Programming is a form of music production and performance using electronic devices and computer software, such as sequencers and workstations or hardware synthesizers, sampler and sequencers, to generate sounds of musical instruments. These musical sounds are created through the use of music coding languages. There are many music coding languages of varying complexity. Music programming is also frequently used in modern pop and rock music from various regions of the world, and sometimes in jazz and contemporary classical music. It gained popularity in the 1950s and has been emerging ever since.
Music programming is the process in which a musician produces a sound or "patch" (be it from scratch or with the aid of a synthesizer/sampler), or uses a sequencer to arrange a song.
Music coding languages are used to program the electronic devices to produce the instrumental sounds they make. Each coding language has its own level of difficulty and function.
The music coding language Alda provides a tutorial on coding music and is, "designed for musicians who do not know how to program, as well as programmers who do not know how to music".The website also has links to install, tutorial, cheat sheet, docs, and community for anyone visiting the website.
LC computer music programming language is a more complex computer music programming language meant for more experienced coders. One of the differences between this language and other music coding languages is that, "Unlike existing unit-generator languages, LC provides objects as well as library functions and methods that can directly represent microsounds and related manipulations that are involved in microsound synthesis."
Music programming has had a vast history of development leading to the creation of different programs and languages. Each development comes with more function and utility and each decade tends to favor a certain program and or piece of equipment.
The first digital synthesis family of computer programs and languages being MUSIC-N created by Max Mathews. The development of these programs, allowed for more flexibility and utility, eventually leading them to become fully developed languages. As programs such as MUSIC I, MUSIC II and MUSIC III were developed, which were all created by Max Matthews, new technologies were incorporated in such as the table-lookup oscillator in MUSIC II and the unit generator in MUSIC III. The breakthrough technologies such as the unit generator, which acted as a building block for music programming software, and the acoustic compiler, which allowed "unlimited number of sound synthesis structures to be created in the computer", further the complexity and evolution of music programming systems.
Around the time of the 1950s, electric rhythm machines began to make way into popular music. These machines began to gain much traction amongst many artists as they saw it as a way to create percussion sounds in an easier and more efficient way. Some of the popular artists who used this kind of technology are the following: J. J. Cale, Sly Stone, Phil Collins, Marvin Gaye, and Prince. Some of the popular drum machines through the time of the 50s-70s were the Side Man, Ace Tone's Rhythm Ace, Korg's Doncamatic, and Maestro's Rhythm King. In 1979, the LM-1 drum machine computer was released by the guitarist, Roger Linn, and its goal was to help artists achieve realistic sounding drum sounds. This drum machine had 8 different drum sounds: kick drum, snare, hi-hat, cabasa, tambourine, two tom toms, two congas, cowbell, clave, and handclaps. The different sounds could be recorded individually and they sounded real because of the high frequencies the sound (28 kHz). Some notable artists who used the LM-1 drum machine were Peter Gabriel, Stevie Wonder, Michael Jackson, and Madonna. These developments continued to happen in future decades leading to the creation of new electrical instruments such as the Theremin, Hammond organ, electric guitar, synthesizer, and digital sampler. Other technologies such as the phonograph, tape-recorder, and compact disk has enabled artists to create and produce sounds without the use of live musicians.
Music programming in the 1980s
The music programming innovations of the 1980s brought many new unique sounds to this style of music. Popular music sounds during this time were the gated reverb, synthesizers, drum machines with 80s sounds, vocal reverb, delay, and harmonization, and master bus mix downs and tape.Music programming began to emerge around this time which drew up controversy. Many artists were adapting more towards this technology and the traditional way music was made and recorded began to change. For instance, many artists began to record their beats by programming instead of recording a live drummer.
Music programming in the late 2000s
Today, music programming is prevalent amongst almost every artist. Most of them use software on their computer or laptop to produce music and do not actually use physical instruments. These different programs are called digital audio workstations (DAW) and are used for editing, recording, and mixing, music files. Most DAW programs incorporate the use of MIDI technology, which allows for music production software to carry out communication between electronic instruments, computers, and other related devices. While most DAWs carry out the same function and do the same thing, there are some that require less expertise and are easier for beginners to operate. These programs are run on PC’s, and the top 12 most popular DAWs now are as follows: FL Studio, Avid Pro Tools, Apple Logic Pro X, Magix Acid Pro, Ableton Live, Presonus Studio One, Magix Samplitude Pro X, Cockos Reaper, Propellerhead Reason, Steinberg Cubase Pro, GarageBand, and Bitwig Studio.
A digital synthesizer is a synthesizer that uses digital signal processing (DSP) techniques to make musical sounds. This in contrast to older analog synthesizers, which produce music using analog electronics, and samplers, which play back digital recordings of acoustic, electric, or electronic instruments. Some digital synthesizers emulate analog synthesizers; others include sampling capability in addition to digital synthesis.
A drum machine is an electronic musical instrument that creates percussion sounds, drum beats, and patterns. Drum machines may imitate drum kits or other percussion instruments, or produce unique sounds, such as synthesized electronic tones. A drum machine often has pre-programmed beats and patterns for popular genres and styles, such as pop music, rock music, and dance music. Most modern drum machines made in the 2010s and 2020s also allow users to program their own rhythms and beats. Drum machines may create sounds using analog synthesis or play prerecorded samples.
Digital music technology encompasses digital instruments, computers, electronic effects units, software, or digital audio equipment by a performer, composer, sound engineer, DJ, or record producer to produce, perform or record music. The term refers to electronic devices, instruments, computer hardware, and software used in performance, playback, recording, composition, mixing, analysis, and editing of music.
A music sequencer is a device or application software that can record, edit, or play back music, by handling note and performance information in several forms, typically CV/Gate, MIDI, or Open Sound Control (OSC), and possibly audio and automation data for DAWs and plug-ins.
The Roland TR-808 Rhythm Composer, commonly known as the 808, is a drum machine manufactured by the Roland Corporation between 1980 and 1983. It was one of the first drum machines to allow users to program rhythms instead of using preset patterns. Unlike its nearest competitor at the time, the more expensive Linn LM-1, the 808 generates sounds using analog synthesis rather than by playing samples.
A music tracker is a type of music sequencer software for creating music. The music is represented as discrete musical notes positioned in several channels at discrete chronological positions on a vertical timeline. A music tracker's user interface is usually number based. Notes, parameter changes, effects and other commands are entered with the keyboard into a grid of fixed time slots as codes consisting of letters, numbers and hexadecimal digits. Separate patterns have independent timelines; a complete song consists of a master list of repeated patterns.
A music workstation is an electronic musical instrument providing the facilities of:
A sampler is an electronic or digital musical instrument which uses sound recordings of real instrument sounds, excerpts from recorded songs or found sounds. The samples are loaded or recorded by the user or by a manufacturer. These sounds are then played back by means of the sampler program itself, a MIDI keyboard, sequencer or another triggering device to perform or compose music. Because these samples are usually stored in digital memory, the information can be quickly accessed. A single sample may often be pitch-shifted to different pitches to produce musical scales and chords.
Virtual Studio Technology (VST) is an audio plug-in software interface that integrates software synthesizers and effects units into digital audio workstations. VST and similar technologies use digital signal processing to simulate traditional recording studio hardware in software. Thousands of plugins exist, both commercial and freeware, and many audio applications support VST under license from its creator, Steinberg.
Ableton Live is a digital audio workstation for macOS and Windows developed by the German company Ableton. In contrast to many other software sequencers, Ableton Live is designed to be an instrument for live performances as well as a tool for composing, recording, arranging, mixing, and mastering. It is also used by DJs, as it offers a suite of controls for beatmatching, crossfading, and other different effects used by turntablists, and was one of the first music applications to automatically beatmatch songs. Live is available in three editions: Intro, Standard, and Suite.
Acid Pro is a professional digital audio workstation (DAW) software program currently developed by Magix Software. It was originally called Acid pH1 and published by Sonic Foundry, later by Sony Creative Software as Acid Pro, and since spring 2018 by Magix as both Acid Pro and a simplified version, Acid Music Studio. Acid Pro 8 supports 32-bit and 64-bit architectures, and has MIDI, ASIO, VST, VST3, DirectX Audio, and 5.1 surround sound support.
The Akai MPC is a series of music workstations produced by Akai from 1988 onwards. MPCs combine sampling and sequencing functions, allowing users to record portions of sound, modify them and play them back as sequences.
Logic Pro is a digital audio workstation (DAW) and MIDI sequencer software application for the macOS platform. It was originally created in the early 1990s as Notator Logic, or Logic, by German software developer C-Lab which later went by Emagic. Apple acquired Emagic in 2002 and renamed Logic to Logic Pro. It is the second most popular DAW – after Ableton Live – according to a survey conducted in 2015.
Hip hop production is the creation of hip hop music in a recording studio. While the term encompasses all aspects of hip hop music creation, including recording the rapping of an MC, a turntablist or DJ providing a beat, playing samples and "scratching" using record players and the creation of a rhythmic backing track, using a drum machine or sequencer, it is most commonly used to refer to recording the instrumental, non-lyrical and non-vocal aspects of hip hop.
In computer music and professional audio creation, a DirectX plugin is a software processing component that can be loaded as a plugin into host applications to allow real-time processing, audio effects, mixing audio or act as virtual synthesizers. DirectX plugins allow the replacement of traditional recording studio hardware and rack units used in professional studios with software-based counterparts that can be connected together in a modular way. This allows host manufacturers to focus on the conviviality and efficiency of their products while specialized manufacturers can focus on the digital signal processing aspect. For example, there are plugins for effects boxes, such as reverbs and delays, effects pedals, like guitar distortion, flange and chorus, and for mixing and mastering processors such as compressors, limiters, exciters, sub bass enhancers, stereo imagers and many more.
E-mu Systems was a software synthesizer, audio interface, MIDI interface, and MIDI keyboard manufacturer. Founded in 1971 as a synthesizer maker, E-mu was a pioneer in samplers, sample-based drum machines and low-cost digital sampling music workstations.
MAGIX Samplitude/ Sequoia is a computer program made by MAGIX for recording, editing, mixing, mastering and outputting audio. The first version was released in 1992 for the Amiga and three years later for Microsoft Windows. The latest versions of the software are Samplitude Pro X5, Samplitude Pro X5 Suite and Sequoia 16. Samplitude is an example of a digital audio workstation (DAW).