Industrial rock

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Industrial rock is a musical genre that fuses industrial music and rock music.

Industrial music is a genre of experimental music which draws on harsh, transgressive or provocative sounds and themes. AllMusic defines industrial music as the "most abrasive and aggressive fusion of rock and electronic music" that was "initially a blend of avant-garde electronics experiments and punk provocation". The term was coined in the mid-1970s with the founding of Industrial Records by members of Throbbing Gristle and Monte Cazazza. While the genre name originated with Throbbing Gristle's emergence in the United Kingdom, concentrations of artists and labels vital to the genre also emerged in Chicago.

Rock music is a broad genre of popular music that originated as "rock and roll" in the United States in the early 1950s, and developed into a range of different styles in the 1960s and later, particularly in the United Kingdom and in the United States. It has its roots in 1940s and 1950s rock and roll, a style which drew heavily on the genres of blues, rhythm and blues, and from country music. Rock music also drew strongly on a number of other genres such as electric blues and folk, and incorporated influences from jazz, classical and other musical styles. Musically, rock has centered on the electric guitar, usually as part of a rock group with electric bass, drums, and one or more singers. Usually, rock is song-based music usually with a 4/4 time signature using a verse–chorus form, but the genre has become extremely diverse. Like pop music, lyrics often stress romantic love but also address a wide variety of other themes that are frequently social or political.

Contents

History

Origins (late 1970s and 1980s)

Experimental '60s group Cromagnon are said to have been one of the bands that helped foresee the birth of industrial rock. [1] Specifically, their song "Caledonia" has been noted for its "pre-industrial stomp". [2] Krautrock musicians Michael Rother and Klaus Dinger included industrial noise in their track "Negativland" (from their 1972 debut Neu! ). Neu! inspired the opening track "Speed of Life" on David Bowie's Low recorded in Berlin. Bowie also collaborated with Iggy Pop on his 1977 solo debut The Idiot . The closing track "Mass Production" features mechanical sounds sampled on tape loops which heavily influenced Joy Division who were signed to the industrially themed label Factory Records which had been founded in 1978; their albums Unknown Pleasures (1979) and Closer (1980) heavily influenced the further development of industrial rock. Chrome has also been credited as the "beginning of industrial rock" [3] and their 1978 Half Machine Lip Moves was listed on Wire's 100 Records that set the world on fire (while no one was listening) [4] .

Experimental music is a general label for any music that pushes existing boundaries and genre definitions. Experimental compositional practice is defined broadly by exploratory sensibilites radically opposed to, and questioning of, institutionalized compositional, performing, and aesthetic conventions in music. Elements of experimental music include indeterminate music, in which the composer introduces the elements of chance or unpredictability with regard to either the composition or its performance. Artists may also approach a hybrid of disparate styles or incorporate unorthodox and unique elements.

Cromagnon (band)

Cromagnon was an American experimental band that was active during the late 1960s. Led by multi-instrumentalist singer-songwriters Austin Grasmere and Brian Elliot, the band released Orgasm in 1969 which was later reissued as Cave Rock. They are said to have foreshadowed the rise of noise rock, no wave and industrial rock. While the band was not commercially notable or successful, Pitchfork Media ranked the song "Caledonia", later covered by the Japanese experimental band Ghost, at number 163 on their list of "The 200 Greatest Songs of the 1960s".

Krautrock is a broad genre of experimental rock that developed in Germany in the late 1960s among bands drawing on diverse sources such as psychedelic rock, the avant-garde, electronic music, funk, minimalism, jazz improvisation, and world music styles. The term "krautrock" was coined by English-speaking music journalists in the early 1970s as a humorous umbrella label for the varied German scene. Largely divorced from the traditional blues and rock and roll influences of British and American rock music up to that time, the period contributed to the evolution of electronic and ambient music as well as the birth of post-punk, alternative rock and new-age music.

Industrial rock was created in the mid- to late 1970s, amidst the punk rock revolution and disco fever. Prominent early industrial musicians include Throbbing Gristle, Cabaret Voltaire, NON, SPK and Z'EV. [5] Many other artists have been cited as influences such as Kraftwerk and Gary Numan and Tubeway Army as well as Einstürzende Neubauten and Fad Gadget. Many other musical performers were incorporating industrial music elements into a variety of musical styles.

Disco music genre

Disco is a music genre and subculture that emerged in the 1970s from the United States' urban nightlife scene. The music, the fashion, many song lyrics and other cultural phenomena associated with disco were focused on having a good time on the dance floor of a discotheque to the loud sounds of records being played by a DJ, usually enhanced by coloured lighting effects.

Throbbing Gristle band

Throbbing Gristle were an English music and visual arts group, officially formed in September 1975 in Kingston upon Hull by members Genesis P-Orridge, Cosey Fanni Tutti, Peter "Sleazy" Christopherson and Chris Carter. They are widely regarded as pioneers of industrial music. Evolving from the experimental performance art group COUM Transmissions, Throbbing Gristle made their public debut in October 1976 on COUM exhibition Prostitution, and, the following year, released their debut single, "United / Zyklon B Zombie", followed by an album, The Second Annual Report (1977).

Cabaret Voltaire (band) British music group

Cabaret Voltaire are an English music group formed in Sheffield in 1973 and initially composed of Stephen Mallinder, Richard H. Kirk, and Chris Watson. The group was named after the Cabaret Voltaire, the Zürich nightclub that served as a centre for the early Dada movement.

Although Industrial Rock has it roots in the 1970's, it wasn't until the 1980's when it really established itself as a genre with a roster of artists firmly dedicated in the sounds and pursuit of its long term establishment in the world of music. These trailblazing bands include, but are not limited to, Skinny Puppy, Ministry_(band), Front 242 and Nitzer Ebb.

Skinny Puppy band

Skinny Puppy is a Canadian industrial music group formed in Vancouver, British Columbia in 1982. The group is widely considered to be one of the founders of the electro-industrial genre. Initially envisioned as an experimental side project by cEvin Key while he was in the new wave band Images in Vogue, Skinny Puppy evolved into a full-time project with the addition of vocalist Nivek Ogre. Over the course of a dozen studio albums and many live tours, Key and Ogre have been the only constant members. Other members have included Dwayne Goettel (1986–1995), Dave "Rave" Ogilvie, Mark Walk (2003–present), and a number of guests, including Bill Leeb, Al Jourgensen (1989), and many others.

Ministry (band) American industrial metal band

Ministry is an American rock band founded in 1981 by Al Jourgensen in Chicago, Illinois. Originally a synth-pop outfit, Ministry's sound changed as they became one of the pioneers of industrial metal in the late 1980s. The band's lineup has frequently changed throughout its history, with the exception of Jourgensen who is the band's main producer, singer, songwriter, and instrumentalist. Notable musicians who have contributed to the band's studio or live activities include Paul Barker, Martin Atkins, Bill Rieflin, Chris Connelly, Nivek Ogre, Mike Scaccia, Rey Washam, Paul Raven, Tommy Victor, Roy Mayorga, John Bechdel, Jason Christopher, Tony Campos, Burton C. Bell and DJ Swamp.

Front 242 band

Front 242 is a Belgian electronic music group that came into prominence during the 1980s. Pioneering the style they called electronic body music, they were a profound influence on the electronic and industrial music genres.

Some post-punk performers developed styles parallel to industrial music's defining attributes. Pere Ubu's debut, The Modern Dance , was described as "industrial". [6] Killing Joke, considered by Simon Reynolds as "a post-punk version of heavy metal". [7] According to Chris Connelly, Foetus "is the instigator when it comes to the marriage of machinery to hardcore punk." [8]

Post-punk is a broad type of rock music that emerged from the punk movement of the 1970s, in which artists departed from the simplicity and traditionalism of punk rock to adopt a variety of avant-garde sensibilities and diverse influences. Inspired by punk's energy and DIY ethic but determined to break from rock cliches, artists experimented with sources including electronic music and black styles like dub, funk, free jazz, and disco; novel recording and production techniques; and ideas from art and politics, including critical theory, modernist art, cinema and literature. Communities that produced independent record labels, visual art, multimedia performances and fanzines developed around these pioneering musical scenes, which coalesced in cities such as London, New York, Manchester, Melbourne, Sydney and San Francisco.

Pere Ubu American rock band

Pere Ubu is an American rock group formed in Cleveland, Ohio, in 1975. Despite a variety of long-term band members, singer David Thomas is the only constant. Describing their sound as "avant-garage," Pere Ubu's work drew inspiration from sources such as musique concrète, 60s rock, performance art, and the industrial environments of the American midwest. While the band achieved little commercial success, they have exerted a wide influence on subsequent underground music.

<i>The Modern Dance</i> album by Pere Ubu

The Modern Dance is the debut album by American rock band Pere Ubu. It was released in January 1978 by record label Blank.

Others followed in their wake. [9] The New York City band Swans were inspired by the local No Wave scene, as well as punk rock, noise music (particularly Whitehouse) and the original industrial groups. [10] Steve Albini's Big Black followed a similar path, [11] while also incorporating American hardcore punk. [12] Big Black has also been closely associated with post-hardcore and noise rock, though their ties to industrial music are extremely apparent. The Swiss trio The Young Gods, who deliberately eschewed electric guitars in favor of a sampler, [13] also took inspiration from both hardcore and industrial, [14] being equally indebted to the Bad Brains and Foetus.

New York City Largest city in the United States

The City of New York, often called New York City (NYC) or simply New York (NY), is the most populous city in the United States. With an estimated 2017 population of 8,622,698 distributed over a land area of about 302.6 square miles (784 km2), New York City is also the most densely populated major city in the United States. Located at the southern tip of the state of New York, the city is the center of the New York metropolitan area, the largest metropolitan area in the world by urban landmass and one of the world's most populous megacities, with an estimated 20,320,876 people in its 2017 Metropolitan Statistical Area and 23,876,155 residents in its Combined Statistical Area. A global power city, New York City has been described as the cultural, financial, and media capital of the world, and exerts a significant impact upon commerce, entertainment, research, technology, education, politics, tourism, art, fashion, and sports. The city's fast pace has inspired the term New York minute. Home to the headquarters of the United Nations, New York is an important center for international diplomacy.

Swans (band) American band

Swans are an American experimental rock band formed in 1982 by singer, songwriter and multi-instrumentalist Michael Gira. One of few acts to emerge from the New York City-based no wave scene and stay intact into the next decade, Swans have become recognized for an ever-changing sound, exploring genres such as noise rock, post-punk, industrial and post-rock. Initially, their music was known for its sonic brutality and misanthropic lyrics. Following the addition of singer, songwriter and keyboardist Jarboe, who first appeared on the 1986 single "Time Is Money (Bastard)" and debuted as a songwriter on the 1987 album Children of God, Swans began to incorporate more melody and intricacy into their music. Jarboe remained the band's only constant member except Gira and semi-constant guitarist Norman Westberg until their dissolution in 1997.

Noise music is a category of music that is characterised by the expressive use of noise within a musical context. This type of music tends to challenge the distinction that is made in conventional musical practices between musical and non-musical sound. Noise music includes a wide range of musical styles and sound-based creative practices that feature noise as a primary aspect.

Mainstream popularity (1990s)

Industrial rock band Nine Inch Nails Nine inch nails - Staples Center - 11-8-13 (10755555065 16053de956 o).jpg
Industrial rock band Nine Inch Nails

In the 1990s, industrial rock broke into the mainstream with artists and bands such as Nine Inch Nails, Orgy, Rob Zombie, White Zombie, and Marilyn Manson. In December 1992, Nine Inch Nails' EP Broken was certified platinum by the Recording Industry Association of America (RIAA). [15] Nine Inch Nails gained further popularity with the release of their 1994 album The Downward Spiral . The Downward Spiral was certified 4x platinum by the RIAA in 1998. [16] Nine Inch Nails' 1999 album The Fragile was certified 2x platinum in January 2000. [17] With the success of Nine Inch Nails, the band's debut album Pretty Hate Machine was certified 3x platinum by the RIAA. [18] In the 1990s, four Nine Inch Nails songs went on the Billboard Hot 100. [19] Several industrial rock and industrial metal artists such as KMFDM, Fear Factory, Gravity Kills and Sister Machine Gun appeared on the 1995 Mortal Kombat: Original Motion Picture Soundtrack . [20] The soundtrack was certified platinum by the RIAA in January 1996. [21]

Industrial rock band Orgy performing in 2015 Orgy American band.jpg
Industrial rock band Orgy performing in 2015

Marilyn Manson released their album Antichrist Superstar in 1996. The album was certified platinum by the RIAA two months after its release date. [22] In the United States, Antichrist Superstar sold at least 1,900,000 units. [23] Marilyn Manson's EP Smells Like Children was certified platinum in May 1998. [24] Marilyn Manson's album Mechanical Animals went to number 1, selling 223,000 copies in its first week in stores, knocking The Miseducation of Lauryn Hill by Lauryn Hill off of the top spot. [25] Mechanical Animals was certified platinum by the RIAA in February 1999 [26] and sold at least 1,409,000 copies in the United States. [27] Orgy also experienced mainstream success during the 1990s. The band's 1998 album Candyass was certified platinum by the RIAA in July 1999. [28] Orgy's cover of New Order's song "Blue Monday" went to number 56 on the Billboard Hot 100 [29] and number 2 on the Dance Club Songs chart. [30] White Zombie experimented with industrial metal on its 1995 album Astro-Creep 2000 , [31] which was certified 2x platinum by the RIAA in March 1996. [32] White Zombie's vocalist Rob Zombie began creating pure industrial metal albums in his solo career. Rob Zombie's solo debut studio album Hellbilly Deluxe was certified 3x platinum by the RIAA less than two years after its release date. [33] In November 1999, Powerman 5000's album Tonight the Stars Revolt! was certified platinum by the RIAA. [34] The album sold at least 1,316,172 units in the United States. [35]

Labels

See also

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References

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  2. "The 200 Greatest Songs of the 1960s - Page 4 - Pitchfork". pitchfork.com. Retrieved 20 February 2017.
  3. "Chrome at 40 the most influential band you've never heard". KQED.org. July 15, 2015. Retrieved February 8, 2018.
  4. "The Wire's 100 Records That Set The World On Fire While No One Was Listening". The Wire. September 6, 1998. Retrieved February 8, 2018.
  5. Vale & Juno, 1983.
  6. Irvin, 2001, p. 442.
  7. Reynolds, 2005, p. 435.
  8. Connelly, 2007, p. 12.
  9. Chantler, 2002, p. 54.
  10. Licht, 2003, p. 32.
  11. Blush, 2001, p. 222.
  12. Sharp, 1999, p. 48.
  13. Mörat, 1992, p. 12.
  14. Stud & Stud, 1987, p. 27.
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  17. "American album certifications – Nine Inch Nails – The Fragile". Recording Industry Association of America.If necessary, click Advanced, then click Format, then select Album, then click SEARCH. 
  18. "American album certifications – Nine Inch Nails – Pretty Hate Machine". Recording Industry Association of America.If necessary, click Advanced, then click Format, then select Album, then click SEARCH. 
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  22. "American album certifications – Marilyn Manson – Antichrist Superstar". Recording Industry Association of America.If necessary, click Advanced, then click Format, then select Album, then click SEARCH. 
  23. Paine, Andre (November 8, 2010). "Marilyn Manson Plots 2011 Comeback with Indie Label". Billboard. Retrieved May 3, 2017.
  24. "American album certifications – Marilyn Manson – Smells Like Children". Recording Industry Association of America.If necessary, click Advanced, then click Format, then select Album, then click SEARCH. 
  25. Boehlert, Eric (September 24, 1998). "Marilyn Manson Shows He's Dope". Rolling Stone . Retrieved May 2, 2017.
  26. "American album certifications – Marilyn Manson – Mechanical Animals". Recording Industry Association of America.If necessary, click Advanced, then click Format, then select Album, then click SEARCH. 
  27. Grein, Paul (November 3, 2010). "Chart Watch Extra: Swift Joins An Elite Club". Yahoo! Music. Archived from the original on November 7, 2010. Retrieved May 3, 2017.
  28. "American album certifications – Orgy – Candyass". Recording Industry Association of America.If necessary, click Advanced, then click Format, then select Album, then click SEARCH. 
  29. "Orgy - Chart history". Billboard. Retrieved May 3, 2017.
  30. "Orgy - Chart history (Dance Club Songs)". Billboard. Retrieved May 3, 2017.
  31. Erlewine, Stephen Thomas. "Astro-Creep: 2000 - Songs of Love, Destruction and Other Synthetic Delusions of the Electric Head - White Zombie". AllMusic . Retrieved May 3, 2017.
  32. "American album certifications – White Zombie – Astro-Creep: 2000". Recording Industry Association of America.If necessary, click Advanced, then click Format, then select Album, then click SEARCH. 
  33. "American album certifications – Rob Zombie – Hellbilly Deluxe". Recording Industry Association of America.If necessary, click Advanced, then click Format, then select Album, then click SEARCH. 
  34. "American album certifications – Powerman 5000 – Tonight the Stars Revolt!". Recording Industry Association of America.If necessary, click Advanced, then click Format, then select Album, then click SEARCH. 
  35. "Powerman 5000: Is The End Near?". Blabbermouth.net. November 6, 2003. Retrieved May 6, 2017.

Further reading