and stage outfits, the group rose to prominence in the mid-to-late 1970s with their elaborate live performances, which featured fire breathing, blood-spitting, smoking guitars, shooting rockets, levitating drum kits, and pyrotechnics. The band has gone through several lineup changes, with Stanley and Simmons the only remaining original members. The original and best-known lineup consisted of Stanley, Simmons, Frehley, and Criss.
Glam metal lost mainstream interest in the early 1990s as the perceived excesses of glam metal created a backlash against the genre. A factor in the decline of glam metal was the rise of grunge in the early 1990s, which had a stripped-down aesthetic and a complete rejection of the glam metal visual style. Glam metal has returned since the late 1990s and mid 2000s with reunions of many popular acts from the genre, as well as newer bands from the 2000s/2010s including the Darkness, Santa Cruz, Reckless Love and Steel Panther.
Grunge is a rock music genre and subculture that emerged during the mid-1980s in the Pacific Northwest U.S. state of Washington, particularly in Seattle and nearby towns. The early grunge movement revolved around Seattle's independent record label Sub Pop and the region's underground music scene. By the early 1990s its popularity had spread, with grunge bands appearing in California, then emerging in other parts of the United States and in Australia, building strong followings and signing major record deals.
The Darkness are an English rock band formed in 2000. The band consists of Justin Hawkins, his brother Dan Hawkins, Frankie Poullain and Rufus Tiger Taylor (drums).
Santa Cruz is a Finnish hard rock band formed in 2007 in Helsinki by Archie Cruz and Johnny Parkkonen. The songs of the band have appeared in a TV commercial of Mercedes-Benz and in sports compilation clips of U.S. ESPN television network.
Musically, glam metal combines a traditional heavy metal sound with elements of hard rock and punk rock, –slow, emotional songs that gradually build to a strong finale. These were among the most commercially successful singles in the genre and opened it up to a wider audience that would not have been attracted to traditional heavy metal. Lyrical themes often deal with love and lust, with songs often directed at a particular woman.adding pop-influenced catchy hooks and guitar riffs. Like other heavy metal songs of the 1980s (most notably thrash metal songs), they often feature shred guitar solos. They also include extensive use of harmonies, particularly in the characteristic power ballads
Hard rock is a loosely defined subgenre of rock music that began in the mid-1960s, with the garage, psychedelic and blues rock movements. It is typified by a heavy use of aggressive vocals, distorted electric guitars, bass guitar, drums, and often accompanied with keyboards.
Punk rock is a rock music genre that emerged in the mid-1970s in the United States, United Kingdom, and Australia. Rooted in 1960s garage rock and other forms of what is now known as "proto-punk" music, punk rock bands rejected perceived excesses of mainstream 1970s rock. They typically produced short, fast-paced songs with hard-edged melodies and singing styles, stripped-down instrumentation, and often political, anti-establishment lyrics. Punk embraces a DIY ethic; many bands self-produce recordings and distribute them through independent record labels.
Thrash metal is an extreme subgenre of heavy metal music characterized by its overall aggression and often fast tempo. The songs usually use fast percussive beats and low-register guitar riffs, overlaid with shredding-style lead guitar work. The lyrical subject matter often deals with criticisms of The Establishment, and at times shares a disdain for Christian dogma resembling that of their black metal counterparts. The language is typically quite direct and denunciatory, an approach borrowed from hardcore punk.
Aesthetically glam metal draws heavily on the glam rock or glitter rock of the 1970s,often with very long backcombed hair, use of hair spray, use of make-up, gaudy clothing and accessories (chiefly consisting of tight denim or leather jeans, spandex, and headbands). The visual aspects of glam metal appealed to music television producers, particularly MTV, whose establishment coincided with the rise of the genre. Glam metal performers became infamous for their debauched lifestyles of drugs, strippers and late-night parties, which were widely covered in the tabloid press.
Glam rock is a style of rock music that developed in the United Kingdom in the early 1970s performed by musicians who wore outrageous costumes, makeup, and hairstyles, particularly platform shoes and glitter. Glam artists drew on diverse sources across music and throwaway pop culture, ranging from bubblegum pop and 1950s rock and roll to cabaret, science fiction, and complex art rock. The flamboyant clothing and visual styles of performers were often camp or androgynous, and have been described as playing with nontraditional gender roles. "Glitter rock" was another term used to refer to a more extreme version of glam.
Hair spray is a common cosmetic hairstyling product that is sprayed onto hair to protect against humidity and wind. Hair sprays typically consist of several components for the hair as well as a propellant.
Spandex, Lycra or elastane is a synthetic fiber known for its exceptional elasticity. It is a polyether-polyurea copolymer that was invented in 1958 by chemist Joseph Shivers at DuPont's Benger Laboratory in Waynesboro, Virginia.
Sociologist Deena Weinstein points to the large number of terms used to describe more commercial forms of heavy metal, which she groups together as lite metal. These include, beside glam metal: melodic metal, false metal, poodle bands, nerf metal, pop metal or metal pop, the last of which was coined by critic Philip Bashe in 1983 to describe bands such as Van Halen and Def Leppard.AllMusic distinguishes pop metal, which refers to the whole pop-tinted hard rock and heavy metal scene of the 1980s (including Def Leppard, Bon Jovi, Europe), from hair metal, the characteristics of which are flashy clothing and heavy makeup (as embodied by Poison, and Mötley Crüe). Use of the derogatory term hair metal started in the early 1990s, as grunge gained popularity at the expense of 1980s metal. In the "definitive metal family tree" of his documentary Metal: A Headbanger's Journey , anthropologist Sam Dunn differentiates pop metal, which includes bands like Def Leppard, Europe, and Whitesnake, from glam metal bands that include Mötley Crüe and Poison.
Deena Weinstein is a professor of sociology at DePaul University whose research focuses on popular culture. She is particularly well known for her research on heavy metal music, as she has published two books on the genre: Heavy Metal: A Cultural Sociology (1991) and Heavy Metal: The Music and Its Culture (2009). Because of her research on heavy metal, Weinstein was featured in the 2005 documentary Metal: A Headbanger's Journey and the later Metal Evolution.
Van Halen is an American hard rock band formed in Pasadena, California in 1972. Credited with "restoring hard rock to the forefront of the music scene", Van Halen is known for its energetic live shows and for the work of its acclaimed lead guitarist, Eddie Van Halen. The band was inducted into the Rock and Roll Hall of Fame in 2007.
Def Leppard are an English rock band formed in 1977 in Sheffield as part of the new wave of British heavy metal movement. Since 1992, the band has consisted of Joe Elliott, Rick Savage, Rick Allen, Phil Collen, and Vivian Campbell. This is the band's longest lasting line-up.
Music journalist Stephen Davis claims the influences of the style can be traced back to acts like Kiss, Boston, Cheap Trick, and the New York Dolls.Kiss and to a lesser extent Alice Cooper, were major influences on the genre. Finnish band Hanoi Rocks, heavily influenced themselves by the New York Dolls, have been credited with setting a blueprint for the look of hair metal.
Van Halen has been seen as highly influential on the movement, emerging in 1978 from the Los Angeles music scene on Sunset Strip, with a sound based around the lead guitar skills of Eddie Van Halen. He popularized a playing technique of two‐handed hammer‐ons and pull‐offs called tapping, showcased on the song "Eruption" from the album Van Halen .This sound, and lead singer David Lee Roth's stage antics, would be highly influential on glam metal, although Van Halen would never fully adopt a glam aesthetic. Def Leppard, often categorized with the New Wave of British heavy metal, released their second album High 'n' Dry in 1981, mixing glam rock with heavy metal, and helping to define the sound of hard rock for the decade.
In the early 1980s, bands from across the United States began to move towards what would become the glam metal sound. In 1981, Mötley Crüe (from Los Angeles) released their first album Too Fast for Love , Dokken (also from Los Angeles) released their first album, Breaking the Chains , and Kix (from western Maryland) released their first album, Kix . In 1982, Night Ranger (from San Francisco) released their initial album Dawn Patrol which reached the top 40 in the United States.[ citation needed ]
1983 was the breakout year for glam metal: Quiet Riot's Metal Health was the first glam metal album, and arguably the first heavy metal album, to reach number one in the Billboard charts. It helped open the doors for mainstream success by subsequent metal bands. [ citation needed ]Additionally, Night Ranger's second album in 1983 Midnight Madness was also a breakthrough that included the top five single "Sister Christian". Also, in 1983, a larger wave of glam metal albums began appearing; Mötley Crüe released its second album Shout at the Devil , Def Leppard released its third album Pyromania , 'Kix released its second album Cool Kids , Lita Ford released her initial album Out for Blood , and the band Kiss released its glam-sounding Lick It Up .
Def Leppard's Pyromania, later certified 10x platinum by the Recording Industry Association of America (RIAA), reached number two on the Billboard 200. The singles "Foolin'", "Photograph", and "Rock of Ages", helped by the emergence of MTV, reached the Top 40. 's style was widely emulated, particularly by the emerging Californian scene. However, remarked Leppard's Joe Elliott, "I don't know how anybody could confuse us with that lot. We weren't even around when all those so-called glam bands came up. We were in fuckin' Holland making Hysteria . While they were out banging chicks or whatever, we were looking at windmills and playing pool on a table without any pockets. We were as far away from LA as any band could be."Pyromania
The most active glam metal scene was starting to appear in clubs on the Sunset Strip in Los Angeles, including The Trip, the Whisky a Go Go, and the Starwood. These clubs began to avoid booking punk rock bands because of fears of violence and began booking many area metal bands, usually on a "pay to play" basis, thus creating a vibrant scene for hard rock music. [ citation needed ]An increasing numbers of metal bands were able to produce debut albums in 1984, including Ratt (from Los Angeles) with its breakthrough album Out of the Cellar , Bon Jovi (from New Jersey) with its debut Bon Jovi , Great White with Great White , Black 'n Blue (from Portland, Oregon) with Black 'n Blue , Autograph with its first album Sign In Please , and W.A.S.P. with its self-titled debut album . Also in 1984, Lita Ford put out her second album called Dancin' on the Edge , Quiet Riot released its follow-up to Metal Health called Condition Critical , Dokken released its second album called Tooth and Nail , and Kiss released the glam-sounding Animalize .
All these bands played a part in developing the overall look and sound of glam metal during the early 1980s.In 1985, many more commercially successful glam metal albums began to appear. Mötley Crüe released Theatre of Pain , Ratt's second album Invasion of Your Privacy , Dokken's third album Under Lock and Key , Stryper's first release Soldiers Under Command , Bon Jovi's second release 7800° Fahrenheit , and Autograph's second album That's The Stuff . Los Angeles continued to foster the most important scene around the Sunset Strip, with groups like London, which had originally formed as a glam rock band in the 1970s, and had seen future members of Mötley Crüe, Sometimes Cinderella and Guns N' Roses pass through its ranks, finally releasing their début album Non Stop Rock in 1985 as well.
By the mid-1980s, glam metal had begun to become a major mainstream success in America with many of these band's music videos appearing on heavy rotation on MTV often at the top of MTV's daily dial countdown, and some of the bands appeared on the channel's shows such as Headbanger's Ball , which became one of the most popular programs with over 1.3 million views a week.The groups also received heavy rotation on radio stations such as KNAC in Los Angeles.
1986 was a significant year for glam metal music as one of the most commercially significant releases of the era was put out by Bon Jovi with Slippery When Wet which mixed hard rock with a pop sensibility, and spent a total of eight weeks at the top of the Billboard 200 album chart, selling over 12 million copies in the United States. It became the first hard rock album to spawn three top ten singles, two of which reached number one.The album has been credited with widening the audience for the genre, particularly by appealing to women as well as the traditional male dominated audience, and opening the door to MTV and commercial success for other bands at the end of the decade.
The Swedish band Europe released the anthemic album The Final Countdown which reached the top ten in several countries, including the U.S. and while the title single reached number one in 26 countries.Stryper made their mainstream breakthrough in 1986 with the release of their platinum album To Hell with the Devil and brought Christian lyrics to their hard rock music style and glam metal looks. Two Pennsylvania bands, with Harrisburg's Poison and Philadelphia's Cinderella released multi-platinum début albums, respectively Look What the Cat Dragged In and Night Songs in 1986. Van Halen released 5150 their first album with Sammy Hagar on lead vocals, which was number one in the U.S. for three weeks and sold over six million copies. Additionally, some established hard rock bands of the era such as the Scorpions, Whitesnake, Aerosmith, Kiss, Alice Cooper, and Judas Priest began incorporating glam metal elements into their sounds and images, as the genre's popularity skyrocketed in 1985-86.
Glam metal bands continued their run of commercial success in 1987 with Mötley Crüe releasing Girls, Girls, Girls , White Lion releasing Pride , and Def Leppard releasing Hysteria producing a hard rock record of seven hit singles. [ citation needed ]Another of the greatest successes of the era was Guns N' Roses, originally formed from a fusion of bands L.A. Guns and Hollywood Rose, who released the best-selling début of all time, Appetite for Destruction . With a "grittier" and "rawer" sound than most glam metal it produced three top 10 hits, including the number one "Sweet Child O' Mine". Such was the dominance of the style that Californian hardcore punk band T.S.O.L. moved towards a glam metal sound in this period. Also in 1987, L.A. band Faster Pussycat released their debut self-titled album eponymous début and Dokken released the successful Back for the Attack .
In the last years of the decade the most notable successes were New Jersey (1988) by Bon Jovi,OU812 (1988) by Van Halen, while Open Up and Say... Ahh! (1988) by Poison, spawned number one hit single "Every Rose Has Its Thorn", and eventually sold eight million copies worldwide. Britny Fox from Philadelphia and Winger from New York released their eponymous débuts in 1988. In 1989 Mötley Crüe produced their most commercially successful album, the multi-platinum number one Dr. Feelgood . In the same year eponymous débuts included Danger Danger from New York, Dangerous Toys from Austin, Texas, who provided more of a Southern rock tone to the genre, and Enuff Z'Nuff from Chicago who provided an element of psychedelia to their sound and visual style. L.A. débuts included Warrant with Dirty Rotten Filthy Stinking Rich (1989), and Skid Row with their eponymous album (1989), which reached number six in the Billboard 200, but they were to be one of the last major bands that emerged in the glam metal era. Glam metal entered the 1990s as one of the major commercial genres of popular music. In 1990 débuts for Slaughter, from Las Vegas with Stick It to Ya and FireHouse, from North Carolina, with their eponymous album reached number 18 and number 21 on the Billboard 200 respectively, but it would be the peak of their commercial achievement. Guns N' Roses' Use Your Illusion I and Use Your Illusion II (both in 1991) and Van Halen's For Unlawful Carnal Knowledge (1991) showcased the genre's popularity.
The 1988 film The Decline of Western Civilization Part II: The Metal Years captured the Los Angeles scene of successful and aspiring bands. It also highlighted the excesses of glam metal, particularly the scene in which W.A.S.P. guitarist Chris Holmes was interviewed while drinking vodka on a floating chair in a swimming pool as his mother watched. As a result, it has been seen as helping to create a backlash against the genre.In the early 1990s glam metal's popularity rapidly declined after nearly a decade of success. Successful bands lost members that were key to their songwriting and/or live performances, such as Mötley Crue's frontman Vince Neil, Poison guitarist C.C. DeVille, Def Leppard guitarist Steve Clark and Guns N' Roses guitarist Izzy Stradlin. Several music writers and musicians began to deride glam metal acts as "hair farmers," hinting at the soon-to-be-popularized term "hair metal". Another reason for the decline in popularity of the style may have been the declining popularity of the power ballad. While its use, especially after a hard-rocking anthem, was initially a successful formula, in the late 1980s and early 1990s audiences lost interest in this approach.
One significant factor in the decline was the rise of grunge music from Seattle, with bands including Nirvana, Alice in Chains, Pearl Jam and Soundgarden. This was particularly obvious after the success of Nirvana's Nevermind (1991), which combined elements of hardcore punk and heavy metal into a dirty sound that made use of heavy guitar distortion, fuzz and feedback, along with darker lyrical themes, a stripped-down aesthetic and a complete rejection of the glam metal visual style and performance.Many major labels felt they had been caught off-guard by the surprise success of grunge and began turning over their personnel in favor of younger staffers more versed in the new scene. As MTV shifted its attention to the new style, glam metal bands found themselves relegated increasingly to late night airplay, and Headbanger's Ball was cancelled at the end of 1994, while KNAC went over to Spanish programming. Given glam metal's lack of a major format presence on radio, bands were left without a clear way to reach their audience. Other (earlier Hollywood) alternative rock bands like the Red Hot Chili Peppers and Jane's Addiction also helped supplant the popularity of the genre.
Some artists tried to alter their sound, while others struggled on with their original format. [ citation needed ]In 1995, Van Halen released Balance , a multi-platinum seller that would be the band's last with Sammy Hagar on vocals. In 1996, David Lee Roth returned briefly and his replacement, former Extreme singer Gary Cherone, left the band soon after the release of the commercially unsuccessful 1998 album Van Halen III . Van Halen would not tour or record again until 2004. Warrant released Ultraphobic in 1995, an album with more of an alternative/grunge approach, which had little commercial success.
Meanwhile, Guns N' Roses' classic-lineup was whittled away throughout the decade. Drummer Steven Adler was fired in 1990, guitarist Izzy Stradlin left in late 1991 after recording Use Your Illusion I and II with the band. Tensions between the other band members and lead singer Axl Rose continued after the release of the 1993 punk rock covers album "The Spaghetti Incident?" . Guitarist Slash left in 1996, followed by bassist Duff McKagan in 1998. Axl Rose, the only remaining member from the classic lineup at that point, worked with several lineups of the band to record Chinese Democracy – an album that would take over ten years to complete [ citation needed ]and see the band incorporate electronic rock, industrial rock and nu metal styles.
During both the late 1990s and the 2000s, glam metal began to have a revival. Some established acts who had managed to weather the storm enjoyed renewed popularity, others reformed and new bands emerged to emulate the glam metal style. Bon Jovi were still able to achieve a commercial hit with "It's My Life" (2000).They branched into country music with a version of their 2005 song "Who Says You Can't Go Home", which reached number one on the Hot Country Singles chart in 2006 and the rock/country album Lost Highway which reached number one in 2007. In 2009, Bon Jovi released The Circle , which marked a return to their hard rock sound and reached number one on the Billboard 200. Mötley Crüe reunited with Vince Neil to record the 1997 album Generation Swine and Poison reunited with guitarist C.C. DeVille in 1999, producing the mostly live Power to the People (2000); both bands began to tour extensively. There were reunions and subsequent tours from Van Halen (with Hagar in 2004 and then Roth in 2007). The long-awaited Guns N' Roses album Chinese Democracy was finally released in 2008, but only went platinum in the US, produced no hit singles, and failed to come close to the success of the band's late 1980s and early 1990s material. Europe's "Final Countdown" enjoyed a new lease of popularity as the millennium drew to a close and the band reformed. Other acts to reform included Ratt, Britny Fox, Stryper (annually), and Skid Row.
Beginning in 1999, Monster Ballads , a series of compilation albums that feature popular power ballads, usually from the glam metal genre, capitalized on the nostalgia, with the first volume going platinum.The VH1 sponsored Rock Never Stops Tour, beginning in 1998, has seen many glam metal bands take to the stage again, including on the inaugural tour: Warrant, Slaughter, Quiet Riot, FireHouse, and L.A. Guns. Slaughter also took part in the 1999 version with Ted Nugent, Night Ranger, and Quiet Riot. Poison and Cinderella toured together in 2000 and 2002, and in 2005 Cinderella headlined the Rock Never Stops Tour, with support from Ratt, Quiet Riot, and FireHouse. In 2007 the four-day-long Rocklahoma festival held in Oklahoma included glam metal bands Poison, Ratt and Twisted Sister. Warrant and Cinderella co-headlined the festival in 2008. Nostalgia for the genre was evidenced in the production of the glam metal themed musical Rock of Ages , which ran in Los Angeles in 2006 and in New York in 2008. It was made into a film released in 2012.
Glam metal experienced a partial resurgence around the turn of the century, due in part to increased interest on the Internet, with the successful 'Glam Slam Metal Jam' music festival taking place in the summer of 2000.By the early 2000s, a handful of new bands began to revive glam metal in one form or another. The Darkness's Permission to Land (2003), described as an "eerily realistic simulation of '80s metal and '70s glam", topped the UK charts, going quintuple platinum. One Way Ticket to Hell... and Back (2005) reached number 11. The band broke up in 2006, but reunited in 2011, releasing the album Hot Cakes the following year. Los Angeles band Steel Panther managed to gain a following by playing 1980s style glam metal. In Sweden the "sleaze metal" movement attempted to revive the genre, with bands including Vains of Jenna, Crashdïet and H.E.A.T, as well as the Finnish band Reckless Love. Other new acts included Beautiful Creatures and Buckcherry. The latter's breakthrough album 15 (2006) went platinum in the U.S. and spawned the single "Sorry" (2007), which made the top 10 of the Billboard Hot 100. In France, the band BlackRain also managed to get some coverage, thanks to their work with legendary producer Jack Douglas. Bands known for their metalcore background such as Black Veil Brides and Blessed by a Broken Heart have changed their style to be glam metal inspired, both musically and visually, with Black Veil Brides adding a gothic spin to the traditional glam image.
Mötley Crüe is an American heavy metal band formed in Los Angeles, California, in 1981. The group was founded by bassist Nikki Sixx, drummer Tommy Lee, lead singer Vince Neil, and lead guitarist Mick Mars. Mötley Crüe has sold 100 million albums worldwide, making them one of the best-selling bands of all time. They have also achieved seven platinum or multi-platinum certifications, nine Top 10 albums on the Billboard 200 chart, twenty-two Top 40 mainstream rock hits, and six Top 20 pop singles. The band had experienced several short term lineup changes in the 1990s and 2000s that included vocalist John Corabi and drummers Randy Castillo and Samantha Maloney, both of whom filled in for Lee during his split from the band from 1999 to 2004.
Arena rock is a style of rock music that originated in the mid-1970s. As hard rock bands and those playing a softer yet strident kind of pop rock became increasingly popular, groups began creating material inherently designed for large audiences, and arena rock developed from their use of more commercially oriented and radio-friendly sounds. The often highly-produced music, including both upbeat, dramatic songs and slower power ballads, features strong emphasis on melody and frequently employs anthemic choruses. Other major characteristics include prominent guitar effects and the use of keyboard instruments.
Poison is an American rock band which achieved great commercial success in the mid-1980s through the mid-1990s. Poison has sold over 45 million records worldwide and has sold 15 million records in the United States alone. The band has also charted ten singles to the Top 40 of the Billboard Hot 100, including six Top 10 singles and the Hot 100 number-one, "Every Rose Has Its Thorn". The band's breakthrough debut album, the multi-platinum Look What the Cat Dragged In, was released in 1986 and they hit their peak with their second album, Open Up and Say... Ahh!, which became the band's most successful album, being certified 5x platinum in the US. The popularity continued into the new decade with their third consecutive multi-platinum selling album, Flesh & Blood.
Shout at the Devil is the second studio album by American heavy metal band Mötley Crüe, released on September 26, 1983. It was the band's breakthrough album, establishing Mötley Crüe as one of the top selling heavy metal acts of the 1980s. The singles "Looks That Kill" and "Too Young to Fall in Love" were moderate hits for the band.
Pyromania is the third studio album by English rock band Def Leppard, released on 20 January 1983 through Vertigo Records in UK and Europe and through Mercury Records in the US. The first album to feature guitarist Phil Collen who replaced founding member Pete Willis, Pyromania was produced by Robert John "Mutt" Lange. The album was a shift away from the band's traditional heavy metal roots toward more radio-friendly glam metal and hard rock, finding massive mainstream success. Pyromania charted at No. 2 on the Billboard 200, No. 4 on the Canadian RPM Album chart and No. 18 on the UK Albums Chart selling over ten million copies in the US, thus being certified diamond by the RIAA.
High 'n' Dry is the second studio album by the English rock band Def Leppard, released on 11 July 1981. High 'n' Dry was Pete Willis' last full-time album with Def Leppard. It charted at No. 38 on the Billboard 200 and No. 26 on the UK Albums Chart. "High 'n' Dry ", ranked No. 33 on VH1's 40 Greatest Metal Songs. Following the success of Pyromania, the album re-entered in the US chart and reached No. 72 in 1983.
Cinderella was an American rock band formed in 1982 from the suburbs of Philadelphia, Pennsylvania. The band emerged in the mid-1980s with a series of multi-platinum albums and hit singles whose music videos received heavy MTV rotation. Cinderella initially had a heavy metal and glam metal sound before shifting into a more hard rock and blues rock based sound. By the mid-1990s, the band's popularity declined severely due to personal setbacks, break-ups, and changes in the music industry. After a brief hiatus, Cinderella reunited in 1996 and continued to perform live, but never released any studio material after their 1994 album Still Climbing. The band has sold 15 million records worldwide, according to Tom Keifer's official website. After participating in the 2014 "Monsters of Rock Cruise", Cinderella again became inactive and in November 2017 Keifer declared that "there won't be any reunion."
Look What the Cat Dragged In is the debut studio album by American glam metal band Poison, released on August 2, 1986 through Enigma Records. Though not a success at first, it steadily built momentum and peaked at #3 on the US Billboard 200 on 23 May 1987. The album spawned four singles, three of them charting successfully: "Talk Dirty to Me", "I Want Action", "I Won't Forget You" and "Cry Tough". It serves as a prime example of the glam metal genre both musically and image-wise. The album ultimately has sold four million copies worldwide, one of their best-selling albums.
Monsters of Rock was an annual hard rock and heavy metal music festival held in Castle Donington, England from 1980 to 1996, taking place every year except 1989 and 1993. It later branched into other locations such as the Netherlands, Spain, Italy, Germany, France, Sweden, Argentina, Brazil, the United States and the former Soviet Union.
Theatre of Pain is the third studio album by the American heavy metal band Mötley Crüe, released on June 21, 1985. Released in the aftermath of singer Vince Neil's arrest for manslaughter on a drunk driving charge, the album marked a step away from the traditional heavy metal sound of Too Fast for Love and Shout at the Devil towards a more glam metal influenced style.
Tooth and Nail is the second studio album by American heavy metal band Dokken, released on September 14, 1984 through Elektra Records. After the unsuccessful release of the band's debut album in the US, the record label was reluctant to give credit to Dokken for a follow-up. Dokken's management struggled to convince the label's executives to give the band another chance and this fight for recognition is reflected in the album's title. This album was the group's first with bassist Jeff Pilson following Juan Croucier's departure to join Ratt.
Mötley Crüe is the sixth studio album by American hard rock band Mötley Crüe. It was released on March 15, 1994, and is the only album that does not feature lead singer Vince Neil, who had departed from the band in 1992. Neil was replaced by former The Scream vocalist John Corabi on the album. It is also their last to be produced by Bob Rock.
The Moscow Music Peace Festival was a one-time gathering of high-profile hard rock acts for a performance in Moscow, Soviet Union on 12 and 13 August 1989 to promote world peace and establish international cooperation in fighting the drug war in Russia. It was part of an era of momentous change in the Soviet Union.
Wayne Isham is an American director who has directed music videos of many popular artists.
Heavy: The Story of Metal is a four-part documentary special that aired on VH1 in 2006.
Fahrenheit was a hard rock band from Santiago, Chile, deeply influenced by 1980s and '70s rock artists such us Aerosmith, Mötley Crüe and Skid Row. ºFahrenheit were well known in the Latin-American rock scene for their intense on-stage performance, energetic sound and guitar solos.
The Mirror Ball Tour was a concert tour by the British hard rock band Def Leppard. It is the first tour by the band since the 2009 summer tour with Cheap Trick and Poison. It is also in support of the band's latest new live album of the same name. The opening act on the tour was Heart. The Dublin & Belfast dates were opened by Alice Cooper and Thin Lizzy. The UK tour also featured Mötley Crüe as co-headliners and Steel Panther as support.
Lessdress is a Polish glam metal / hard rock band originally formed under the name Ferrum in Warsaw in 1984. Lessdress is arguably the most successful glam metal band from Poland, having played the largest hard rock and metal festivals in Central Europe including the Przystanek Woodstock festival and opened for among others Def Leppard. Their first two albums are recognized collectors items fetching hundreds of dollars on Ebay. Due to high demand, the band reformed in 2007 and their debut album Dumblondes was remastered and re-released the following year by the Australian label Suncity Records.