Power pop

Last updated

Power pop (also typeset as powerpop) is a form of pop rock [1] based on the early music of bands such as the Who, the Beatles, the Beach Boys, and the Byrds. [2] [3] It originated in the mid 1960s as young music fans began to rebel against the emerging pretensions of rock music, and developed mainly among American musicians who came of age during the British Invasion. The genre typically incorporates melodic hooks, vocal harmonies, an energetic performance, and "happy"-sounding music underpinned by a sense of yearning, longing, or despair.

Contents

The term "power pop" was coined by the Who's Pete Townshend in 1967 to describe their style of music. However, the term became more widely identified with subsequent artists from the 1970s who sought to revive Beatles-style pop. The sound of the genre became more established thanks to early 1970s hits by Badfinger, the Raspberries, and Todd Rundgren. Subsequent artists occasionally drew from developments such as new wave, punk, glam rock, pub rock, college rock, and neo-psychedelia.

Power pop reached its commercial peak during the rise of punk and new wave in the late 1970s, with Cheap Trick, the Knack, the Romantics, Nick Lowe, Dave Edmunds, and Dwight Twilley. During this time, music critics who wrote about the phenomenon popularized the term's usage. After a popular and critical backlash to the genre's biggest-ever hit, "My Sharona" (The Knack, 1979), record companies generally stopped signing power pop groups, and most of the 1970s bands broke up in the early 1980s.

Over the proceeding decades, power pop continued with modest commercial success while largely remaining an object of critical derision. The 1990s saw a new wave of alternative bands that were drawn to 1960s artists because of the 1980s music they influenced. Although not as successful as their predecessors, Jellyfish, the Posies, Redd Kross, Teenage Fanclub, and Material Issue were critical and cult favorites. In the mid-1990s, an offshoot genre that combined power pop harmonies with uptempo punk, dubbed "punk-pop", reached mainstream popularity.

Definition and etymology

Characteristics

The Who Hamburg 1972 2 (cropped).jpg
Televisie-optreden van The Beatles in Treslong te Hillegom vlnr. Paul McCartney, Bestanddeelnr 916-5099.jpg
Sullivan Beach Boys (cropped).jpg
From top: The Who (1972), the Beatles (1964), and the Beach Boys (1964)

Power pop is a more aggressive form of pop rock that is based on catchy, melodic hooks and energetic moods. [4] AllMusic describes the style as "a cross between the crunching hard rock of the Who and the sweet melodicism of the Beatles and the Beach Boys, with the ringing guitars of the Byrds thrown in for good measure". [2] Virtually every artist of the genre has been a rock band consisting of white male musicians who engaged with the song forms, vocal arrangements, chord progressions, rhythm patterns, instrumentation, or overall sound associated with groups of the mid 1960s British Invasion era. [5]

An essential feature of power pop is that its "happy"-sounding arrangements are supported by a sense of "yearning", "longing", or "despair" similar to formative works such as "Wouldn't It Be Nice" (The Beach Boys, 1966) and "Pictures of Lily" (The Who, 1967). This might be achieved with an unexpected harmonic change or lyrics that refer to "tonight", "tomorrow night", "Saturday night", and so on. [6] Power pop was also noted for its lack of irony and its reverence to classic pop craft. [7] Its reconfiguration of 1960s tropes, music journalist Paul Lester argued, could make it one of the first postmodern music genres. [8]

Scope and recognition

The Who's Pete Townshend coined "power pop" in a May 1967 interview promoting their latest single "Pictures of Lily". [9] [10] He said: "Power pop is what we play—what the Small Faces used to play, and the kind of pop the Beach Boys played in the days of 'Fun, Fun, Fun' which I preferred." [11] Despite other bands following in the power pop continuum since then, the term was not popularized until the rise of new wave music in the late 1970s. [10] Greg Shaw, editor of Bomp! magazine, was the most prominent in the slew of music critics that wrote about power pop (then written as "powerpop"). This mirrored similar developments with the term "punk rock" from earlier in the decade. In light of this, Theo Cateforis, author of Are We Not New Wave? (2011), wrote that "the recognition and formulation" of power pop as a genre "was by no means organic." [12]

There is significant debate among fans over what should be classed as power pop. [9] Shaw took credit for codifying the genre in 1978, describing it as a hybrid style of pop and punk. He later wrote that "much to my chagrin, the term was snapped up by legions of limp, second-rate bands hoping the majors would see them as a safe alternative to punk." [13] Music journalist John M. Borack also stated in his 2007 book Shake Some Action – The Ultimate Guide to Power Pop that the label is often applied to varied groups and artists with "blissful indifference," noting its use in connection with Britney Spears, Green Day, the Bay City Rollers and Def Leppard. [14]

Power pop has struggled with its critical reception and is sometimes viewed as a shallow style of music associated with teenage audiences. The perception was exacerbated by record labels in the early 1980s who used the term for marketing post-punk styles. [15] Music critic Ken Sharp summarized that power pop is "the Rodney Dangerfield of rock 'n' roll. ... the direct updating of the most revered artists—the Who, the Beach Boys, the Beatles—yet it gets no respect." [9] In 1996, singer-songwriter Tommy Keene commented that any association to the term since the 1980s is to be "compared to a lot of bands that didn't sell records, it's like a disease. If you're labeled that, you're history." [16] Musician Steve Albini said: "I cannot bring myself to use the term 'power pop.' Catchy, mock-descriptive terms are for dilettantes and journalists. I guess you could say I think this music is for pussies and should be stopped." [17] Ken Stringfellow of the Posies concurred that "There’s a kind of aesthetic to power pop to be light on purpose. I wanted something with more gravitas." [18]

Original waves

1960s: Origins and precursors

Power pop originated in the late 1960s as young music fans began to rebel against the emerging pretensions of rock music. [3] During this period, a schism developed between "serious" artists who rejected pop and "crassly commercial" pop acts who embraced their teenybopper audience. [20] Greg Shaw credited the Who as the starting point for power pop, whereas Carl Caferelli (writing in Borack's book) said that "the story really begins circa 1964, with the commercial ascension of the Beatles in America." [1] Caferelli also recognized the Beatles as the embodiment of the "pop band" ideal. [21] According to The Rolling Stone Encyclopedia of Rock & Roll, British Invasion bands, particularly the Merseybeat sound first popularised by the Beatles and its "jangly guitars, pleasant melodies, immaculate vocal harmonies, and a general air of teenage innocence", were a key influence on 1970s power-pop bands such as the Raspberries, Big Star, the Knack and XTC. [22]

I believe pop music should be like the TV—something you can turn on and off and shouldn't disturb the mind. ... It's very hard to like "Strawberry Fields" for simply what it is. Some artists are becoming musically unapproachable.

—Pete Townshend, 1967 [10]

When Pete Townshend coined the term, he suggested that songs like "I Can't Explain" (1965) and "Substitute" (1966) were more accessible than the changing, more experimental directions other groups such as the Beatles were taking. [10] However, the term did not become widely identified with the Who, [23] and it would take a few years before the genre's stylistic elements coalesced into a more recognizable form. [6] The A.V. Club 's Noel Murray said that "once the sound became more viable and widely imitated, it was easier to trace the roots of the genre back to rockabilly, doo-wop, girl groups, and the early records of the Beatles, the Byrds, the Beach Boys, the Kinks, and the Who." [3] Robert Hilburn traced the genre "chiefly from the way the Beatles and the Beach Boys mixed rock character and pure Top 40 instincts in such records as the latter's 'California Girls'." [24] Borack noted, "It's also quite easy to draw a not-so-crooked line from garage rock to power pop." [25]

One of the earliest examples of the type of nostalgia that became central to power pop was the Beach Boys' 1968 single "Do It Again", a throwback to the band's early hits. [26] Townshend himself was heavily influenced by the guitar work of Beach Boy Carl Wilson, [27] while the Who's debut single "I Can't Explain" was indebted to the Kinks' "You Really Got Me" (1964). [20] Roy Shuker identified the leading American power pop acts of the time as the Byrds, Tommy James and the Shondells, and Paul Revere and the Raiders. [15] Also significant to power pop in the 1960s was the Dave Clark Five, [28] the Creation, [29] the Easybeats, [29] the Move, [3] [15] and the Nazz. [9]

1970s: Emergence

Todd Rundgren's work with Nazz in the 1960s and as a solo artist in the 1970s was significant to the development of the genre. Todd Rungreen.jpg
Todd Rundgren's work with Nazz in the 1960s and as a solo artist in the 1970s was significant to the development of the genre.

In the 1970s, the rock scene fragmented into many new styles. Artists drifted away from the influence of early Beatles songs, and anyone who cited the Beatles or the Who as influences were a minority. [10] In Paul Lester's description, "powerpop is really a 70s invention. It's about young musicians missing the 60s but taking its sound in new directions. ... not just an alternative to prog and the hippy troubadours, but a cousin to glam." [8] Novelist Michael Chabon believed that the genre did not truly come into its own until the emergence of "second generation" power pop acts in the early 1970s. [6] Lester added that it was "essentially an American response to the British Invasion, made by Anglophiles a couple of years too young to have been in bands the first time round." [8]

For many fans of power pop, according to Caferelli, the "bloated and sterile" aspect of 1970s rock was indicative of the void left by the Beatles' breakup in 1970. [21] During the early to middle part of the decade, only a few acts continued the tradition of Beatles-style pop. Some were younger glam/glitter bands, while others were "'60s holdovers" that refused to update their sound. [21] One of the most prominent groups in the latter category was Badfinger, the first artists signed to the Beatles' Apple Records. Although they had international top 10 chart success with "Come and Get It" (1969), "No Matter What" (1970), and "Day After Day" (1971), they were criticized in the music press as Beatles imitators. [30] Caferelli describes them as "one of the earliest--and finest purveyors" of power pop. [30] Conversely, AllMusic states that while Badfinger were among the groups that established the genre's sound, the Raspberries were the only power pop band of the era to have hit singles. [2] Noel Murray wrote that Badfinger had "some key songs" that were power pop "before the genre really existed". [3]

1972, according to Magnet 's Andrew Earles, was "year zero" for power pop: Big Star and the Raspberries emerged, Todd Rundgren released Something/Anything? , the Flamin' Groovies recorded "Shake Some Action", and many garage bands stopped emulating the Rolling Stones. [9] Chabon additionally credited the Raspberries, Badfinger, Big Star, and Rundgren's "Couldn't I Just Tell You" and "I Saw the Light" with "inventing" the genre. [6] On a television performance from that year, Rundgren introduced "Couldn't I Just Tell You" as a part of "the latest musical trend, power pop." [31] Lester called the studio recording of the song a "masterclass in compression" and said that Rundgren "staked his claim to powerpop immortality [and] set the whole ball rolling". [8]

Raspberries were the only American band that had hit singles. [9] Murray recognized the Raspberries as the most representative power pop band and described their 1972 US top 10 "Go All the Way" as "practically a template for everything the genre could be, from the heavy arena-rock hook to the cooing, teenybopper-friendly verses and chorus." [3] Caferelli described the follow-up "I Wanna Be with You" (1972) as "perhaps the definitive power pop single". [32] However, like Badfinger, the Raspberries were derided as "Beatles clones". [33] Singer Eric Carmen remembered that there "were a lot of people in 1972 who were not ready for any band that even remotely resembled the Beatles." [32] Raspberries dissolved in 1977 as Carmen pursued a solo career. [9]

1970s–1980s: Commercial peak

Cheap Trick playing in 1978 Cheaptrick1.jpg
Cheap Trick playing in 1978

A recognizable movement of power pop bands following in the tradition of the Raspberries started emerging in the late 1970s, [2] with groups such as Cheap Trick, the Jam, the Romantics, Shoes, and the Flamin' Groovies, who were seen as 1960s revivalist bands. [34] Much of these newer bands were influenced by late 1960s AM radio, which fell in a rapid decline due to the popularity of the AOR and progressive rock FM radio format. [35] By 1977, there was a renewed interest in the music and culture of the 1960s, with examples such as the Beatlemania musical and the growing mod revival. [36] AABA forms and double backbeats also made their return after many years of disuse in popular music. [37]

Spurred on by the emergence of punk rock and new wave, power pop enjoyed a prolific and commercially successful period from the late 1970s into the early 1980s. [9] Throughout the two decades, the genre existed parallel to and occasionally drew from developments such as glam rock, pub rock, punk, new wave, college rock, and neo-psychedelia. [3] AllMusic states that these new groups were "swept along with the new wave because their brief, catchy songs fit into the post-punk aesthetic." [2] Most bands rejected the irreverence, cynicism, and irony that characterized new wave, believing that pop music was an art that reached its apex in the mid 1960s, sometimes referred to as the "poptopia". This in turn led many critics to dismiss power pop as derivative work. [38]

Ultimately, the groups with the best-selling records were Cheap Trick, the Knack, the Romantics, and Dwight Twilley, whereas Shoes, the Records, the Nerves, and 20/20 only drew cult followings. [2] Writing for Time in 1978, Jay Cocks cited Nick Lowe and Dave Edmunds as "the most accomplished purveyors of power pop", which he described as "the well-groomed stepbrother of punk rock". Edmunds was quoted: "Before the New Wave ... There was no chance for the little guy who buys a guitar and starts a band. What we're doing is kids' music, really, just four-four time and good songs." [39] Cheap Trick became the most successful act in the genre's history thanks to the band's constant touring schedule and stage theatrics. According to Andrew Earles, the group's "astonishing acceptance in Japan (documented on 1979's At Budokan ) and hits 'Surrender' and 'I Want You To Want Me,' the Trick took power pop to an arena level and attained a degree of success that the genre had never seen, nor would ever see again." [9]

The biggest chart hit by a power pop band was the Knack's debut single, "My Sharona", which topped the Billboard Hot 100 chart for six weeks in August–September 1979. However, the song's ubiquitous radio presence that summer spawned a popular and critical backlash against the band, which in turn led to a backlash against the power pop genre in general. [34] Once the Knack failed to maintain their commercial momentum, record companies generally stopped signing power pop groups. [24] Most bands of the 1970s milieu broke up in the early 1980s. [2] A notable exception was Cheap Trick, who continued to tour and record consistently during the 1980s and enjoyed a brief resurgence in popularity near the end of the decade with the number-one hit power ballad "The Flame".

Succeeding waves

1980s–1990s: Alternative rock

The Posies, 2000 The Posies - Bumbershoot 2000.jpg
The Posies, 2000

In the 1980s and 1990s, power pop continued as a commercially modest genre with artists such as Redd Kross and the Spongetones, [40] The later records of XTC also became a touchstone for bands such as Jellyfish and the Apples in Stereo, [41] while Big Star developed an avid cult following among members of later bands like R.E.M. and the Replacements who expressed esteem for the group's work. [42] Many bands who were primarily influenced by Big Star blended power pop with the ethos and sounds of alternative rock. AllMusic cited Teenage Fanclub, Material Issue, and the Posies as "critical and cult favorites". [2]

In 1991, The Los Angeles Times ' Chris Willman identified Jellyfish, the Posies, and Redd Kross as the leaders of a "new wave of rambunctious Power Pop bands that recall the days when moptops were geniuses, songs were around three minutes long and a great hook--a catchy melodic phrase that "hooks" the listener—was godhead." [43] Members of Jellyfish and Posies said that they were drawn to 1960s artists because of the 1980s music they influenced. At the time, it was uncertain whether the movement could have mainstream success. Karen Glauber, editor of Hits magazine, said that "The popular conception is that these bands are 'retro,' or not post-modern enough because they're not grunge and because the Posies are from Seattle and don't sound like Mudhoney." [43]

Velvet Crush's Ric Menck credited Nirvana with ultimately making it "possible for people like Matthew [Sweet] and the Posies and Material Issue and, to some extent, us to get college radio play." [16] As power pop "gained the attention of hip circles", many older bands reformed to record new material that was released on independent labels. Chicago label Numeru Uno issued a series of albums called Yellow Pills that compiled new tracks by these groups as well as contemporary bands. For the rest of decade, AllMusic writes, "this group of independent, grass-roots power-pop bands gained a small but dedicated cult following in the United States." [2]

1990s–2010s: Continued interest

Power pop has had varying levels of success since the 1990s. [18] In 1994, Green Day and Weezer popularized punk-pop, an alternative rock variant genre that fuses power pop harmonies with uptempo punk moods. [44] According to Louder Than War 's Sam Lambeth, power pop has "ebbed and flowed" while remaining an object of critical derision. Despite this, he cites Fountains of Wayne with inspiring "yet another new era for the format" during the late 1990s, "one they’d perfect with the magnetic Welcome Interstate Managers (2003)." [18] He writes that as of 2017, "you can still hear some of power pop’s core traits in bands such as Best Coast, Slotface, Diet Cig and Dude York." [18]

In 1998, International Pop Overthrow (IPO)—named after the album of the same name by Material Issue—began holding a yearly festival for power pop bands. Originally taking place in Los Angeles, the festival expanded to several locations over the years, including Canada and Liverpool, England (the latter event included performances at the Cavern Club). [45] Paul Collins of the Beat and the Nerves hosted the Power Pop-A-Licious music festival in 2011 and 2013, featuring a mixture of classic and rising bands with an emphasis on power pop, punk rock, garage and roots rock. The concerts were held at Asbury Lanes in Asbury Park, New Jersey and the Cake Shop in New York City. Paul Collins and his group the Beat headlined the two-day events. [46]

See also

Related Research Articles

New wave is a form of rock music encompassing numerous pop-oriented music styles popular in the late 1970s and the 1980s. It is rooted in mid-1970s punk rock. New wave moved away from traditional blues and rock and roll sounds to create pop and rock music that incorporated disco, mod and electronic music. It engendered subgenres and fusions, including synth-pop.

Rock music is a broad genre of popular music that originated as "rock and roll" in the United States in the early 1950s, and developed into a range of different styles in the 1960s and later, particularly in the United States and the United Kingdom. It has its roots in 1940s and 1950s rock and roll, a style which drew heavily from the genres of blues, rhythm and blues, and from country music. Rock music also drew strongly from a number of other genres such as electric blues and folk, and incorporated influences from jazz, classical and other musical styles. Musically, rock has centered on the electric guitar, usually as part of a rock group with electric bass, drums, and one or more singers. Usually, rock is song-based music with a 4/4 time signature using a verse–chorus form, but the genre has become extremely diverse. Like pop music, lyrics often stress romantic love but also address a wide variety of other themes that are frequently social or political.

Todd Rundgren American multi-instrumentalist, singer, songwriter, and record producer

Todd Harry Rundgren is an American multi-instrumentalist, singer, songwriter, and record producer who has performed a diverse range of styles as a solo artist and as a member of the band Utopia. He is known for his sophisticated and often-unorthodox music, his occasionally lavish stage shows, and his later experiments with interactive entertainment. He also produced music videos and was an early adopter and promoter of various computer technologies, such as using the Internet as a means of music distribution in the late 1990s.

Progressive rock is a broad genre of rock music that developed in the United Kingdom and United States throughout the mid- to late 1960s. Initially termed "progressive pop", the style was an outgrowth of psychedelic bands who abandoned standard pop traditions in favour of instrumentation and compositional techniques more frequently associated with jazz, folk, or classical music. Additional elements contributed to its "progressive" label: lyrics were more poetic, technology was harnessed for new sounds, music approached the condition of "art", and the studio, rather than the stage, became the focus of musical activity, which often involved creating music for listening rather than dancing.

<i>Straight Up</i> (Badfinger album) 1971 studio album by Badfinger

Straight Up is the third album by British rock band Badfinger, released in December 1971 in the United States and February 1972 in Britain. Issued on the Beatles' Apple record label, it includes the hit singles "Day After Day" and "Baby Blue", and the similarly popular "Name of the Game", all of which were written by singer and guitarist Pete Ham. The album marked a departure from the more rock-oriented sound of Badfinger's previous releases, partly as a result of intervention by Apple Records regarding the band's musical direction. Although Straight Up received a mixed response from critics on release, many reviewers now regard it as the band's best album. Rolling Stone critic David Fricke has referred to it as "Badfinger's power-pop apex".

The Knack American band

The Knack was an American rock band based in Los Angeles that rose to fame with its first single, "My Sharona", an international number-one hit in 1979.

Popular music of the United States in the 1970s saw various forms of pop music dominating the charts. Often characterized as being shallow, 1970s pop took many forms and could be seen as a reaction against the high-energy and activist pop of the previous decade. It began with singer-songwriters like Carole King and Carly Simon topping the charts, while New York City saw a period of great innovation; hip hop, punk rock and salsa were invented in 1970s New York, which was also a center for electronic music, techno

Popular music of the United Kingdom in the 1970s built upon the new forms of music developed from blues rock towards the end of the 1960s, including folk rock and psychedelic rock. Several important and influential subgenres were created in Britain in this period, by pursuing the limitations of rock music, including British folk rock and glam rock, a process that reached its apogee in the development of progressive rock and one of the most enduring subgenres in heavy metal music. Britain also began to be increasingly influenced by third world music, including Jamaican and Indian music, resulting in new music scenes and subgenres. In the middle years of the decade the influence of the pub rock and American punk rock movements led to the British intensification of punk, which swept away much of the existing landscape of popular music, replacing it with much more diverse new wave and post punk bands who mixed different forms of music and influences to dominate rock and pop music into the 1980s.

American rock rock music in the United States

American rock has its roots in 1940s and 1950s rock and roll, rhythm and blues, and country music, and also drew on folk music, jazz, blues, and classical music. American rock music was further influenced by the British Invasion of the American pop charts from 1964 and resulted in the development of psychedelic rock.

British rock music rock music made in or associated with the United Kingdom

British rock describes a wide variety of forms of music made in the United Kingdom. Since around 1964, with the "British Invasion" of the United States spearheaded by the Beatles, British rock music has had a considerable impact on the development of American music and rock music across the world.

Modern rock is rock music that includes and rock music that followed the 1970s punk rock scene made between the mid 1970s to present day. Some radio stations use this term to distinguish themselves from classic rock, which is based in 1960s–1980s rock music.

Pop rock is rock music with a greater emphasis on professional songwriting and recording craft, and less emphasis on attitude. Originating in the mid 1960s as an alternative to normal rock and roll and beat, early pop rock was influenced by beat music and surf rock arrangements, and the original style of rock and roll. It may be viewed as a distinct genre field, rather than music that overlaps with pop and rock. The detractors of pop rock often deride it as a slick, commercial product, less authentic than normal rock music. From the mid-60s onwards, pop rock would become a standard and common style of rock, played almost in any rock group. The genre would go on to influence and build the foundations of 90s and 2000s pop punk subgenre, combing with punk rock.

Neo-psychedelia is a diverse genre of psychedelic music that originated in the 1970s as an outgrowth of the British post-punk scene, also called acid punk. Its practitioners drew from the unusual sounds of 1960s psychedelia, either updating or copying the approaches from that era. After post-punk, neo-psychedelia flourished into a more widespread and international movement of artists who applied the spirit of psychedelic rock to new sounds and techniques. Neo-psychedelia may also include forays into psychedelic pop, jangly guitar rock, heavily distorted free-form jams, recording experiments, the british alternative rock genre of Madchester and stoner rock. A wave of British alternative rock in the early 1990s spawned the subgenres dream pop and shoegazing.

Good Girls Dont (song) single by The Knack

"Good Girls Don't" is a 1979 hit single written by Doug Fieger and released by the rock band The Knack, off their album Get the Knack. It was the follow-up to the group's number-one hit single, "My Sharona". "Good Girls Don't" was a No. 1 single in Canada. It reached No. 11 on the Billboard Hot 100 chart and No. 66 on the British charts. It also reached No. 20 in New Zealand. The song has since been covered by a number of artists, including The Chipmunks, Ben Folds, The Chubbies, and The McRackins.

Kenny Howes American musician

Kenny Howes is an American musician primarily in the power pop genre.

New Pop was a loosely defined British-centric pop music movement consisting of ambitious, DIY-minded artists who achieved commercial success in the early 1980s through sources such as MTV. Rooted in the post-punk movement of the late 1970s, the movement spanned a wide variety of styles and artists, including acts such as Orange Juice, the Human League and ABC. The term "rockist", a pejorative against people who shunned this type of music, coincided and was associated with New Pop.

John M. Borack American music critic

John M. Borack is a music journalist and musician from Southern California.

Music of the United Kingdom developed in the 1960s into one of the leading forms of popular music in the modern world. By the early 1960s the British had developed a viable national music industry and began to produce adapted forms of American music in Beat music and British blues which would be re-exported to America by bands such as The Beatles, The Animals and Rolling Stones. This helped to make the dominant forms of popular music something of a shared Anglo-American creation, and led to the growing distinction between pop and rock music, which began to develop into diverse and creative subgenres that would characterise the form throughout the rest of the twentieth century.

Experimental rock, also called avant-rock, is a subgenre of rock music which pushes the boundaries of common composition and performance technique or which experiments with the basic elements of the genre. Artists aim to liberate and innovate, with some of the genre's distinguishing characteristics being improvisational performances, avant-garde influences, odd instrumentation, opaque lyrics, unorthodox structures and rhythms, and an underlying rejection of commercial aspirations.

References

  1. 1 2 Borack 2007, p. 8.
  2. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 "Power Pop". AllMusic . Retrieved November 26, 2012.
  3. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 Murray, Noel (October 11, 2012). "A beginners' guide to the heyday of power-pop, 1972-1986". The A.V. Club . Retrieved January 16, 2016.
  4. Borack 2007, pp. 7–8.
  5. Cateforis 2011, pp. 136, 138.
  6. 1 2 3 4 Chabon, Michael. "Tragic Magic: Reflections on Power Pop". Archived from the original on April 11, 2013. Retrieved March 30, 2013.
  7. Cateforis 2011, pp. 145, 149.
  8. 1 2 3 4 5 Lester, Paul (February 11, 2015). "Powerpop: 10 of the best". The Guardian .
  9. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 Earles, Andrew (September 7, 2002). "Power Pop: The '70s, The Birth Of Uncool - Magnet Magazine". magnetmagazine.com.
  10. 1 2 3 4 5 Cateforis 2011, p. 129.
  11. Altham, Keith. "Lily Isn't Pornographic, Say Who". NME (20 May 1967).
  12. Cateforis 2011, pp. 130, 132.
  13. Shaw, Greg (1994). "It was 20 years ago today ..." Bomp.com. Archived from the original on December 12, 2009. Retrieved December 4, 2009.
  14. Borack 2007, p. 7.
  15. 1 2 3 Shuker, Roy (2017). Popular Music: The Key Concepts. Taylor & Francis. pp. 267–268. ISBN   978-1-317-18954-1.
  16. 1 2 Cost, Jud (September 5, 2002). "POWER POP: THE '90S, ATTACK OF THE CLONES". Magazine . Retrieved October 6, 2018.
  17. "POWER POP: WHAT I LIKE ABOUT YOU: ARTISTS SURRENDER THEIR FAVORITE AMERICAN POWER-POP SONGS". Magazine . September 9, 2002. Retrieved October 6, 2018.
  18. 1 2 3 4 Lambeth, Sam. "Cheap Tricks and Big Stars: In Praise of Power Pop". Louder Than War . Retrieved 5 September 2019.
  19. Cateforis 2011, pp. 129, 139.
  20. 1 2 Borack 2007, p. 9.
  21. 1 2 3 Borack 2007, pp. 9–10.
  22. Romanowski, Patricia; George-Warren, Holly (eds) (1995). The New Rolling Stone Encyclopedia of Rock & Roll . New York, NY: Fireside/Rolling Stone Press. p.  117. ISBN   0-684-81044-1.CS1 maint: extra text: authors list (link)
  23. MacIntosh, Dan (September 4, 2007). "With Raspberries reunion, Eric Carmen's no longer all by himself". ecentral.my. Archived from the original on 24 March 2012. Retrieved July 9, 2012.
  24. 1 2 Hilburn, Robert (June 27, 1997). "'Poptopia!': 3-Decade Look at Power Pop". The Los Angeles Times . Retrieved October 5, 2018.
  25. Borack, John M.; Brodeen, Bruce (August 4, 2010). ""25 1960s era Garage Rock Nuggets" by John M. Borack". rockandrolltribe.com. Archived from the original on March 10, 2012. Retrieved July 9, 2012.
  26. Henry, Warren (June 8, 2018). "12 Summer Power Pop Gems You Need In Your Life Right Now". thefederalist.com.
  27. March, Dave (1976). The Rolling Stone Illustrated History of Rock & Roll.
  28. Borack 2007, pp. 8–9.
  29. 1 2 Shaw, Greg (March 1978). "Power Pop!". Bomp! . Vol. 13. North Hollywood, California.
  30. 1 2 Borack 2007, p. 10.
  31. Troper, Morgan (June 10, 2015). "A Wizard, a True Star". Portland Mercury .
  32. 1 2 Borack 2007, p. 11.
  33. Borack 2007, pp. 11, 50.
  34. 1 2 Cateforis 2011, p. 127.
  35. Cateforis 2011, p. 138.
  36. Cateforis 2011, pp. 124, 127.
  37. Cateforis 2011, pp. 139–140.
  38. Cateforis 2011, p. 128.
  39. Cocks, Jay (June 6, 1978). "Bringing Power to the People". Time .
  40. Borack 2007, p. 58.
  41. Schabe, Patrick (October 27, 2006). "The Man Who Sailed Around His Soul". PopMatters. Retrieved September 20, 2017.
  42. Borack 2007, pp. 13, 29.
  43. 1 2 Willman, Chris (August 18, 1991). "POP MUSIC : Rediscovering the Beatles (Sort of)". The Los Angeles Times . Retrieved October 5, 2018.
  44. "Punk-Pop". AllMusic . Retrieved 5 September 2019.
  45. Borack 2007, p. 32.
  46. Sugrim, Angie (April 12, 2011). "First Annual POWER POP-A-LICIOUS! Music Fest Kicks Off in Asbury Park, NJ". thevinyldistrict.com. Retrieved January 5, 2018.

Bibliography

Further reading